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{{Marvel Database: Item Template
 
{{Marvel Database: Item Template
| Image = Wolverine Vol 3 48 Textless.jpg
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| Image = Astonishing X-Men Vol 3 1 Textless.jpg
 
| OfficialName = Adamantium
 
| OfficialName = Adamantium
 
| Aliases =
 
| Aliases =
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| Version =
 
| Version =
   
| Universe =
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| Universe = Earth-616
 
| LeadDesigner = [[Myron MacLain (Earth-616)|Dr. Myron MacLain]]
 
| LeadDesigner = [[Myron MacLain (Earth-616)|Dr. Myron MacLain]]
 
| AdditionalDesigners =
 
| AdditionalDesigners =
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| Weight = Variable
 
| Weight = Variable
 
| First = Avengers #66
 
| First = Avengers #66
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| Creators = Roy Thomas; Barry Windsor-Smith
   
| HistoryText = [[File:James Howlett & Max Eisenhardt (Earth-616).jpg|thumb|right|Magneto removes Wolverine's Adamantium]]
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| HistoryText =
'''Adamantium''' is a very dense, artificial, iron-based alloy that is virtually indestructible. A sufficient amount is capable of surviving multiple nuclear explosions with no damage. A pure blade of Adamantium is capable of cutting almost any known substance, with the known exceptions of Adamantium itself and [[Steven Rogers (Earth-616)|Captain America]]'s [[Captain America's Shield|shield]]. The ability to slice completely through a substance with an Adamantium blade depends upon the amount of force being exerted and the density of the material in question. Adamantium, its degree of density, makes a very thick metal capable of drilling with greater effectiveness than the Vibranium.<!-- and reference for the other stuff of this paragraph as well-->
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'''Adamantium''' is a virtually indestructible man-made steel alloy which does not occur in nature and whose exact chemical composition is a United States government classified secret.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 1 15}} Adamantium is not an element: its properties do not qualify it for any known space on the Periodic Table of Elements.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 1 15}} It is extremely rigid steel-based alloy that the density is virtually indestructible.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} A sufficient amount is capable of surviving multiple nuclear explosions or a blow from the most powerful superhuman with no damage.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} A blade of pure, primary Adamantium is capable of cutting almost any known substance, with the known exception of [[Steven Rogers (Earth-616)|Captain America]]'s [[Captain America's Shield|shield]].{{r|Avengers vs. X-Men Vol 1 3}} The ability to slice completely through a substance with an Adamantium blade depends upon the amount of force being exerted and the hardness of the material in question.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} Adamantium's molecular integrity makes for an extremely hard metal capable of drilling with greater effectiveness than Vibranium.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} Furthermore, after several years of additional testing and research, MacLain eventually released his sole supply of Adamantium to the US government who had the Avengers, notably [[Thor Odinson (Earth-616)| Thor]] and [[Anthony Stark (Earth-616)| Iron Man]] unleash their full power against it, confirming it to be essentially indestructible.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}}<!-- and reference for the other stuff of this paragraph as well-->
   
Creating even a small amount of Adamantium is astronomically expensive, and only a few people know the complete formula. Adamantium is created by mixing certain chemical resins together. The exact composition of these resins is a closely guarded secret of the United States government. When these resins are mixed and kept at a temperature of 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit, the resulting liquid can be cast or worked into a particular shape. After eight minutes, the mixture sets and becomes solid. Its molecular structure is extremely stable, and its shape can only be altered by precise molecular rearrangement. However, due to the sheer density of Adamantium, there are few known forces capable of altering its molecular structure.<!-- and reference for the other stuff of this paragraph as well-->
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[[File:James Howlett (Earth-616) from Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1 001.jpg|thumb|Wolverine's skeleton laced with Adamantium.]]
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Creating even a small amount of Adamantium is astronomically expensive, and only a few people know the complete formula.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} Adamantium is created by mixing certain chemical resins together.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} The exact composition of these resins is a closely guarded secret of the United States government.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} When these resins are mixed and kept at a temperature of 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit, the resulting liquid can be cast or worked into a particular shape.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} After an eight minute 'flux period', the mixture sets and becomes solid regardless of temperature.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} Its molecular structure is extremely stable, and its shape can only be altered by precise molecular rearrangement.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} However, due to the sheer bonding strength of Adamantium, there are few known forces capable of altering its molecular structure.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}}<!-- and reference for the other stuff of this paragraph as well-->
   
Very few means exist to pierce adamantium, including the [[Dargonite]].{{r|Guardians of the Galaxy #18}}
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There are very few substances known that are harder than Adamantium, but one is [[Dargonite]].{{r|Guardians of the Galaxy #18}}
   
 
Some supervillains have taken to harvesting existing sources of Adamantium, hoping to utilize it through molecular rearrangement. [[En Sabah Nur (Earth-616)|Apocalypse]] harvested Adamantium from [[Victor Creed (Earth-616)|Sabretooth]]'s skeleton,{{r|Wolverine Vol 2 #145}} and [[Remy LeBeau (Earth-616)|Gambit]] in turn got Adamantium from [[Frank Schlichting (Earth-616)|Constrictor]] to save Sabretooth's life.{{r|Gambit Vol 3 #11}} [[Tyler Dayspring (Earth-4935)|Genesis]] harvested Adamantium from [[Silas Burr (Earth-616)|Cyber]] by destroying his body's organic matter, leaving only his Adamantium-laced skin.{{r|Wolverine Vol 2 #96}}
 
Some supervillains have taken to harvesting existing sources of Adamantium, hoping to utilize it through molecular rearrangement. [[En Sabah Nur (Earth-616)|Apocalypse]] harvested Adamantium from [[Victor Creed (Earth-616)|Sabretooth]]'s skeleton,{{r|Wolverine Vol 2 #145}} and [[Remy LeBeau (Earth-616)|Gambit]] in turn got Adamantium from [[Frank Schlichting (Earth-616)|Constrictor]] to save Sabretooth's life.{{r|Gambit Vol 3 #11}} [[Tyler Dayspring (Earth-4935)|Genesis]] harvested Adamantium from [[Silas Burr (Earth-616)|Cyber]] by destroying his body's organic matter, leaving only his Adamantium-laced skin.{{r|Wolverine Vol 2 #96}}
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==Background Information==
 
==Background Information==
[[Hercules (Earth-616)|Hercules]], the demigod of Greek myth, wielded an enchanted golden mace, which (according to legend) was made of [[Adamantine (metal)|Adamantine]] and supposed to be indestructible. Inspired by this myth, [[Myron MacLain (Earth-616)|Dr. Myron MacLain]] sought to create an indestructible alloy for the American side during World War II. At one point he fell asleep at his lab bench, and the metals he was working with somehow bonded together. This mysterious alloy--a combination of steel, [[Vibranium]], and an unknown catalyst--created a material stronger than any yet known. However, without knowing the exact ingredients and their proportions, MacLain could never duplicate the process. The sample was worked into a disc, which became [[Captain America]]'s [[Captain America's Shield|Shield]]. MacLain's later attempts to duplicate the material included a formula without Vibranium, which resulted in the creation of ''True Adamantium'', which is almost as strong as Captain America's shield.{{r|Captain America #302|303}}{{r|Avengers #66}}
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[[Hercules (Earth-616)|Hercules]], the demigod of Greek myth, wielded an enchanted golden mace, which (according to legend) was made of [[Adamantine (Metal)|Adamantine]] and supposed to be indestructible. Inspired by this myth, [[Myron MacLain (Earth-616)|Dr. Myron MacLain]] sought to create an indestructible alloy for the American side during World War II. At one point he fell asleep at his lab bench, and the metals he was working with somehow bonded together. This mysterious alloy--a combination of steel, [[Vibranium]], and an unknown catalyst--created a material stronger than any yet known. However, without knowing the exact ingredients and their proportions, MacLain could never duplicate the process. The sample was worked into a disc, which became [[Captain America]]'s [[Captain America's Shield|Shield]]. MacLain's later attempts to duplicate the material included a formula without Vibranium, which resulted in the creation of ''True Adamantium'', which is almost as strong as Captain America's shield.{{r|Captain America #302|303}}{{r|Avengers #66}}
   
 
Although True Adamantium is thought to be indestructible, there are at least two known examples of the alloy within the Earth-616 reality sustaining damage without molecular manipulation. The first involved [[Thor Odinson (Earth-616)|Thor]] focusing all of his strength into striking a small cylinder of Adamantium with [[Mjolnir]], which only slightly dented.{{r|Avengers #66}} The second incident involved a battle between [[Ultron (Earth-616)|Ultron]] and the [[Bruce Banner (Earth-616)|Hulk]]. During the fight, the Hulk punched the robot with enough force to slightly dent it.{{r|Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #12}}
 
Although True Adamantium is thought to be indestructible, there are at least two known examples of the alloy within the Earth-616 reality sustaining damage without molecular manipulation. The first involved [[Thor Odinson (Earth-616)|Thor]] focusing all of his strength into striking a small cylinder of Adamantium with [[Mjolnir]], which only slightly dented.{{r|Avengers #66}} The second incident involved a battle between [[Ultron (Earth-616)|Ultron]] and the [[Bruce Banner (Earth-616)|Hulk]]. During the fight, the Hulk punched the robot with enough force to slightly dent it.{{r|Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #12}}
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==Forms==
 
==Forms==
 
==='''Proto-Adamantium'''===
 
==='''Proto-Adamantium'''===
This is the original Adamantium created by Dr. MacLain. Proto-Adamantium is the official name for the metal that makes up Captain America's Shield. It has never been recreated and is the absolutely most indestructible item in all of existence. It has only ever been damaged or destroyed four times: by [[Victor von Doom (Earth-616)|Doctor Doom]] with the powers he stole from the [[Beyonder (Earth-616)|Beyonder]]{{r|Marvel Super Heroes: Secret Wars}}, by [[Thanos (Earth-616)|Thanos]] with the power of the Infinity Gauntlet{{r|Infinity Gauntlet (Event)}}, by [[Owen Reece (Earth-616)|Molecule Man]] and his total control over matter{{r|Avengers #215}}, and by the [[Cul Borson (Earth-616)|Serpent]] after augmenting his strength with the fear of people from all over the world.{{r|Fear Itself #5}}
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This is the original Adamantium created by Dr. MacLain. Proto-Adamantium is the official name for the metal that makes up Captain America's Shield.{{r|Captain America #303}} It has never been recreated and is the absolutely most indestructible item in all of existence.{{r|Captain America #303}} It has only ever been damaged or destroyed five times: by [[Victor von Doom (Earth-616)|Doctor Doom]] with the powers he stole from the [[Beyonder (Earth-616)|Beyonder]],{{r|Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #12}} by [[Thanos (Earth-616)|Thanos]] with the power of the Infinity Gauntlet,{{r|Infinity Gauntlet #4}} by [[Owen Reece (Earth-616)|Molecule Man]] and his total control over matter,{{r|Avengers #215}} by [[Thor Odinson (Earth-616)|Thor]] wielding the [[Glossary:Odin-Force|Odin-Force]],{{r|Avengers Vol 3 63}} and by the [[Cul Borson (Earth-616)|Serpent]] after augmenting his strength with the fear of people from all over the world.{{r|Fear Itself #5}}
   
 
==='''True Adamantium'''===
 
==='''True Adamantium'''===
Also known as Primary Adamantium, this is an attempt at the recreation of Proto-Adamantium. This is the Adamantium present in [[James Howlett (Earth-616)|Wolverine]]. It is nearly as strong/durable, but unlike Proto Adamantium, Primary Adamantium ''is'' possible to be reproduced. Only beings with godlike powers (such as Rune King Thor) or with strong magnetic powers (like [[Magneto]]){{r|X-Men Vol 2 25}} can manipulate Primary Adamantium. Otherwise, it is completely indestructible to all forms of attack. Being this strong, it is very rare and expensive to create/manipulate and is top secret in the US government, though it has shared it with some of their "allies". Once liquid Adamantium cools and hardens, it can never be manipulated again.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #15}}
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Also known as Primary Adamantium, this is an attempt at the recreation of Proto-Adamantium. This is the Adamantium present in [[James Howlett (Earth-616)|Wolverine]]. It is nearly as strong or durable, but unlike Proto-Adamantium, Primary Adamantium is able to be reproduced. Only beings with godlike powers (such as Rune King Thor) or with strong magnetic powers (like [[Magneto]]){{r|X-Men Vol 2 25}} can manipulate Primary Adamantium. Otherwise, it is completely indestructible to all forms of attack. Being this strong, it is very rare and expensive to create or manipulate and is top secret in the US government, though it has been shared with some of their "allies". Once liquid Adamantium cools and hardens, it can never be manipulated again,{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #15}} although it can be destroyed by Antarctic Vibranium, which dissolves ''all'' metals.
   
 
==='''Secondary Adamantium'''===
 
==='''Secondary Adamantium'''===
This is much easier to work with, making it much more cost effective though at the expense of its strength. Secondary Adamantium was created retroactively after too many instances of the supposedly-unbreakable metal Adamantium getting broken were written. Someone with considerable superhuman strength, such as Thor, can break it or warp it by fully exerting their strength.{{r|Avengers Vol 3 22}}
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This is much easier to work with, making it much more cost effective though at the expense of its strength. Secondary Adamantium also called ''Adamantium Steel'', was created retroactively after too many instances of the supposedly-unbreakable metal Adamantium getting broken were written. Someone with considerable superhuman strength, such as Thor, can break it or warp it by fully exerting their strength.{{r|Avengers Vol 3 22}}
   
 
==='''Adamantium Beta'''===
 
==='''Adamantium Beta'''===
Wolverine's skeleton was originally reinforced with True Adamantium. His mutant [[Healing Factor]] not only allowed him to survive the process, but it also induced a molecular change in the metal. Adamantium Beta functions like True Adamantium but does not inhibit the biological processes of bone. This fact only became apparent after Magneto forcibly extracted the Adamantium from Wolverine's skeleton.{{r|Wolverine Vol 2 80}}
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Wolverine's skeleton was originally reinforced with True Adamantium. His mutant [[Healing Factor]] not only allowed him to survive the process, but it also induced a molecular change in the metal.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} Adamantium Beta functions like True Adamantium but does not inhibit the biological processes of bone.{{r|Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1}} This fact only became apparent after Magneto forcibly extracted the Adamantium from Wolverine's skeleton.{{r|Wolverine Vol 2 80}}
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On occasions where Wolverine lost his mutant regeneration ability, he was gradually poisoned by the Adamantium each time.
   
 
==='''Adamantium (Earth-1610)'''===
 
==='''Adamantium (Earth-1610)'''===
In the [[Earth-1610]] reality, Adamantium is still a highly durable alloy but it does not share the indestructible properties of its mainstream counterpart. For example, the [[Bruce Banner (Earth-1610)|Hulk]] was able to break an Adamantium needle. Another incident regarding Adamantium's durability involved [[Victor Creed (Earth-1610)|Sabretooth]]; he possesses four Adamantium claws implanted within each forearm, through circumstances yet to be revealed, one of the claws implanted within his left forearm is broken. [[Yuriko Oyama (Earth-1610)|Lady Deathstrike]], possessing an Adamantium laced skeleton, had her neck broken during a battle with [[Arthur Centino (Earth-1610)|Longshot]] when he used his ability to affect probability. Valkyrie destroyed Captain America's Adamantium shield. The material is also highly effective in blocking telepathic probes, a trait that Adamantium in the Earth-616 reality does not possess. Aside from being highly durable and effective at blocking telepathy, nothing else about Ultimate Adamantium has been revealed. It isn't known when Adamantium was first created, who is responsible for its creation, and what the properties and processes required for making it are. As a result, it isn't even known if Ultimate Adamantium is created in the same way as the Earth-616 version.{{citation}}<!-- and reference for the other stuff of this paragraph as well-->
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In the [[Earth-1610]] reality, Adamantium is still a highly durable alloy but it does not share the indestructible properties of its mainstream counterpart. For example, the [[Bruce Banner (Earth-1610)|Hulk]] was able to break an Adamantium needle,{{r|Ultimates Vol 1 5}} and also rip [[James Howlett (Earth-1610)|Wolverine]]'s body in half who was bonded with Adamantium inside his skeleton.{{r|Ultimate Wolverine vs. Hulk Vol 1 1}} Another incident regarding Adamantium's durability involved [[Victor Creed (Earth-1610)|Sabretooth]]; he possesses four Adamantium claws implanted within each forearm, through circumstances yet to be revealed, one of the claws implanted within his left forearm is broken. [[Yuriko Oyama (Earth-1610)|Lady Deathstrike]], possessing an Adamantium laced skeleton, had her neck broken during a battle with [[Arthur Centino (Earth-1610)|Longshot]] when he used his ability to affect probability. Valkyrie and George Stark destroyed Captain America's Adamantium shield.{{r|Ultimate Avengers vs. New Ultimates Vol 1 6}} The material is also highly effective in blocking telepathic probes, a trait that Adamantium in the Earth-616 reality does not possess. Aside from being highly durable and effective at blocking telepathy, nothing else about Ultimate Adamantium has been revealed. It isn't known when Adamantium was first created, who is responsible for its creation, and what the properties and processes required for making it are. As a result, it isn't even known if Ultimate Adamantium is created in the same way as the Earth-616 version.<!-- and reference for the other stuff of this paragraph as well-->
   
=== '''Adamantium (Earth-691)'''===
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==='''Adamantium (Earth-691)'''===
 
On one occasion, [[Vance Astro (Earth-691)|Vance Astro]] of the 31st-century [[Guardians of the Galaxy (Earth-691)|Guardians of the Galaxy]] of [[Earth-691]] was wounded in a battle with the warlike alien [[Stark (Race)|Stark]]. The alloy suit that protected Astro (Earth's first interstellar astronaut) during his trip to [[Alpha Centaurians|Alpha Centauri]] was damaged. His teammates repaired the damage by applying a flexible Adamantium cast to his arm and chest.{{r|Guardians of the Galaxy #3|4}}The most likely conclusion is that Earth-691 found a way to create Adamantium cheaply and quickly and in a mesh or flexible form.
 
On one occasion, [[Vance Astro (Earth-691)|Vance Astro]] of the 31st-century [[Guardians of the Galaxy (Earth-691)|Guardians of the Galaxy]] of [[Earth-691]] was wounded in a battle with the warlike alien [[Stark (Race)|Stark]]. The alloy suit that protected Astro (Earth's first interstellar astronaut) during his trip to [[Alpha Centaurians|Alpha Centauri]] was damaged. His teammates repaired the damage by applying a flexible Adamantium cast to his arm and chest.{{r|Guardians of the Galaxy #3|4}}The most likely conclusion is that Earth-691 found a way to create Adamantium cheaply and quickly and in a mesh or flexible form.
   
=== '''[[Adam Ant Steel (Earth-9047)]]'''===
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==='''[[Adam Ant Steel (Earth-9047)]]'''===
In [[Earth-9047]] ("the Humorverse"), Adamantium is referred as "[[Adam Ant Steel (Earth-9047)|Adam Ant Steel]]" or "Amantheants." It is indestructible and was used for the skeleton of [[Slogan (Earth-9047)|Woof'r'eam]].{{citation}}
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In [[Earth-9047]] ("the Humorverse"), Adamantium is sometimes{{r|What The--?! Vol 1 17}} referred as "Adam Ant Steel", "[[Amantheants]]"{{r|What The--?! Vol 1 2}} or [[Adam-antium]]{{r|What The--?! Vol 1 17}} It is indestructible and was used for the skeleton of [[Slogan (Earth-9047)|Woof'r'eam]].{{r|What The--?! Vol 1 2}}{{r|What The--?! Vol 1 17}}
   
 
==='''Adamantium (Earth-10005)'''===
 
==='''Adamantium (Earth-10005)'''===
 
Much like his Earth-616 counterpart, [[James Howlett (Earth-10005)|Wolverine]] has had Adamantium bonded to his skeleton. However, the history of the material differs greatly from Earth-616. In this reality, Adamantium appears to be at least partially composed of an unknown element from a meteor that crash landed in Africa. [[William Stryker, Jr. (Earth-10005)|William Stryker]] gathered the material and through unknown means created Adamantium.{{r|X-Men Origins: Wolverine (film)}}
 
Much like his Earth-616 counterpart, [[James Howlett (Earth-10005)|Wolverine]] has had Adamantium bonded to his skeleton. However, the history of the material differs greatly from Earth-616. In this reality, Adamantium appears to be at least partially composed of an unknown element from a meteor that crash landed in Africa. [[William Stryker, Jr. (Earth-10005)|William Stryker]] gathered the material and through unknown means created Adamantium.{{r|X-Men Origins: Wolverine (film)}}
   
The Adamantium itself appears to function like Earth-616 Adamantium. It appears to be mostly indestructible, and must be super-heated in order to be malleable, but appears to solidify within seconds of being removed from heat.{{r|The Wolverine (film)}}
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The Adamantium itself appears to function like Earth-616 Adamantium. It appears to be mostly indestructible, and must be super-heated in order to be malleable{{r|The Wolverine (film)}}, but appears to permanently solidify within seconds of being removed from heat. Also, due to its sheer density and molecular structure, adamantium appears to retain its solid form.
   
This type of Adamantium appears to lose its durability when expose to extreme heat, as the Silver Samurai was able to cut Wolverine's claws off with a super-heated Adamantium Katana, though this make sense as its a call back to Striker explaining that Adamantium is malleable when super heated but becomes indestructible when cooled. Suggesting that Adamantium is only indestructible when at room temperature.{{r|The Wolverine (film)}}
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This type of Adamantium appears to lose its durability when expose to extreme heat, as the [[Yashida (Earth-10005)|Silver Samurai]] was able to cut Wolverine's claws off with a super-heated Adamantium katana, though this make sense as it's a call back to Stryker explaining that Adamantium is malleable when super heated but becomes permanently indestructible when cooled. This suggests that Adamantium is only indestructible when at room temperature{{r|The Wolverine (film)}}, however, Adamantium will still remain solid even when heated to become white-hot{{r|The Wolverine (film)}}, as Stryker also stated that Adamantium must be kept heated in its liquid state, otherwise it becomes impossible to alter its molecular structure through any human means or with any other man-made material{{r|X2 (film)}}. Also, in order to damage Adamantium at high temperatures, another object made out of Adamantium is required.{{r|The Wolverine (film)}}
   
Like its Earth-616 counterpart, Earth-10005 Adamantium is apparently expensive to make. General Munson told William Stryker that he had spent $500 million to bond the metal to Wolverine's skeleton.{{r|X-Men Origins: Wolverine (film)}}
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Like his mainstream counterpart, [[Erik Lehnsherr (Earth-10005)|Magneto]] of Earth-10005 is able to affect Adamantium with his magnetic abilities and as used this to immobilize Wolverine a number of times.{{r|X-Men (film)}}{{r|X-Men: The Last Stand}}{{r|The Wolverine (film)}} Unlike his mainstream counterpart{{r|X-Men Vol 2 25}}, Magneto has never attempted to rip the Adamantium from Wolverine's bones. So, it is unknown if Magneto can reshape it like he could other metals.{{r|X2 (film)}}
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  +
Like its Earth-616 counterpart, Earth-10005 Adamantium is apparently expensive to make. General Munson told William Stryker that he had spent $500 million to bond the metal to Wolverine's skeleton{{r|X-Men Origins: Wolverine (film)}} and the Silver Samurai had bankrupted [[Yashida Corp (Earth-10005)|Yashida Corp]] amassing Adamantium.{{r|The Wolverine (film)}}
   
 
==='''Adamantium Allotropes'''===
 
==='''Adamantium Allotropes'''===
[[Serafina (Earth-616)|Serafina]] claims that Adamantium has thirteen allotropes, all of which are "unstable, and short-lived, but virulently poisonous". She throws a small device that clamps onto Wolverine's claws and makes them glow green, claiming that it is "adamantium nine". This causes Wolverine to become stricken, incoherent and collapse.{{r|X-Men Vol 2 191}}
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[[Serafina (Earth-616)|Serafina]] claims that Adamantium has thirteen allotropes, all of which are "unstable, and short-lived, but virulently poisonous". She throws a small device that clamps onto Wolverine's claws and makes them glow green, claiming that it is "Adamantium nine". This causes Wolverine to become stricken, incoherent and collapse.{{r|X-Men Vol 2 191}}
   
 
==='''[[Carbonadium]]'''===
 
==='''[[Carbonadium]]'''===
Carbonadium is a resilient, unstable metal that is vastly stronger than steel, but more flexible than Adamantium. Carbonadium is, in fact, both a more malleable and cheaper version of Adamantium.{{r|X-Men Vol 2 7}} Due to its malleability, carbonadium is considerably less durable than True Adamantium though for all practical purposes carbonadium is nearly indestructible. [[Arkady Gregorivich (Earth-616)|Omega Red]] (an adversary of The X-Men, primarily Wolverine) has carbonadium coils which allow him to drain life energies.
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Carbonadium is a resilient, unstable metal that is vastly stronger than steel, but more flexible than Adamantium. Carbonadium is, in fact, both a more malleable and cheaper version of Adamantium.{{r|X-Men Vol 2 7}} Due to its malleability, Carbonadium is considerably less durable than True Adamantium though for all practical purposes Carbonadium is nearly indestructible. [[Arkady Gregorivich (Earth-616)|Omega Red]] (an adversary of The X-Men, primarily Wolverine) has carbonadium coils which allow him to drain life energies.
   
 
==Applications==
 
==Applications==
  +
* [[Kenji Oyama|Lord Dark Wind]], Father to Yuriko and founder of the Adamantium Bonding Process.
  +
* [[Abraham Cornelius (Earth-616)|Dr. Cornelius]] and the [[Weapon X (Earth-616)|Weapon X Program]] frequently made use of an incomplete iteration of the Adamantium Bonding Process on many of it's agents and test subjects.
 
* [[James Howlett (Earth-616)|Wolverine]]'s claws and skeleton
 
* [[James Howlett (Earth-616)|Wolverine]]'s claws and skeleton
* [[Sabretooth (Victor Creed)|Sabretooth]]'s claws and skeleton (occasionally)
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* [[Victor Creed (Earth-616)|Sabretooth]]'s claws and skeleton (occasionally)
* [[Akihiro|Daken]]'s sheaths over his Muramasa Claw (formerly)
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* [[Akihiro (Earth-616)|Daken]]'s sheaths over his Muramasa Claw (formerly), adamantium katana swords.
 
* [[Lemar Hoskins (Earth-616)|Battlestar]]'s shield
 
* [[Lemar Hoskins (Earth-616)|Battlestar]]'s shield
  +
* [[George Tarleton (Earth-616)|M.O.D.O.K]]'s adamantium body (formerly)
 
* [[Bullseye (Lester) (Earth-616)|Bullseye]]'s spinal column/partial skeleton
 
* [[Bullseye (Lester) (Earth-616)|Bullseye]]'s spinal column/partial skeleton
* "The Captain's" shield, used by [[Steven Rogers (Earth-616)|Steve Rogers]] and provided by [[Anthony Stark (Earth-616)|Tony Stark]] (formerly)
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* "The Captain's" shield, used by [[Steven Rogers (Earth-616)|Steve Rogers]] and provided by [[Anthony Stark (Earth-616)|Tony Stark]]
 
* [[Steven Rogers (Earth-1610)|Ultimate Captain America]]'s shield
 
* [[Steven Rogers (Earth-1610)|Ultimate Captain America]]'s shield
* The [[Frank Schlichting (Earth-616)|Constrictor]]'s coils
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* [[Helmut Zemo (Earth-616)|Baron Helmut Semo]]'s Swords
* [[Silas Burr (Earth-616)|Cyber]]'s skin and claws, later harvested by Genesis; reacquired later still (formerly)
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* Outer plating of several [[Ultron (Earth-616)|Ultron]] bodies
  +
* [[Clint Barton (Earth-616)|Hawkeye]]'s Trick Arrows (occasionally)
  +
* The [[Frank Schlichting (Earth-616)|Constrictor]]'s coils (formerly)
 
* A set of [[Doctor Octopus]]'s arms (destroyed by molecular rearrangement)
 
* A set of [[Doctor Octopus]]'s arms (destroyed by molecular rearrangement)
* [[Remy LeBeau (Earth-616)|Gambit]]'s telescopic staff
 
 
* [[Yuriko Oyama (Earth-616)|Lady Deathstrike]]'s claws and skeleton
 
* [[Yuriko Oyama (Earth-616)|Lady Deathstrike]]'s claws and skeleton
* Outer plating of several [[Ultron (Earth-616)|Ultron]] bodies
+
* [[Andreas von Strucker (Earth-616)|Citizen V]]'s Swords
  +
* The cyborg body of [[Donald Pierce (Earth-616)|Donald Pierce]] (formerly)
  +
* Adamantium reserves belonging to [[Khyber (Earth-616)|Khyber]]
  +
* [[Silas Burr (Earth-616)|Cyber]]'s skin and claws, later harvested by Genesis; reacquired later still, then harvested by Ogun; reacquired again in his identity as stinger
 
* [[TESS-One (Earth-616)|TESS-One]]'s outer skin layer
 
* [[TESS-One (Earth-616)|TESS-One]]'s outer skin layer
  +
* The robotic mantle of [[Alkhema (Earth-616)|Alkhema]]
 
* [[Citadel (Earth-616)|Citadel]]'s skin
 
* [[Citadel (Earth-616)|Citadel]]'s skin
  +
* [[Shuri (Earth-616)|Shuri's]] Panther Habit claws.
 
* [[Jack Dio (Earth-616)|Underworld]]'s bullets
 
* [[Jack Dio (Earth-616)|Underworld]]'s bullets
 
* [[Romulus (Earth-616)|Romulus]]'s skeleton, nails and claw implants
 
* [[Romulus (Earth-616)|Romulus]]'s skeleton, nails and claw implants
* [[Laura Kinney (Earth-616)|X-23]]'s claws, both the one's on her hands and her feet.
+
* [[Michael Collins (Earth-616)|Deathlok]]'s skeleton, cartilage, muscle fibers & helmet carapace
  +
* [[Laura Kinney (Earth-616)|X-23]]'s claws, and her skeleton (possibly)
 
* [[Celia Ricadonna (Earth-616)|Ricadonna]]'s custom made Scimitar.
 
* [[Celia Ricadonna (Earth-616)|Ricadonna]]'s custom made Scimitar.
 
* [[Marc Spector (Earth-616)|Moon Knight]]'s staff and equipment
 
* [[Marc Spector (Earth-616)|Moon Knight]]'s staff and equipment
 
* [[Christoph Nord (Earth-616)|Maverick]]'s Knife and ammo
 
* [[Christoph Nord (Earth-616)|Maverick]]'s Knife and ammo
 
* [[Hudson Logan (Earth-982)|Sabreclaw]]'s nail sheaths
 
* [[Hudson Logan (Earth-982)|Sabreclaw]]'s nail sheaths
  +
* The armor of [[Arkady Rossovich (Earth-616)|Omega Red]]. (possibly)
 
* [[James Buchanan Barnes (Earth-616)|Bucky]]'s Captain America suit
 
* [[James Buchanan Barnes (Earth-616)|Bucky]]'s Captain America suit
 
* [[Todd Arliss (Earth-616)|Tiger Shark]]'s Teeth
 
* [[Todd Arliss (Earth-616)|Tiger Shark]]'s Teeth
| CurrentOwner = Numerous
+
* [[Bruce Banner (Earth-616)|Doc Green]]'s Nanite Gamma Cure.
  +
* Bullets used by [[Brotherhood of the Shield (Earth-616)|Ancient Order of the Shield]] agents.
  +
* [[Dog Logan (Earth-616)|Dog Logan]]'s Adamantium Mace
  +
* [[Sergei Kravinoff (Earth-616)|Kraven the Hunter]]'s hunting knife.
  +
* [[Anthony Stark (Earth-616)|Iron Man]]'s weapons (occasionally)
  +
* [[Constrictor (Frank Payne's son) (Earth-616)|2nd Constrictor]]'s coils (possibly)
  +
* [[Moira Kinross (Earth-616)|Moira Kinross]] uses Adamantium-tipped syringes occasionally, to break tough skins.
  +
| CurrentOwner = Numerous
 
| PreviousOwners = Numerous
 
| PreviousOwners = Numerous
   
| Notes = When [[Katherine Pryde (Earth-616)|Shadowcat]] phases through Adamantium, it makes her sick. {{r|X-Men #165}}
+
| Notes = * When [[Katherine Pryde (Earth-616)|Shadowcat]] phases through Adamantium, it makes her sick.{{r|Uncanny X-Men Vol 1 165}}
 
| Trivia =
 
| Trivia =
| Links = [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adamantium_%28comics%29 Adamantium] at Wikipedia
+
| Links =
 
}}
 
}}
 
[[Category:Materials]]
 
[[Category:Materials]]

Revision as of 19:05, October 10, 2019

History

Adamantium is a virtually indestructible man-made steel alloy which does not occur in nature and whose exact chemical composition is a United States government classified secret.[1] Adamantium is not an element: its properties do not qualify it for any known space on the Periodic Table of Elements.[1] It is extremely rigid steel-based alloy that the density is virtually indestructible.[2] A sufficient amount is capable of surviving multiple nuclear explosions or a blow from the most powerful superhuman with no damage.[2] A blade of pure, primary Adamantium is capable of cutting almost any known substance, with the known exception of Captain America's shield.[3] The ability to slice completely through a substance with an Adamantium blade depends upon the amount of force being exerted and the hardness of the material in question.[2] Adamantium's molecular integrity makes for an extremely hard metal capable of drilling with greater effectiveness than Vibranium.[2] Furthermore, after several years of additional testing and research, MacLain eventually released his sole supply of Adamantium to the US government who had the Avengers, notably Thor and Iron Man unleash their full power against it, confirming it to be essentially indestructible.[2]

James Howlett (Earth-616) from Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Vol 1 1 001

Wolverine's skeleton laced with Adamantium.

Creating even a small amount of Adamantium is astronomically expensive, and only a few people know the complete formula.[2] Adamantium is created by mixing certain chemical resins together.[2] The exact composition of these resins is a closely guarded secret of the United States government.[2] When these resins are mixed and kept at a temperature of 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit, the resulting liquid can be cast or worked into a particular shape.[2] After an eight minute 'flux period', the mixture sets and becomes solid regardless of temperature.[2] Its molecular structure is extremely stable, and its shape can only be altered by precise molecular rearrangement.[2] However, due to the sheer bonding strength of Adamantium, there are few known forces capable of altering its molecular structure.[2]

There are very few substances known that are harder than Adamantium, but one is Dargonite.[4]

Some supervillains have taken to harvesting existing sources of Adamantium, hoping to utilize it through molecular rearrangement. Apocalypse harvested Adamantium from Sabretooth's skeleton,[5] and Gambit in turn got Adamantium from Constrictor to save Sabretooth's life.[6] Genesis harvested Adamantium from Cyber by destroying his body's organic matter, leaving only his Adamantium-laced skin.[7]

Some Adamantium is made by Adametco.[8]

Background Information

Hercules, the demigod of Greek myth, wielded an enchanted golden mace, which (according to legend) was made of Adamantine and supposed to be indestructible. Inspired by this myth, Dr. Myron MacLain sought to create an indestructible alloy for the American side during World War II. At one point he fell asleep at his lab bench, and the metals he was working with somehow bonded together. This mysterious alloy--a combination of steel, Vibranium, and an unknown catalyst--created a material stronger than any yet known. However, without knowing the exact ingredients and their proportions, MacLain could never duplicate the process. The sample was worked into a disc, which became Captain America's Shield. MacLain's later attempts to duplicate the material included a formula without Vibranium, which resulted in the creation of True Adamantium, which is almost as strong as Captain America's shield.[9][10]

Although True Adamantium is thought to be indestructible, there are at least two known examples of the alloy within the Earth-616 reality sustaining damage without molecular manipulation. The first involved Thor focusing all of his strength into striking a small cylinder of Adamantium with Mjolnir, which only slightly dented.[10] The second incident involved a battle between Ultron and the Hulk. During the fight, the Hulk punched the robot with enough force to slightly dent it.[11]

Because True Adamantium is exceptionally difficult and expensive to create, various researchers found a more cost-effective way to duplicate it, at the expense of quality and durability. This alternate version, referred to as Secondary Adamantium, is considerably stronger than even titanium and is resistant against most assaults. However, assaults from sufficiently powerful weapons or beings can warp or break it.[12]

Forms

Proto-Adamantium

This is the original Adamantium created by Dr. MacLain. Proto-Adamantium is the official name for the metal that makes up Captain America's Shield.[13] It has never been recreated and is the absolutely most indestructible item in all of existence.[13] It has only ever been damaged or destroyed five times: by Doctor Doom with the powers he stole from the Beyonder,[11] by Thanos with the power of the Infinity Gauntlet,[14] by Molecule Man and his total control over matter,[15] by Thor wielding the Odin-Force,[16] and by the Serpent after augmenting his strength with the fear of people from all over the world.[17]

True Adamantium

Also known as Primary Adamantium, this is an attempt at the recreation of Proto-Adamantium. This is the Adamantium present in Wolverine. It is nearly as strong or durable, but unlike Proto-Adamantium, Primary Adamantium is able to be reproduced. Only beings with godlike powers (such as Rune King Thor) or with strong magnetic powers (like Magneto)[18] can manipulate Primary Adamantium. Otherwise, it is completely indestructible to all forms of attack. Being this strong, it is very rare and expensive to create or manipulate and is top secret in the US government, though it has been shared with some of their "allies". Once liquid Adamantium cools and hardens, it can never be manipulated again,[1] although it can be destroyed by Antarctic Vibranium, which dissolves all metals.

Secondary Adamantium

This is much easier to work with, making it much more cost effective though at the expense of its strength. Secondary Adamantium also called Adamantium Steel, was created retroactively after too many instances of the supposedly-unbreakable metal Adamantium getting broken were written. Someone with considerable superhuman strength, such as Thor, can break it or warp it by fully exerting their strength.[12]

Adamantium Beta

Wolverine's skeleton was originally reinforced with True Adamantium. His mutant Healing Factor not only allowed him to survive the process, but it also induced a molecular change in the metal.[2] Adamantium Beta functions like True Adamantium but does not inhibit the biological processes of bone.[2] This fact only became apparent after Magneto forcibly extracted the Adamantium from Wolverine's skeleton.[19] On occasions where Wolverine lost his mutant regeneration ability, he was gradually poisoned by the Adamantium each time.

Adamantium (Earth-1610)

In the Earth-1610 reality, Adamantium is still a highly durable alloy but it does not share the indestructible properties of its mainstream counterpart. For example, the Hulk was able to break an Adamantium needle,[20] and also rip Wolverine's body in half who was bonded with Adamantium inside his skeleton.[21] Another incident regarding Adamantium's durability involved Sabretooth; he possesses four Adamantium claws implanted within each forearm, through circumstances yet to be revealed, one of the claws implanted within his left forearm is broken. Lady Deathstrike, possessing an Adamantium laced skeleton, had her neck broken during a battle with Longshot when he used his ability to affect probability. Valkyrie and George Stark destroyed Captain America's Adamantium shield.[22] The material is also highly effective in blocking telepathic probes, a trait that Adamantium in the Earth-616 reality does not possess. Aside from being highly durable and effective at blocking telepathy, nothing else about Ultimate Adamantium has been revealed. It isn't known when Adamantium was first created, who is responsible for its creation, and what the properties and processes required for making it are. As a result, it isn't even known if Ultimate Adamantium is created in the same way as the Earth-616 version.

Adamantium (Earth-691)

On one occasion, Vance Astro of the 31st-century Guardians of the Galaxy of Earth-691 was wounded in a battle with the warlike alien Stark. The alloy suit that protected Astro (Earth's first interstellar astronaut) during his trip to Alpha Centauri was damaged. His teammates repaired the damage by applying a flexible Adamantium cast to his arm and chest.[23]The most likely conclusion is that Earth-691 found a way to create Adamantium cheaply and quickly and in a mesh or flexible form.

Adam Ant Steel (Earth-9047)

In Earth-9047 ("the Humorverse"), Adamantium is sometimes[24] referred as "Adam Ant Steel", "Amantheants"[25] or Adam-antium[24] It is indestructible and was used for the skeleton of Woof'r'eam.[25][24]

Adamantium (Earth-10005)

Much like his Earth-616 counterpart, Wolverine has had Adamantium bonded to his skeleton. However, the history of the material differs greatly from Earth-616. In this reality, Adamantium appears to be at least partially composed of an unknown element from a meteor that crash landed in Africa. William Stryker gathered the material and through unknown means created Adamantium.[26]

The Adamantium itself appears to function like Earth-616 Adamantium. It appears to be mostly indestructible, and must be super-heated in order to be malleable[27], but appears to permanently solidify within seconds of being removed from heat. Also, due to its sheer density and molecular structure, adamantium appears to retain its solid form.

This type of Adamantium appears to lose its durability when expose to extreme heat, as the Silver Samurai was able to cut Wolverine's claws off with a super-heated Adamantium katana, though this make sense as it's a call back to Stryker explaining that Adamantium is malleable when super heated but becomes permanently indestructible when cooled. This suggests that Adamantium is only indestructible when at room temperature[27], however, Adamantium will still remain solid even when heated to become white-hot[27], as Stryker also stated that Adamantium must be kept heated in its liquid state, otherwise it becomes impossible to alter its molecular structure through any human means or with any other man-made material[28]. Also, in order to damage Adamantium at high temperatures, another object made out of Adamantium is required.[27]

Like his mainstream counterpart, Magneto of Earth-10005 is able to affect Adamantium with his magnetic abilities and as used this to immobilize Wolverine a number of times.[29][30][27] Unlike his mainstream counterpart[18], Magneto has never attempted to rip the Adamantium from Wolverine's bones. So, it is unknown if Magneto can reshape it like he could other metals.[28]

Like its Earth-616 counterpart, Earth-10005 Adamantium is apparently expensive to make. General Munson told William Stryker that he had spent $500 million to bond the metal to Wolverine's skeleton[26] and the Silver Samurai had bankrupted Yashida Corp amassing Adamantium.[27]

Adamantium Allotropes

Serafina claims that Adamantium has thirteen allotropes, all of which are "unstable, and short-lived, but virulently poisonous". She throws a small device that clamps onto Wolverine's claws and makes them glow green, claiming that it is "Adamantium nine". This causes Wolverine to become stricken, incoherent and collapse.[31]

Carbonadium

Carbonadium is a resilient, unstable metal that is vastly stronger than steel, but more flexible than Adamantium. Carbonadium is, in fact, both a more malleable and cheaper version of Adamantium.[32] Due to its malleability, Carbonadium is considerably less durable than True Adamantium though for all practical purposes Carbonadium is nearly indestructible. Omega Red (an adversary of The X-Men, primarily Wolverine) has carbonadium coils which allow him to drain life energies.

Applications


Notes

  • When Shadowcat phases through Adamantium, it makes her sick.[33]

See Also

Links and References

Footnotes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #15
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z #1
  3. Avengers vs. X-Men #3
  4. Guardians of the Galaxy #18
  5. Wolverine Vol 2 #145
  6. Gambit Vol 3 #11
  7. Wolverine Vol 2 #96
  8. Captain America Annual #8
  9. Captain America #302-303
  10. 10.0 10.1 Avengers #66
  11. 11.0 11.1 Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #12
  12. 12.0 12.1 Avengers Vol 3 #22
  13. 13.0 13.1 Captain America #303
  14. Infinity Gauntlet #4
  15. Avengers #215
  16. Avengers Vol 3 #63
  17. Fear Itself #5
  18. 18.0 18.1 X-Men Vol 2 #25
  19. Wolverine Vol 2 #80
  20. Ultimates #5
  21. Ultimate Wolverine vs. Hulk #1
  22. Ultimate Avengers vs. New Ultimates #6
  23. Guardians of the Galaxy #3-4
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 What The--?! #17
  25. 25.0 25.1 What The--?! #2
  26. 26.0 26.1 X-Men Origins: Wolverine (film)
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 The Wolverine (film)
  28. 28.0 28.1 X2 (film)
  29. X-Men (film)
  30. X-Men: The Last Stand
  31. X-Men Vol 2 #191
  32. X-Men Vol 2 #7
  33. Uncanny X-Men #165
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