- You can take away my house, all my tricks and toys. But one thing you can't take away: I am Iron Man.
- -- Tony Stark src
Born on May 29, 1970 to legendary innovator, Manhattan Project engineer and weapons developer Howard Stark, Tony Stark's early life was often dominated by the absence of his father whom he would later describe as 'cold' and 'calculating'.
However from an early age he quickly stole the spotlight with his brilliant and unique mind. At age four he built his first circuit board, at age six his first engine, and at seventeen he graduated summa cum laude from M.I.T..
When his parents were killed in a car accident, Howard Stark's lifelong friend and ally, Obadiah Stane, stepped in to fill the gap left by the legendary founder. At age twenty-one, Tony became the youngest CEO of a Fortune 500 company after the inheritance of Stark Industries, a chief weapons manufacturer for the U.S. military.
With the keys to the business empire, he ushered in a new era for his father's legacy, creating smarter weapons, advanced robotics, and satellite targeting. Stark Industries did pioneering work in medical technology and in combating world hunger with their Intelli-Crops program. Tony's influence changed the face of the weapons industry by "ensuring freedom and protecting America and her interests around the globe."
Although he developed a strong reputation in his field, Tony rarely seemed interested in the work of others; during a party in Bern, Switzerland, to celebrate the millennium, he briefly conversed with scientist Aldrich Killian and then completely forgot about the man after promising to meet him on the roof in favor of spending time with scientist Maya Hansen, offering some brief observations on her work and then leaving the morning after.
Captured in Afghanistan
When Stark traveled to Kabul, Afghanistan in May of 2009 to introduce his new cluster missile design, an extremely destructive, multi-warhead weapon called the "Jericho", to the United States Air Force, his convoy was attacked by militant accomplices of terrorist-leader Raza and he was knocked unconscious. He woke up to find that he had been severely injured by shrapnel piercing his chest, and had been captured by the militants, yet had survived thanks to his fellow captive, Dr. Ho Yinsen.
Yinsen had made a high powered electromagnet to hold the shrapnel in place, preventing it from puncturing his heart and thus keeping him alive. Stark was ordered by their captors, a terrorist group calling themselves the Ten Rings, to build them a new version of the Stark Industries' Jericho missile. He grudgingly agreed, but instead used the time to build a powered suit of armor along with a miniature Arc Reactor to keep him alive.
During his escape, Yinsen was killed in an attempt to stall the guards long enough to buy Stark enough time to charge the suit. After the suit was powered up he broke out and destroyed all stock they had of Stark weapons, and used a rocket booster to get clear of the scene. After crashing into the sand he abandoned his armor, and traveled for some time before U.S. military helicopters found him and carried him to safety.
Becoming a Hero
Upon returning to the United States in late August, Stark declared that Stark Industries would no longer manufacture weapons, a move which his business partner Obadiah Stane told him was quickly blocked by the board members. He decided to recreate his armor suit with a vastly upgraded design featuring flight capability, and built a more powerful and reliable arc reactor, both to power his pacemaker and the suit. This experimental test model gave way to a more refined third generation suit, heavily armed, and painted in a vivid red and gold theme that would become his trademark through many more successive generations of his armor.
Faced with the realization that his weapons designs had fallen into the wrong hands, Stark donned the MK III suit and flew to Afghanistan to stop the Ten Rings. He stopped the group and destroyed their Stark weapon stock, while accidentally drawing the attention of the United States Air Force and his friend Lt. Colonel James Rhodes. They sent two F-22 jets after Stark to shoot him down, but Stark managed to escape them, and Rhodes covered up the incident after he found out that Stark was piloting the armor, stating that the altercation was a training exercise.
While he was working on improving the suit he discovered that Stane had been dealing under the table to both sides in the conflict. He sent his assistant Virginia "Pepper" Potts to hack into the Stark mainframe. While he was back at home Stane stunned him with a device that induced temporary paralysis, and then stole the arc reactor from Stark's chest. Stark went back to his lab after the paralyzing device wore off and tried to get the old reactor before he went into cardiac arrest. With the help of his personal A.I. computer, J.A.R.V.I.S., he was able to put the arc-reactor in his chest.
Using his first reactor, which was not designed to power his latest armor, Stark suited up once more and went to confront Stane. He battled with Stane atop Stark Industries and the surrounding streets, defeating him when the full-sized arc reactor that powered the lab was deliberately overloaded, under Stark's instruction, by Potts. Stark's reactor reactivated after having almost failed completely from the blast.
Afterwards, Stark's alter ego was dubbed "Iron Man" by the press. Stark held a press conference where his government contacts expected him to state that Iron Man was Stark's own bodyguard. However, after stumbling into a loaded question by one of the press reps, he ultimately made his identity as Iron Man public instead.
Later that night, Stark came home and was greeted by Nick Fury, leader of S.H.I.E.L.D. (the Strategic Homeland Intervention Enforcement and Logistics Division), who told him about a plan called the Avenger Initiative.
Over the next six months, Stark would realize his design of the reactor in his chest required a heavy element such as palladium to keep it running. Unfortunately, palladium was continuously eroded by the neutron bombardment, and released deadly poisons into Tony's body. As he came to the realization that his demise was at hand, he began giving his things away to his trusted friends and worthy organizations, such as a piece of art to Boy Scouts of America. Pepper took over as CEO of Stark Industries.
Using crude materials, Ivan was able to create a chest harness that fed the energy from the reactor into two electrical whips he could then use to cut through metal and electrify things with. He attacked Tony at the Monaco Grand Prix while Tony was driving the car he sponsored, and would have killed him if not for the intervention of Pepper and Happy. They rushed to him on the race track and delivered a portable suitcase armor, that Tony used to defeat Vanko.
When Stark threw a party at his Malibu mansion, his self-destructive tendencies again came to the fore. He had donned his Iron Man suit and proceeded to get drunk, then used the suits destructive capabilities to entertain his guests. James Rhodes found him destroying thrown objects above the crowd, and so therefore retrieved the old MK II prototype from the basement and confronted Stark. A fight broke out, Iron Man against Iron Man, and eventually Rhodes confiscated the MK II after telling Stark that he was no longer worthy to wear the suit. Stark watched his friend leave resigning himself to the thought that his friend might be right.
At his lowest ebb, Tony was approached by Director Fury at a doughnut shop. Still in his Iron Man armor he agreed to a meeting within and was surprised when they were joined by Pepper's new assistant, who Fury introduced as Natasha Romanoff, a spy who would proceed to keep tabs on him. Romanoff administered a temporary barrier to Tony's palladium poisoning, before Fury set him on a trail to find an element to replace the palladium.
After a lengthy search, Stark found a secret message meant for his adult self in his father's notes, and a diagram for the atomic structure of a new element discovered by Howard, disguised as a diorama of the 1974 Stark Expo grounds. Howard was limited by the technology of his day, but was certain that the adult Tony would have access to what was needed to actually create the element. Building a small particle accelerator in his garage, Tony was finally able to create a new element that met his needs, and in turn created a brand new suit to utilize the new power.
His next task was to deal with his arch rival Justin Hammer, who had upstaged Stark Industries at the Stark Expo. Hammer had previously arranged the escape of Vanko and had been using him to engineer new technology to rival Stark's Iron Man suits. Stark was disturbed enough to learn that Hammer had created a small army of drones powered by arc reactors, but shocked when James Rhodes in the fully armed MK II suit lost control of it. Vanko had double-crossed Hammer and was using the drones and Rhodes' War Machine armor in an attempt on Stark's life.
Stark escaped from from the Expo, leading the drones and his helpless friend on a deadly chase. Eventually, outside assistance from Natasha Romanoff allowed Rhodes to regain control and together the two Iron Men were able to fight off the drones, and later Vanko in an armored suit of his own.
With his illness corrected, a new Iron Man armor in hand, and coming out once again on top, Tony returned to the life he enjoyed, acting as a consultant to Nick Fury's Avenger Initiative.
Fury found himself pressured by his superiors to make a spot for Emil Blonsky (dubbed "The Abomination") on the roster due to his status as a war hero; with his villainous acts in Harlem being attributed to Bruce Banner. Fury, not wanting Blonsky anywhere near his team, left the matter to Agent Coulson and Agent Sitwell, who decided to send Stark to meet with and antagonize General Thaddeus "Thunderbolt" Ross so that he would refuse to release Blonsky to S.H.I.E.L.D. The plan worked, with Stark enraging Ross to the point that the general tried to have him removed from the bar they were in. Stark responded by buying the building and having it demolished.
Months later, and fresh from switching Stark Tower onto a self-contained arc reactor power supply, Tony and Pepper were celebrating when Agent Coulson intruded with urgent business. Unable to dismiss the S.H.I.E.L.D. agent, thanks to Pepper, Tony grudgingly looked over Coulson's information and became gravely concerned by the content. S.H.I.E.L.D. had lost the Tesseract and were pulling together powerful individuals from around the globe in a desperate bid to counter the threat that this posed. His concern deepening, Stark continued to digest the situation described in the S.H.I.E.L.D. files long after Coulson had left.
When Loki, the mastermind responsible for the theft, made a public appearance in Stuttgart, Tony suited up and flew into action. When he arrived he found Steve Rogers, in full Captain America regalia, already deeply embattled with the rogue Asgardian and beginning to fail. The combined firepower of Iron Man and a S.H.I.E.L.D. jet backing up Rogers was enough to get Loki to desist hostilities however, and Loki then allowed himself be escorted away. Loki's adoptive brother Thor had other plans, and intercepted the craft in a bid to extradite Loki back to Asgard before he could do any more harm. Tony attempted to stop him, but only succeeded in provoking a fight. Finally Rogers' intervention confused the dispute even further and only when all three had been blasted off their feet did the trio come to their senses enough to agree on a mutually beneficial course of action.
Once on board the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier, Tony set about discretely planting bugs to infiltrate the ship's systems over suspicions about S.H.I.E.L.D. intentions. There was more to the story than what he'd been told and he was determined to wring out all of Fury's secrets.
Tony's addition to a group of powerful people added a volatile element to the mix. His antagonistic swagger was only paused when he found a kindred spirit in Bruce Banner, a fellow scientist trapped by controls on his life that he could not fully master. Tensions mounted and the arguments flared. Tony's suspicions and electronic surveillance prompted a more traditional investigation from Rogers, and the resulting discovery that Director Fury had not been entirely truthful about the Tesseract, planning to use it in armaments, only made matters worse.
Just when the disputes were threatening to boil out of control, the Helicarrier was attacked in a surprise move by missing S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Clinton Barton. An explosion shut down one of the engines, prompting Stark and Rogers to put aside their differences and work together in an effort to save the ship. In the aftermath they learned that Loki was gone and that S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Phil Coulson had been killed, an event that forced them to look inward and consider their own actions.
Stark deduced that Loki had headed for New York City, and spurred by thoughts of retribution he donned his battered Iron Man armor and set off in pursuit. As predicted, he found the Asgardian in Stark Tower and offered him a warning, cataloging each of the powerful individuals now arrayed against him. Loki responded by trying to control him, and when this failed due to Stark's arc reactor he hurled Stark bodily out through a window. Having already abandoned his broken suit, Tony plummeted to the street below, but his forward planning saved him when the freshly constructed MK VII armor rocketed down after him and merged with him in free fall only moments before impact. Disaster averted, he rose back up to issue his final pronouncement before he opened fire: "And there's one other person you pissed off! His name is 'Phil!'"
Battle of New York
While Stark had been busy dealing with Loki, the god of mischief's plan had come to fruition. A device with the Tesseract at its core on the tower's roof had opened a dimensional rift in the sky above Manhattan. Through this rent poured the Chitauri, Loki's allies, swarming down over the city and raining destruction everywhere. Iron Man was unable to breach the energy field shielding Loki's device nor could he match the sheer numbers of the Chitauri. Descending back to the streets he joined with the others and presently six exceptional people stood together for the first time against the alien threat.
The battle was a long and grueling affair. Iron Man dominated the skies in an air supremacy action against squads of Chitauri flyers. At one point he emulated the tale of Jonah and destroyed one of their Leviathans from within. His most compelling action however, was his interception of a nuclear missile deployed to the area as a final solution.
This he managed to divert and redirect into the rift where he released it on course for a Chitauri mothership beyond. The destruction of the alien vessel also caused the remaining Chitauri in New York to literally collapse. His life support systems spent, and energy depleted, Tony collapsed into unconsciousness, unaware of the closing rift below him. Luckily his lifeless body fell through it before it collapsed entirely and the Hulk was then able to intercept him and break his fall.
With the Chitauri defeated and Loki safely removed to Asgard, the Avengers disbanded. The geniuses, Stark and Banner, parted company from the group together as friends, each with new scientific horizons to pursue.
Following the Battle of New York, Tony found himself troubled by acute insomnia, occasionally experiencing nightmares of what he had experienced during his trip through the portal, and doubting his ability to protect the people he cared about in a world of gods, aliens and other dimensions. To this end, he made repeated upgrades of his armor, not only inserting various remote control devices into his body that would allow him to summon his new Mark XLII "Autonomic Prehensile Propulsion Suit" with his thoughts alone, but before this, he also created thirty-four remote-controlled armor suits keyed to his physiology. The strain also resulted in him becoming increasingly distant from Pepper, as his efforts to ensure that he could protect her ironically drove him to spend less time with her. He also offered Nick Fury some advice in upgrading the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier's engines to make them more efficient, although he apparently declined to upgrade their weapons into the bargain.
Later, Tony met with Rhodes to discuss the recent string of bombings caused by an enigmatic terrorist known only as the Mandarin, and Rhodey's War Machine alter-ego rebranded as the Iron Patriot by President Ellis, a decision Stark was against for its stupidity and his preference for the name War Machine. When Rhodes and some kids wanting him to autograph a self-drawn picture mentioned New York and the Chitauri, it triggered a panic attack within Tony, so Stark got in his suit and flew away.
Back at home, Tony was informed by Happy Hogan that Pepper was meeting with a former co-worker of hers, Aldrich Killian. Tony said it was not a big deal, although he later bought Pepper a big stuffed bunny for Christmas. When she got home herself, the pair argued over Tony's distant demeanor and apparent jealousy, but the dispute ended when Tony admitted he'd been having trouble coping with his experiences in New York. The dispute reignited however, when Tony's nightmares had him subconsciously summon the Mark XLII in his sleep, which awakened and terrified Pepper.
The next morning, Tony visited Happy Hogan at the hospital, who was in a coma after barely surviving one of the Mandarin's attacks. He walked out into a swarm of reporters and got irritated when one of them questioned him about the Mandarin. He publicly swore revenge, and announced his home address to the world, challenging the Mandarin to meet him there.
Later that day, Tony started investigating all of the Mandarin's attacks, leading him to a potential clue in Tennessee. He then told J.A.R.V.I.S. to make a flight plan to that state. Further investigation was interrupted when Maya Hansen arrived at his door warning him about the Mandarin's attack on his home. The meeting was interrupted by armed helicopters firing missiles into the house. Suddenly faced with having to protect Pepper, Stark sent the Mark XLII to her, giving her a means with which to get herself and Dr. Hansen out of the house. Once they were clear he drew the suit back to himself and fought the helicopters until his house fell on him, leaving him trapped underwater. J.A.R.V.I.S. got control of the suit, freed him, and triggered the flight to Tennessee.
After leaving Pepper a voice message saying that he would not be able to return home immediately, Tony dragged his depowered suit to a garage where a boy named Harley found him. The boy aimed a spud gun at him, but after finding out the intruder was Tony Stark, he relaxed and they sat down to talk. Tony soon deduced that Harley had a bully problem at school, and offered him a flash grenade as bully-deterrent. In return, Harley had to help Tony with his bomb investigation.
After providing supplies, Harley showed Tony to a location that had been the site of an explosion with a rare thermal signature, and then to a woman whose son, had been the cause of the event. Believing Tony was another person she was expecting, Mrs. Davis gave him confidential files regarding her son. They were interrupted by Ellen Brandt and Eric Savin, two Extremis-infused agents also looking for the files. Tony fought them off using improvised weapons and escaped after killing Brandt. Despite Harley's earlier assistance, Tony left him by the in the middle of town while he drove away in a car stolen from Savin, although he would keep in touch with him, as the Mark XLII was still in the boy's garage.
When looking for clues in the confidential files, Tony realized Davis had a connection with Aldrich Killian's company, A.I.M.. With the help of Rhodes, whose armor was upgraded by A.I.M., thus being an user of the company's systems, Tony managed to hack into A.I.M.'s secrets, finding out that they had developed the Extremis virus, which enhanced the infused subjects, but also made them unstable and liable to explode. The revelation that the bombs he had been looking for were actually failed test subjects drew him to the conclusion that Killian's failed subjects were used by the Mandarin as human bombs.
After calling Harley, Tony received the bad news from J.A.R.V.I.S. that the Mark XLII was still not ready to be used, but that the Mandarin's location was finally revealed as Miami. Even without his armor, Tony got some supplies and built a home-made arsenal to infiltrate the Mandarin's mansion. There, he discovered the Mandarin was actually a fictional character invented by Killian, and portrayed by an actor called Trevor Slattery. Tony's pursuit for the truth was stopped when he was discovered and captured.
In the basement of the mansion, Dr. Hansen revealed to Tony that she was actually working with Killian, and had helped him to kidnap Pepper, who had since been injected with the Extremis virus. Tony had to fix the problem of instability of Extremis, as he managed to partially do so years ago, or Pepper would be killed. Maya objected to Killian's methods however, and threatened to kill herself with an Extremis overdose, but Killian simply shot her and informed Stark that her position had just been vacated. Tony was left to contemplate his predicament as Killian left.
With the Mark XLII operational, Stark summoned it from Harley's garage in Tennessee to Miami, and managed to escape. When escaping, Tony found Rhodes, who had also been captured, and his armor taken to be used by Savin as a Trojan horse to infiltrate Air Force One and kidnap President Ellis.
House Party Protocol
The pair set off to confront Killian and find Pepper, at the coast where he had set up the next part of his plan on a salvaged Roxxon oil tanker. This information was given to them by Slattery. Tony used the telepresence feature of the Mark XLII in an attempt to rescue the President but was thwarted by Savin, whom he killed with the uni-beam. He found himself instead rescuing a group of thirteen passengers who had been sucked out of the stricken plane. Although their rescue was successful, the Mark XLII came out of it in pieces after he accidentally piloted it into the path of a semi-truck. Tony later commanded J.A.R.V.I.S. to execute his "House Party" protocol which summoned all of the remaining Iron Man suits to his location.
Stark and Rhodes managed to sneak into the loading docks where the President was strung up, inside the Iron Patriot over the adjacent oil tanker, the Norco. Without their armor, they were left with the prospect of facing Killian's men and Extremis soldiers armed only with their wits and a pair of 9mm pistols. They were soon discovered, and found themselves facing a force of several dozen Extremis soldiers, but those odds were evened shortly thereafter when Stark's Iron Man suits arrived in force and engaged the soldiers. Stark donned one of them himself and flew through the fray to find Pepper.
The Extremis-enhanced Killian blocked Stark's rescue attempt, but was fended off long enough for Stark to make a second try. Stark was unsuccessful however, and watched in horror as Pepper fell and was engulfed in flame. When Killian approached again, Stark got into another Iron Man suit and so began a lengthy battle, during which Stark had to use his wits and many suits to fight Killian, who systematically managed to wreck one suit after another.
Stark eventually ensnared his opponent in the late arriving Mark XLII and triggered its self destruct. Killian survived the explosion, and when he was about to kill Stark, Pepper was also revealed to have survived her apparent death due to her Extremis enhancement. She first bashed Killian away with a metal pole, then followed the surprise attack with a Stark explosive and a repulsor ripped from a passing Iron Man armor. Detonated by the repulsor blast, the explosive munition obliterated Aldrich Killian.
When Tony and Pepper were reunited, Stark promised her he would find a cure for the Extremis in her body, but also that he would no longer be obsessed with his suits. He ordered J.A.R.V.I.S. to activate the "Clean Slate" protocol, which caused the remaining Iron Man armor suits flying around the port to be destroyed in firework-like explosions.
With his new take on life, Tony not only managed to find a cure for Pepper's condition, but also arranged to have the shrapnel surgically extracted from his chest. Having no further use for the arc reactor in his chest, he went to the ruins of his destroyed mansion and threw the device into the sea, stating that even if his "toys" were taken from him, one thing would always remain: He was Iron Man.
Later, Tony expressed the traumas he had been facing to Banner, but as Banner was not a therapist, he fell asleep. Tony was somewhat irritated, but Banner's explanation got Tony to tell another story, making Banner get drowsy again.
During the confrontation between Captain America and Hydra at the Triskelion, Tony was in the newly redesigned Avengers Tower in New York. He was one of the many targeted by the Hydra helicarriers, but his life was saved when the carriers were destroyed by Captain America. After Hydra was defeated and S.H.I.E.l.D. was disbanded, Tony hired Fury's right-hand woman Maria Hill to work for Stark Industries, and later for the Avengers.
Vision of the Future
The Avengers were reassembled in order to act as a peacekeeping force, using the Avengers Tower as their headquarters. Their main goal was to deal with the final remnants of Hydra factions. One of their final missions together consisted of retrieving Loki's Sceptre from Hydra. They located it in Baron Strucker's fortress in Sokovia. While the rest of the Avengers took care of the Hydra forces protecting the location, Iron Man was able to deactivate the base's shieling and penetrate the fortress itself. Once inside, he found the sceptre in a secret chamber among other Chitauri-related experiments.
Wanda Maximoff, a meta-human enhanced by Hydra, sneaked behind Tony, and used her powers of mental manipulation to make Tony have a vision of his greatest fear. Tony's vision consisted of the corpses his fellow Avengers, and the Earth being attacked by the Chitauri again. With his last breath, the vision of Captain America scolded Tony for not saving them, and not doing his best. Tony eventually snapped out of the vision, and retrieved the sceptre.
The Avengers returned to the Avengers Tower, where Thor gave Tony three days to study the sceptre before taking it to Asgard. Tony discovered some kind of artificial intelligence embedded within the sceptre, and considered it could be the potential key to finish his peacekeeping project, the Ultron Program, an A.I. to control the drones of the Iron Legion. This program would operate as the world's primary peacekeeping force, which would retroactively make the Avengers unnecessary. Tony convinced Bruce to help him experiment on it. One night, while the Avengers had celebrated their latest victory against Hydra, Tony left the rest of Ultron's syncing process to J.A.R.V.I.S., and Ultron awoke.
When the party was winding down, Ultron (in the body of a damaged Iron Legion bot) confronted the Avengers and accused them of preventing the world from achieving peace by not allowing it to evolve. Ultron declared that for world peace, the Avengers had to be destroyed. Ultron proceeded to control numerous Iron Legion drones to attack the Avengers, one of which escaped with Loki's sceptre. Even though Ultron's body was destroyed, it used the Internet to escape. The Avengers reprimanded Tony and Banner for creating Ultron, and Tony defended himself by arguing that he needed to take precautions in the event that the Earth was attacked again. The team also found out that J.A.R.V.I.S. was decimated when Ultron was born.
The Avengers proceeded to investigate Ultron's next course of action and discovered it was looking for Vibranium from its biggest illegal dealer, Ulysses Klaue. Iron Man and the team travelled to a shipyard on the coast of Africa, Klaue's base of operations, where they found Ultron and its two new allies, Wanda Maximoff and her brother Pietro. Iron Man engaged Ultron in combat, and while he managed to destroy its main body, an Ultron Sentry made it off with the Vibranium. Additionally, Wanda Maximoff had used her abilities of creating visions of a person's deepest fear to incapacitate the rest of the team and let loose the Hulk, completely out of control and blinded by rage, in South Africa.
Tony flew to South Africa as he called for the MK XLIV armor, a contingency plan created by Tony and Bruce in case Hulk had to be stopped - a Hulkbuster armor. A furious fight throughout Johannesburg between Iron Man and Hulk ensued. Even though the Hulk was capable of tearing apart Iron Man's armor easily, the external equipment pod Veronica sent a frequent supply of new parts to replace damaged armor. After pushing the Hulk through a collapsing skyscraper, Iron Man was finally able to stop him.
Morally defeated, the Avengers left South Africa. Maria Hill contacted the team, and told them the commotion in Johannesburg had caused a public backlash, and recommended that they lay low for a while. Clint took them to a safe-house, his farm in the countryside, where he lived with his family. A distressed Thor decided to investigate the things he witnessed in his vision, and flew off on his own.
Stark debated with Steve regarding creating an entity that would end the team, without the team's approval. The debate was interrupted when Stark was lured by Laura, Clint's wife, to the farm's barn. There, Tony was confronted by Nick Fury, who later convinced the Avengers to stand up and fight against Ultron. Banner deduced that Ultron was trying to evolve itself, and they soon discovered he could have used Helen Cho's expertise with cellular regeneration, and her regeneration cradle, to build itself a new body using Vibranium.
While Captain America, Black Widow and Hawkeye rushed to South Korea, Tony visited the NEXUS World Internet Hub in Oslo, Norway and discovered J.A.R.V.I.S.' A.I. had retreated there after his encounter with Ultron. Hawkeye returned to Avengers Tower alone with the android body, and reported that Black Widow had been captured by Ultron and Captain America delayed. Tony decided to upload J.A.R.V.I.S. into the new synthetic body, and had nearly completed the process when Rogers and the Maximoff twins returned and opposed him. After Pietro Maximoff disconnected the synthetic body from its chamber, Thor reappeared and used his hammer to finish powering it up, finishing the download of J.A.R.V.I.S. into the mainframe. The synthetic body came to life, and after calming down, sided with the Avengers to stop Ultron. He was no longer J.A.R.V.I.S., but the Vision.
The Avengers prepared themselves to confront Ultron, who had returned to Sokovia and had used the vibranium left to create a set of machines around a portion of the city powerful enough to raise it into the sky, and then ram it into the Earth from a distance high enough to cause an extinction-level event. During the preparation, Tony uploaded a new A.I. called F.R.I.D.A.Y. into his newest suit of armor, the MK XLV.
Iron Man confronted Ultron in a church in the middle of Sokovia, where the control unit for the doomsday machine had been placed. Meanwhile, the Avengers evacuated the city at the same time they defended it from Ultron's army of drones. The Vision was able to assist Stark and cut Ultron off from the Internet, preventing it from transferring its mind outside of itself and the drones it was controlling. However, Ultron's machine was still activated, and a portion of Sokovia started rising from the ground. Iron Man recommended overloading the device, but Captain America refused to do so until the civilians could be secured. Nick Fury, the remains of S.H.I.E.L.D., and War Machine appeared with the Helicarrier, using its lifeboats to rescue civilians. As Sokovia was evacuated, the Avengers reassembled in the church, to protect Ultron's control unit from being activated by Ultron or the robot army. During the ensuing fight, Iron Man helped heavily damage Ultron's main body.
After the citizens were finally secured, Iron Man and Thor overloaded the core of Ultron's machine, causing the airborne portion of Sokovia to explode into pieces. Ultron's last remaining drone made it safely to the ground, but was finally destroyed by the Vision.
Sometime after the dust settled, the New Avengers Facility was built in upstate New York, in order to train the new recruits - War Machine, Vision, Wanda Maximoff, and Sam Wilson (aka the Falcon). Tony and Thor visited Steve at the facility, and Thor updated Tony and Steve about the resurfacing of four Infinity Stones within the last few years, with one of them being the Stone they found within Loki's Sceptre. Thor reassured them that the Stone would be safe kept inside the Vision, before heading back to Asgard to investigate more on these Stones. Tony also took a leave of absence, joking that he would build a farm just like Barton.
Despite Tony's best intentions to rebuild things with Pepper away from the Avengers, the reconstruction of his armor and his own issues over the indirect role he had played in Ultron's attack resulted in Pepper breaking up with him. However, Tony continued to do his work for the public. He established the September Foundation, a grant that provided all students who enlisted the proper funding to move forward with their own inventions and ideas.
While presenting the Binarily Augmented Retro Framing device, a therapeutic device that enabled users to relive past memories, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Tony was confronted by Miriam Sharpe, the grieving mother of Charlie Spencer, a volunteer worker who was killed in Sokovia during the Ultron attack a year prior.
Thaddeus Ross (who was now Secretary of State) proposed the implementation of the Sokovia Accords, a U.N. legislation that would make the Avengers directly answerable to government authority, to Tony. Increasingly troubled at the deaths caused by Ultron's rampage, Tony favoured the bill, for he saw imposing limits on the heroes as a good way to prevent another event of mass destruction happening again. When he and Secretary Ross proposed the accords to the active members of the Avengers roster, they were met by resistance by Steve and Sam. However, Tony was able to get Rhodey, Natasha and Vision to at least consider signing.
Prior to the leaders of the world coming together in Vienna for a ratification of the Accords, Tony, Rhodey, Natasha and Vision had signed to abide by the accords. However, this ratification was interrupted due to a bombing which killed several people (most notably, King T'Chaka of Wakanda), with Bucky Barnes (aka the Winter Soldier) being named as the culprit. Tony, along with Rhodey and Natasha, reported for duty under the orders of Everett Ross and the Joint Counter Terrorist Centre in Germany, while Tony ordered Vision to stay at the facility to prevent Wanda from leaving.
Steve and Sam, along with Barnes and T'Challa, King T'Chaka's son and the Black Panther, were soon apprehended and detained to the facility. Tony and Steve argued for a moment about the Accords, before directing their attention to Barnes' interrogation. Suddenly, the facility went through a complete loss of power, and everyone was put on the defensive. Barnes escaped his cell, so Tony, Natasha, Agent Sharon Carter, and T'Challa tried to prevent him from escaping, but they were unsuccessful. Tony soon learned that Steve and Sam escaped along with Barnes, and was scolded by Secretary Ross because of this. Tony requested for 48 hours to bring Steve in peacefully, before agencies started treating him as a fugitive. Tony decided to assemble his team, which included Natasha, Rhodey, King T'Challa and Vision, but he needed to travel to Queens, New York City for the final member.
Tony visited the apartment of enhanced teenager Peter Parker, who went by the alias "Spider-Man". Tony conversed with his aunt May, before privately revealing that he knew of Peter's secret identity, abilities, and track record of stopping petty crime. He offered him a new, upgraded suit and a spot on his team.
Stark's team arrived at Leipzig/Halle Airport and confronted Steve, who had assembled his own team of enhanced individuals. Tony initially tried to reason with Steve, but a fight soon broke out between the two groups. The battle was evenly matched at first, but as it progressed, it became clear that Steve's allies were losing. One of Steve's allies, who went by the alias Ant-Man, had the capability to shift the density of his molecules, which allowed him to grow to an enormous size. With Iron Man's team momentarily shocked and distracted, Steve and Barnes used the opportunity to make their escape on a quinjet. Rhodey flew after them, but. when a blast meant for Falcon hit Rhodey instead, Rhodey plummeted to the ground. Tony flew to Rhodey's side, and found him unconscious but still alive. Tony apprehended the remaining members of Steve's team - Sam, Wanda, Clint, and Scott Lang (the true identity of the Ant-Man) - and imprisoned them in the Raft.
After covertly interrogating Sam about where Steve and Barnes were headed, Tony learned that Helmut Zemo, the man posing as Barnes' psychiatrist in Germany, was the one who orchestrated Barnes' escape, in an effort to release and take control of more Winter Soldiers. Tony flew to Siberia, unaware that he was being followed by T'Challa.
Tony caught up with Steve and Barnes and explained his sudden arrival; he had found out that Barnes was framed for the Vienna bombing, and, realizing that Steve had been right, responded as a reinforcement. The trio then proceeded to the chamber where the Winter Soldiers were held in cryogenic stasis. Zemo used an intercom to gain their attention, and revealed that it was in fact a ruse; the Winter Soldiers were already dead, each of them with a gunshot wound in the head. Zemo then revealed himself, and his reasoning: he was Sokovian, and the incident the previous year had cost him his family. Zemo also revealed that it was Barnes who had killed Howard and Maria Stark, and showed them the footage to prove it.
Angered, Tony moved to attack Barnes, but Steve restrained him, but when pressed, Steve conceded that he had known that Bucky had been the assassin used against Tony's parents. Blinded by rage, Tony immediately turned on them both, resulting in a protracted fight between the three, allowing Zemo the opportunity to withdraw. Despite Tony's superior firepower, Steve's determination eventually won out against him, but not without Tony removing Barnes' metal arm with his unibeam. Steve removed his shield from the arc reactor of Tony's suit, and walked away, but Tony told Steve that he didn't deserve the shield because his father made it. Steve discarded the shield and proceeded to carry the now heavily battered Bucky away.
T'Challa had remained hidden throughout the confrontation, and it was T'Challa who had apprehended Zemo as the battle inside the Siberia installation wound down. Tony returned to Avengers compound, where he helped Rhodey rehabilitate his legs. Tony received a letter from Steve, who apologized about hurting him and told him that he would respond when the time came that Tony would have the need of him. Secretary Ross called in later to tell him that Steve's team at the Raft had been busted out, but Tony put Ross on hold before he could inform him.
Mentoring the New Hero
With the anti-Accords Avengers now out of the country, and Avengers-level threats currently absent, Stark returned to his more familiar playboy lifestyle while requesting that Happy Hogan act as point of contact between him and new hero Peter Parker. Using the suit Stark created for him, Peter acted as a local hero for his part of New York, dealing with various petty crimes, but often called Stark to ask if there was any Avengers-level activity he should be aware of. When Peter stumbled across a weapons deal involving enhanced technology reverse-engineered from Chitauri weapons, he nearly drowned in a fight before he was rescued by Tony's latest armor acting on remote control, Tony instructing Peter to stay out of the weapons investigation as it was none of his concern. Eager to prove himself, Peter tracked the dealers to a new deal on a ferry, but this backfired when the ferry was nearly destroyed before Tony stepped in. Angry that Peter had continued his investigation despite Tony telling him to stand down, particularly after Tony had spoken up for him and arranged for an FBI team to intercept the trade, Tony confiscated the suit he had created for Peter.
However, Peter proved himself to be worthy of Tony's original faith when he intercepted Adrian Toomes' attempt to rob Stark Tower, which Tony had just sold, by stealing the weapons that were being taken from it. With this in mind, Tony offered Peter a new suit and membership of the Avengers, but when Peter turned those down in favor of continuing to defend his local neighborhood and grow as a hero, Tony adapted the press conference that would have 'introduced' Spider-Man to the world into a proposal to Pepper.
Months later, Stark began working on a suit he could use to defend the world by himself. In 2018, Stark and Potts were discussing their marriage plans when Doctor Strange arrived to recruit Stark to save the universe. Stark was distrustful until Banner arrived and reunited with him.
In the New York Sanctum, Stark learned from Banner of the Infinity Stones and Thanos's plan to destroy half the universe. Just then, Ebony Maw and Cull Obsidian arrived to acquire the Time Stone from Strange. During the battle, in which Stark had assistance from Parker, Strange was abducted by Maw. Stark went in pursuit of Maw, teaming up with Parker to defeat Maw. Afterwards, Stark convinced Strange to take the fight to Thanos and knighted Parker into the Avengers.
Arriving on Titan, Stark, Strange, and Parker were ambushed by Peter Quill, Mantis, and Drax of the Guardians of the Galaxy. After a misunderstanding, the six chose to work together to defeat Thanos. Stark and Parker almost succeeded in removing the Infinity Gauntlet while the others, with the help of Nebula, restrained Thanos. However, when Nebula revealed that Thanos killed Quill's girlfriend Gamora, Quill's anger got the better of him and ruined the plan, freeing Thanos in the process.
In a showdown, Stark dueled with Thanos using all of his armor's abilities, ending with Thanos impaling Stark with his own blade. However, Strange offered the Time Stone to Thanos to spare Stark's life while Stark vainly attempted to stop the transaction. Stark and allies could only wait for Thanos to finish his quest. As Thanos eliminated half of the universe, Stark watched his allies disintegrate, with Parker vanishing in Stark's arms. In the end, only Stark and Nebula were left, with Stark distraught over the loss of his allies.
Tony and Nebula soon left Titan aboard the Benatar. Over the next three weeks, they attempted to patch up the damaged ship but they’ve ran out of food and water and nearly ran out of air. After Tony used his armor to record a last message to Pepper, he began to slip out of consciousness. At the last moment, Captain Marvel quietly arrived outside of the ship and escorts it the rest of the way to the Avengers compound on Earth. Steve Rogers helped carry the weakened Tony off the ship and into the facility where everyone goes over what happened. An emaciated Tony resigned to their defeat by Thanos, angrily chastising Steve for failing to back him up like he previously said he would in his letter. Overwhelmed, Tony passed out and was hospitalized while he recovered from the injuries he sustained in his fight with Thanos on Titan followed by weeks in space.
Over the next five years after the Avengers' failed attempt to claim the Infinity Stones from Thanos and undo his work, Tony married Pepper, had a daughter named Morgan, and retired in a remote cabin near a lake. Tony hoped to appreciate what he had gained in the time since the battle with Thanos rather than dwell on the tragic losses, but he couldn't let go of his failure to save Peter Parker.
In 2023, Scott Lang, Natasha Romanoff, and Steve Rogers arrived at the Stark's home, hoping Tony could help them confirm Lang's theory that they could use the Quantum Realm to time-travel. Tony declined to even discuss the matter, too reluctant to lose what he’d gained over the past five years: a happy marriage to Pepper and his daughter. Later that night, as he washed the dishes alone, he looked at a photograph of him and Peter, reopening the wound of his protégé's untimely death. On his own, Tony experimented with Lang's idea, which was quickly confirmed to make time travel possible. The Avengers, having consulted Bruce Banner, already had experiments underway by the time Tony arrived at the Avengers headquarters. The experiment proved successful as they were able to send Clint Barton back in time five years before his family had vanished.
Tony, along with the rest of the Avengers, devised a plan to travel back to various points and locations in time to get the Infinity Stones before Thanos acquired them in hopes of temporarily bringing them to the present and using them to bring back everyone they had lost. Breaking into multiple groups with different assignments, Tony joined Steve, Scott, and Bruce to return to the scene of the Battle of New York in 2012. There, Tony and Scott infiltrated Stark Tower shortly after the battle ended and Loki had been taken into custody by the Avengers. Though Tony nearly snagged the Space Stone from his past self by having Scott short out the past Tony's arc reactor and give him a momentary cardiac arrest, the plan was ruined when the past Hulk, angry for being told to take the stairs down, inadvertently incapacitated present-day Tony and the Tesseract fell into the hands of Loki, who used it to escape.
As a backup, Tony determined he and Steve could travel back to the 1970s to Camp Lehigh where S.H.I.E.L.D. possessed both the Tesseract, and since Hank Pym was employed there at the time, a reserve of Pym Particles that would get them back to 2023. While finding the Space Stone, Tony encountered a past version of his father and, under the alias "Howard Potts," conversed about their anxieties towards their families. Returning to the present with the Space Stone, Tony mourned the loss of Natasha, who had sacrificed herself on Vormir so Clint could procure the Soul Stone. With all six stones in their possession, Tony used his nanotechnology to build a new gauntlet so they could wield the stones.
Knowing that the stones mainly emitted gamma radiation, Bruce volunteered to use the stones and bring everyone back. After successfully snapping his fingers, Bruce was left weakened, and then incapacitated by an attack on the compound by a past version of Thanos, who had taken his entire ship from 2014 to 2023 after his timeline's Nebula impersonated the original and used the Avenger's equipment to bring her father forward in time. The attack leveled the Avengers headquarters, burying Bruce, Scott, Clint, and Rocket under the debris, and leaving only Thor, Steve, and Tony to confront Thanos who has come to claim the stones for himself.
While the three managed to put up a worthy offensive against Thanos, he bests each of them and then summons his army from the Sanctuary II to join him on the battlefield. However, all of the vanished Avengers, the armies of Asgard and Wakanda, and the Ravagers all arrive with the help of the Masters of the Mystic Arts to even the odds against Thanos' army.
Over the course of the battle, Tony fought Thanos, and was the last person to engage him before he gained possession of the stones. However, since the gauntlet Thanos was attempting to wield was made from Tony's own technology, Tony was able to quietly slip the stones from Thanos' gauntlet onto his own Mark LXXXV armor. Tony used the combined power of the Infinity Stones to eliminate Thanos and his entire army, but the power surge from creating such an event proves fatal and Tony died on the battlefield surrounded by Pepper, Peter and Rhodey. As he was dying, Pepper reassured him by letting him know that everyone was finally safe and he could rest.
At Tony's wake, Pepper places a wreath with the original ac reactor that she gifted to Tony fourteen years earlier on the water near their home. The mourners in attendance demonstrate Tony's legacy: all of the Avengers, their families, Happy Hogan, Harley Keener, Carol Danvers, and Nick Fury.
Tony's death left the whole world mourning for him, even leading to the production of a documentary about his sacrifice and how the Avengers brought everyone back. The big question remained of who was going to replace him as the next Iron Man, since his death has left a great vacuum of hope in the world, and people needed to believe in someone again to protect them. This position that was greatly assigned by his former protege, Spider-Man, despite the fact Peter had the feeling he was ready because of his young age and inexperience. However, he would later accept the responsibility, being inspired by his sacrifice.
- If I made the call, I'm sure Steve would answer. But will that be enough? Can't think of it that way. If I'm gonna prepare for the end of all things... I'll have to figure out how I can do it alone.
- --Tony Stark[src]
The playboy and womanizer Tony Stark has one of the most captivating personalities in this universe, all dubbed of his egocentrism, narcissism and sarcasm. He is an outgoing man who enjoys drinking and gambling, all the while possessing the capacity to become an expert in thermonuclear astrophysics overnight. An inventive mechanical engineering prodigy, Stark is constantly creating new technology and looking for ways to improve it, but has shown that he has little concern for the effect his weapons have on others. After his capture (and subsequent escape) by the Ten Rings, he realized what his weapons had done and turned a new leaf, stopping all weapon productions and using whatever weapons remained to become Iron Man.
Tony has a unique friendship with James "Rhodey" Rhodes. Although they have been friends for many years, Rhodey tries to keep Tony on the straight and narrow. Tony's erratic nature, has shown he matured somewhat. With Pepper, Tony has expressed his ability to maintain a relationship and express his feelings for her. With the Avengers, he still shows the same however, sometimes makes it difficult for Rhodey to choose between Tony and his duty to the military. In the course of time, they have once again become friends on one accord and Tony reckless characteristics that he has become famous for while still proving he is able to work with a team and accept orders. While working with the Avengers, Tony developed a friendship with Dr. Banner. Tony shows great respect for both Bruce's past works and his abilities as the Hulk, stating to Banner that his ability is somewhat more of a gift than a curse.
Despite all the growth he has experienced since building his first armor, at his core, Tony is still an inventor and futurist, believing that he is capable of 'fixing' any problem he encounters. While his technological skill means that this is mostly accurate, given such feats as his creation of the original arc reactor with such limited tools available to him, this idea that he can fix anything contributed to his decision to support the Sokovia Accords even after the resulting conflict lead to his former teammates Clint Barton and Wanda Maximoff- as well as new Avengers Sam Wilson and Scott Lang- being locked up when Tony had assumed that such extreme measures would only be used for actual criminals.
In the last five years of his life, Tony focused solely on family. He abandoned luxurious manors in favor of simplistic living in a cabin. After Pepper, the most important thing in his life was his daughter Morgan.
Tony has no inherent powers, however the arc reactor that was in his chest provided a source of energy with which he can power high-demand equipment, most notably his series of Iron Man armor suits, the energy output of the reactor when it run on palladium was 8 gigajoules per second. Iron Man's primary powers come from his Iron Man armor.
Electronic Implants: Following New York he added various electronic implants that allowed him to summon his armor suits to him by remote control.
Super-Genius Class Intelligence: Tony Stark is a genius inventor capable of conceiving and building technological advancements far ahead of cutting edge technology. Among his achievements are the miniaturized arc reactors that his father conceived, the J.A.R.V.I.S. artificial intelligence, his Iron Man armor suits, and various advanced weapons technologies. He also has knowledge of Spanish, French, Italian and Mandarin.
Trained Combatant: Stark was trained in unarmed combat by Happy Hogan and has become quite physically formidable on his own when the situation demands it.
Without his armor Tony Stark possesses the normal strength of a normal human man his age, height, and build who engages in moderate regular exercise. The armor magnifies Stark's strength to superhuman levels, being able to lift up to 100 tons.
Phobia: Stark does not like to be personally handed things.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Following the Battle for New York, Tony suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The mention of "New York" (as a term synonym of the Chitauri invasion) could trigger anxiety attacks. He also suffered from paranoia, believing that a danger similar to the Chitauri invasion was imminent, for which he isolated himself in his workshop for long periods of time creating new Iron Man suits. His mental illness also prevented him from proper sleep cycles, going as far as being awake for 72 hours before taking a nap, prolonged sleep could make him experience nightmares.
- Arc Reactor: A power source used not only to power an electromagnet keeping shrapnel out of Tony Stark's heart, but also as a power source for his Iron Man armor.
When not traveling in his armor or using a Quinjet as an Avenger, Stark owns a number of conventional vehicles.
Different Iron Man armor, and different hand-held weapons of his making.
- Robert Downey Jr. portrays Iron Man in the films Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Marvel's The Avengers, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, and in an uncredited cameo at the end of the film The Incredible Hulk. Downey will reprise the role in the upcoming film Black Widow.
- Downey also provided the character's voice for the video game adaptation of the first Iron Man.
- Footage of Downey as Tony Stark from The Incredible Hulk is re-used in the Marvel One Shot "The Consultant", while footage from Captain America: Civil War is re-used in Spider-Man: Far From Home.
- Davin Ransom portrays a young Tony Stark in Iron Man 2.
- Eric Loomis voices Tony for the Iron Man 2 video game adaptation. Adrian Pasdar voices him in Iron Man 3: The Official Game.
- Comic book penciler Adi Granov, who worked with Marvel in the renown Iron Man: Extremis storyline and other projects, designed the armor of the first two Iron Man movies and Marvel's The Avengers.
- For more details of the apocryphal version of Iron Man seen in the video game Iron Man and other apocryphal media please see here: Anthony Stark (Apocryphal).
- According to himself, Robert Downey Jr. almost passed out due to anxiety during the screen test for the role of Tony Stark.
- The basic concept of showing Tony's face from inside his armor helmet with the suit's HUD displayed in front of him was inspired by the film 2001: Space Odyssey, namely the shots in which the lights on a computer are reflected in the helmet of the astronaut David Bowman.
- In Iron Man 2 Tony jokes about the possibility of accepting the charge of Secretary of Defense if it is offered to him. This is a reference to the Iron Man of Earth-616, who once became Secretary of Defense to ensure that his armor remained under control.
- In Iron Man, at the end of the movie, Tony's cover story was supposed to be that Iron Man was his bodyguard, which he ignored. This is a reference to how the Tony Stark of Earth-616 hid his identity for a long time.
- Unlike his Earth-616 counterpart, this Tony Stark seems to have no qualm with killing his opponents.
- Tony Stark was mentioned by Jasper Sitwell as one of the numerous individuals who posed a threat to Hydra's plan, as concluded by Zola's algorithm.
- Tony was born on May 29, 1970.
- Happy Hogan considered Tony to be his best friend.
- In the Marvel Cinematic Universe, Tony has a Ben and Jerry's ice cream flavor named after him, called Stark Raving Hazelnuts. Doctor Strange said that it was "a bit chalky".
- Iron Man seemingly makes a cameo in Spider-Verse Vol 3 #1, appearing next to the Marvel Cinematic Universe's version of Spider-Man when his image is projected into the Web of Life and Destiny.
- 70 Appearances of Anthony Stark (Earth-199999)
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- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Iron Man (film)
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Marvel One-Shot: The Consultant
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Iron Man 3 (film)
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Avengers: Age of Ultron
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Avengers: Endgame
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Deleted scene from Marvel's The Avengers
- ↑ Woerner, Meredith (7 May 2010). Secrets of Iron Man's New Suits. WIRED. Retrieved on 24 April 2020.
- ↑ Marvel: The Avengers: The Avengers Initiative #1
- ↑ In accordance with the chronology of Marvel: The Avengers Prelude: Fury's Big Week Vol 1 2 and Iron Man
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Iron Man 2 (film)
- ↑ The Incredible Hulk (film)
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Marvel's The Avengers
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Captain America: The Winter Soldier
- ↑ Captain America: Civil War
- ↑ Spider-Man: Homecoming
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Avengers: Infinity War
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Spider-Man: Far From Home
- ↑ Iron Man 2 2011 Annual
- ↑ Iron Man 2 2011 Album
- ↑ Boucher, Geoff (19 July 2018). ‘Iron Man’ At 10: How One Film Set A Dominant Path For Marvel, Kevin Feige, Robert Downey Jr. & Jon Favreau. Deadline. Retrieved on 24 July 2018.
- ↑ Barsanti, Sam (2 May 2018). Nerd out like Tony Stark with this breakdown of how the Iron Man HUD was created. AV News. Retrieved on 13 August 2018.
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