Department X (Отдел X) was a covert Soviet agency that was created to train and produce Super-Soldiers to battle the west for the KGB.
Project: Winter Soldier
One of their first projects was the "Winter Soldier". General Vasily Karpov and his crew of a Russian patrol submarine find Bucky's cold-preserved body missing one arm. Bucky is revived in Moscow, but suffers brain damage with amnesia as a result of the explosion. Scientists attach a bionic arm, upgrading it as technology improves. He was sent on covert wetwork missions and becomes increasingly ruthless and efficient as he kills in the name of the state. The Winter Soldier is kept in a cryogenic stasis when not on missions.
In 1968, Department X sent the Winter Soldier to kill Professor Zhang Chin, whom he had met over 20 years earlier. He was thwarted by an intangible being called the Man with no Face, though he was able to escape.
On assignment in the 1970s, he suffers a breakdown and goes missing for days after assassinating his target.
The Winter Soldier also aided in Wolverine's escape from the Weapon X laboratory and later murdered Itsu, Wolverine's wife, seemingly killing their unborn son Daken, who survived the attack after being cut from his mother's womb. 
Department X was also responsible for creating the Red Room and training facility to create the perfect assassin.
Black Widow Ops Program
The Black Widow Ops Program initially recruited 28 little orphan girls to make them undetectable deep-cover agents to infiltrate China and the West. The Winter Soldier, was brought in to assist in the training of one of the Red Room’s Black Widows – including Natalia Romanova. The assignment consisted of hand-to-hand combat training, English language instruction, and most likely lessons in American mannerisms. All in all, routine training that Department X had conducted numerous times.
Wolf Spider Ops Program
They also created the Wolf Spider Ops Program a male equivalent, but this project was stopped and was considered a failure. 
- 7 Department X (Earth-616) Members
- 9 Appearances of Department X (Earth-616)
- 4 Minor Appearances of Department X (Earth-616)
- 4 Media Department X (Earth-616) was Mentioned in
- 1 Images that include Department X (Earth-616)
- Team Gallery: Department X (Earth-616)