Marvel Database
Marvel Database



Goblin Formula from Amazing Spider-Man Vol 1 40 001.png

The Goblin formula, additionally known as the OZ formula/serum is a biogenic chemical compound created by Oscorp made to augment the human body, similar to the Super-Soldier Serum. It was developed by Dr. Mendel Stromm and his assistant Dr. Nels van Adder. However, Dr. van Adder used the serum on himself turning him into a "Goblin" like creature. He was killed when he attacked a group of Oscorp security.[1]


Norman Osborn

After Norman Osborn had his business partner, Dr. Stromm, arrested for embezzlement, he found in his notes a formula which could apparently augment a person’s body to superhuman levels. Norman began research on the formula, hoping to eventually sell it.[2] Unknown to him, his son Harry had tampered with it to spite him. Consequentially,[3] the completed formula was unstable and exploded in Norman's face. He spent the next week in the hospital recovering. After finally regaining consciousness, he found his mental and physical functions have been greatly enhanced. It was later learned that exposure also causes severe insanity which was the primary motivation for Norman taking the identity of the Green Goblin.[2]

Harry Osborn

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After learning that Peter was Spider-Man, Harry Osborn exposed himself to the Goblin Formula and donned his father's suit and proclaimed himself the new Green Goblin. The effects of the formula caused memory loss and when he was defeated, he could not remember what he was doing.[4] When he regained all his memories, Harry submerged himself in a new version of the formula that his father had been working on before the elder Osborn's disappearance,[5][6] making himself stronger than Norman believed possible.[7] It was enough for Harry to match Spider-Man blow for blow.[6] However, this version hadn't been tested previously;[7] as a result, it appeared to have poisoned Harry, when it merely restored him.[6][8]

Roderick Kingsley

Goblin Formula from Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man Vol 1 85.jpg

Roderick Kingsley came into possession of the Goblin Formula. He knew of the dangers and tested it first on Lefty Donovan, who was a small-time hood. He sent Donovan out as a decoy Hobgoblin and, satisfied, terminated him before the thug could expose his employer's identity.[9] Kingsley then used a modified version of the Goblin Formula. He tried to find a safer way to expose himself to the chemicals and used a robot to mix the concoction into a giant vat. He then passed through a permeable membrane limiting the amount of exposure to the chemicals. However Kingsley stayed in the membrane for a bit longer than he had hoped but came out unharmed. After exposing himself to the formula, he set out as the true Hobgoblin once more.[10]

Phil Urich

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On a journalism assignment, Phil Urich joined his uncle Ben Urich in an investigation of Oscorp Tower. When his uncle was besieged by attackers in the building, Phil hid and tried to find help. Stumbling upon an experimental new Green Goblin costume Phil also fell into a chamber of the Goblin Formula. Quickly dressing up in the suit, he scared off the hoods. Later on, he decided that the costume and equipment were worth using.[11]

Lily Hollister

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Lily Hollister found a hidden door in Harry Osborn's closet and found an old journal of his. She uncovered the location of one of Norman Osborn's secret rooms in the journal. When she had first gone in, she found all of the Goblin's equipment along with some experiments. After accidentally knocking over some experimental Goblin chemicals, she absorbed them into her skin, and was now able to transform into her "Menace" form at will.[12]

Sui Generis

Stanley Osborn was born with enhanced abilities due to his genetic heritage from his parents Harry Osborn and Lily Hollister who have both taken the Goblin Formula in their lifetime.[13]

Carlie Cooper

Goblin Formula from Superior Spider-Man Vol 1 24 001.jpg

The "Goblin King" sprayed Carlie Cooper's face with the Goblin Formula, transforming her into a Goblin, and nicknamed her "Monster." Carlie seemingly succumbed to the madness induced by the formula but refused to reveal Spider Man's identity to the Goblin King.[14] She was mostly reverted to human form by Spider-Man's cure, but retained black eyes and a few scales.


When Norman Osborn bonded to the Carnage symbiote, he mixed the formula with the symbiote, purging its traditional weaknesses of sonic and fire and granting it new powers such as pyrokinesis and enhanced strength. This new combination resulted in them becoming Red Goblin.[15]

Normie Osborn

Norman Osborn (Earth-616), Normal Harold Osborn (Earth-616), and Carnage (Klyntar) (Earth-616) from Amazing Spider-Man Vol 1 799 0001.jpg

When Norman as Red Goblin went after his family, he abducted his grandson, Normie Osborn and bonded him with symbiote filled with the formula, turning Normie into a miniature version of Red Goblin. Eventually, Normie turned on his grandfather and his parents were able to get most of the symbiote from Normie's body.[16]


During Goblin Nation's takeover of New York City, Parker Industries managed to create a cure for the formula and its resultant madness.[17]

Alternate Reality Versions

Image Description Issue
Goblin Formula (Earth-96283).jpg On Earth-96283, Norman Osborn and his team at Oscorp were experimenting with human performance-enhancer for the military. At the time Oscorp was competing for a defense contract against its competitor Quest Aerospace who was building exoskeletons deemed superior to drugs for soldiers. With little options, Osborn decided a test subject was needed immediately. After exposing himself to the experimental Oscorp performance-enhancing process, Norman underwent the same transformation as the earlier animal test subjects. He gained superhuman strength and durability as well as improved dexterity and agility. Earlier tests suggested that the process increased strength over 800% but it was even more efficacious for Norman, who could punch Spider-Man hard enough to knock him back over two dozen feet with enough momentum to fell a metal lamp post that crossed his path and allowed him to suspend the weight of a cable car full of passengers with one hand. His improved reflexes and agility allowed him to easily defeat numerous police officers in hand-to-hand in a few seconds and to match the swiftness and acrobatic prowess of Spider-Man. Unfortunately for Norman, the same process also rendered him insanely violent and aggressive. These psychotic urges manifested as a new identity, the "Green Goblin".[18] Spider-Man (2002 film)
Globulin Green.jpg On Earth-26496, Globulin Green is an experimental performance enhancing chemical formula developed Norman Osborn at Oscorp(just like in the Ultimate Universe). Harry Osborn in an attempt to prove his father wrong, stole the Globulin Green, which was known to enhance its user's physical attributes; however, what Harry did not know is that this chemical formula came with a heavy price: his sanity. Using the drug he was able to win his way onto the football team, but he began having blackouts. Spider-Man started to believe Harry was the Green Goblin and tried to help. His father agreed and he was sent away to Europe for treatment. However it was revealed that Norman was really the Green Goblin throughout the entire time. At some point, Norman came across the chemical formula with the intention of using it to increase a person's intelligence and physical strength. Osborn tried to recreate the chemical and instead of ingesting a single dose, he diluted the substance and rendered it as an inhalant. The smaller dosages applied over time avoided the physiological side effects of Harry's drinking an entire tube of the formula. The formula indeed increased his intelligence and strength, but it also drove him insane. He created a Halloween-like costume for himself which he colored green after the solution and named himself the Green Goblin. [19] Spectacular Spider-Man (animated series) Season 1 1
Needed.jpg On Earth-1610, ever since the successful creation of Captain America decades ago, the government always wanted to recreate the Super-Soldier Serum for military applications. Since the original serum was lost, the government has contracted private firms to help re-develop the serum, including OsCorp. Utilizing the blood of Nick Fury (the first actual successful super soldier and Rogers was the second) as a template, OsCorp created a prototype serum called Oz.[20]

Oz was created by OsCorp CEO Norman Osborn. OsCorp had since fallen on difficult financial times and the Oz Project was meant to save both his company and his seat on the board. Like any prototype drugs, Oz was injected into lab experiment animals to observe their reactions, including a series of spiders that mutated because of it.[21]

Peter Parker had a tour of OsCorp and was accidentally bitten by one of the escaped lab spiders labelled OZ Experiment Arachnid No. 42. The spider's venom mixed with Oz and created a variant of Oz that successfully created Spider-Man; Oz worked. With OsCorp on the verge of collapse, Osborn tested Oz on himself, believing he had the necessary data he needed to recreate Spider-Man upon himself.[22] It created the Green Goblin instead, a flame-powered reptilian-like creature with a savage mind.[23]

Harry Osborn would also later become victim to Oz and transform into the "Hobgoblin".[24]

Mary Jane Watson was kidnapped from her bedroom by a facially disfigured clone of Peter Parker, who was determined to give her powers so that she would no longer be in danger from his enemies. He pumped into her bloodstream an unquantified amount of OZ. Upon learning this, she became very angry and transformed into a huge, hairy, horned red goblin-like creature: the "Demogoblin".[25]

Unknown to many, the spider that bitten Parker wasn't the only Oz-mutated spider, there was actually a series of them. After the destruction of OsCorp, the lab spiders mutated by Oz was left by their own devices and one of them ended up biting Miles Morales, creating a second Spider-Man.[26]

Norman Osborn later returned from the death, as well as Peter Parker, and claimed that exposure to Oz had given him and Peter immortality, allowing them to return from death every time they were killed.[27]
Ultimate Spider-Man #1



  • While the majority of the Goblins wear costumes and masks, some upgraded iterations of the Goblin Formula - such as those used on Lily Hollister and Carlie Cooper - induce a physical transformation in the person exposed to it.

See Also

Links and References


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