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Human Torch (Android) (Earth-616)

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Preface

The Human Torch is one of the first super-heroes of the Marvel Universe, his history spanning over 70 years of publications. Below is an unabridged version of his history. For an abridged version see

.

Regarding 1940s Publications: It has been revealed[1] that a number of the Human Torch's wartime adventures were actual comic book adaptations published as wartime propaganda, particularly this adventures with the Young Allies but they are based on actual facts despite obvious embellishments and artistic license on the part of the comic book creators.

Origins

Designing the Human Torch

The original Human Torch began his existence in 1939 in the laboratory of Professor Phineas T. Horton, one of the pioneers in the field of artificial intelligence and robotics. The culmination of Horton's research was an android who mimicked virtually all of the functions of a human being, including independent thought, but was composed entirely of synthetic materials. Horton worked closely with fellow scientist James Bradley who grew disgusted by Horton's hope for fame and fortune and dissolved their partnership.[2]

The one apparent flaw in the android's design concerned the photoelectric solar cells, or "Horton Cells" which covered every square inch of his body and served as his power source. The cells were too volatile and caused the epidermis of the android to burst into flame upon contact with air but without harming the android itself. However, it has been suggested that due to Horton's Jewish background, he purposely created the Torch's flame powers to be a living embodiment of revenge against the Nazis for their extermination of Jews during World War II, that his flaming body would be symbolic of those victims whose bodies were incinerated after the Nazis had killed them.[3] However such claims have not been explored further at this time.

Public Revelation

Accounts of Horton revealing the Torch to the public vary, however in most cases it has been documented that Horton revealed the Torch's existence to the public at a press conference in November 1939, at which he demonstrated how the Torch would burst into flame if he introduced a small amount of oxygen into the transparent container in which he was confined. The news media proclaimed the Torch to be a potential menace, and so after a meeting with the Scientists Guild and a presidential order,[4] Horton buried the android in his supposedly airtight tube within cement until such time as he could find a way either to prevent the android from bursting into flame or learn how to control its flame.[5]

Human Torch (Android) (Earth-616) from Marvels Vol 1 1 0001

Accidentally let loose before he could control his powers, the Human Torch created a panic. See Marvels #1.

There was a slow leak in the tube, however, and eventually enough oxygen entered so that the android's flame ignited explosively, permitting him to escape. Wreaking havoc in innocent exploration of his environment, the android, inaccurately dubbed the Human Torch, soon realized the panic he was causing and, unable to control his flaming power, doused his flame in a swimming pool.[6][5][7][4] In his infancy, the Human Torch was duped by a crook named Anthony Sardo into committing crimes. Realizing what he was doing was wrong, the Torch confronted Sardo and during the fight was doused in nitrogen which was the catalyst that allowed him to control his flame from that point on. In attempting to bring Sardo to justice, the criminal was killed in the battle. When Horton suggested that he and the Torch could use his flame powers to obtain fame and fortune, the Torch rejected this idea leaving Horton's home a flaming inferno which seemingly killed the scientist,[6] however he would resurface later alive and well.

In another account of the Torch being revealed to the public, it was stated that the Academy of Science pressured Horton to cease working on the Torch in November of 1939. Horton did not listen and despite public outcry to destroy the Torch, Horton continued to work on fixing the design flaw that caused the Torch to burst into flames. However, Horton eventually suffered from fatigue and was bedridden. He gave in to the Academy and had the Torch sealed in concrete. In this account it is stated that the Torch did not escape from his tomb until August 10, 1940 and was unable to control his powers. Also in this accounting Tony Sardo confronted Horton directly on August 12, 1940 and forced him to coerce the Torch into doing his bidding. Account also shows that the Torch was able to control his flames after being doused with a heavily concentrated carbon dioxide spray, and Horton was shot before Sardo was arrested instead of killed. This account also states that the Torch and Horton parted on good terms.[8] Given the number of inconsistencies with this version of events and all other accounts, it is likely a government propaganda comic commissioned by the United States government during the 1940s.[9]

In his second recorded adventure, the Human Torch had adopted a human identity and brought Blackie Ross to justice after he had sabotaged a number of race cars. The Torch was helped by a New York City Police officer named Pete Johnson, who became his ally.[10][11]

Human Torch (Android) (Earth-616) from Marvel Mystery Comics Vol 1 3 0001

The Torch's blue costume of his early adventures

1940

In the year 1940, the Human Torch began earning a reputation for himself as a champion of justice. In his third recorded adventure, still confused Human Torch fled New York by train and prevented the crooked Mr. Ritton from exploiting Martians into helping him conquer the world in exchange for TNT to help them fight off invaders to their world.[12]

Following that encounter, the Human Torch decided to adopt the name "Jim Hammond" and traveled to New York City. There he found the city under martial law thanks to attacks by Dr. Manyac and his army of Green Flames. The Torch helped defeat Manyac and his minions with the help of his first true ally, Pete Johnson.[13] The Torch soon worked again with Johnson helping recover stolen medical supplies and deliver them to the island community of Orton,[14] also during this time he stopped two crooks named Patch and Turgo from robbing banks in Midtown.[15]

After saving the life of an undercover police officer who was discovered by the mobster he was assigned to spy on, the Torch was called a "good guy" for the first time.[16] This prompted him to get Johnson to assist him in getting a job on the New York City police force. Acquiring the job, he was officially sanctioned to use his powers as a police without uniform since they were easily burned away. In his first official case as a police officer, the Torch brought crooked politician Roglo to justice.[17] Becoming lonely, the Human Torch sought out Professor Horton and asked for his advice. Horton told him of Fred Raymond an asbestos expert and his wife Nora. Both were terminally ill and raising their son Thomas "Toro" Raymond. Going to visit the Raymond home to learn what Horton was alluding to, the Torch found the Raymond's being terrorized by the criminal known as Asbestos Lady. The Torch fought off Asbestos Lady and her minions. Noticing that Toro had slept through the entire battle, the Raymond's told him how their son was apparently immune to fire. After the meeting with the Raymond's the Torch soon left vowing to keep a secret eye on them in case Asbestos Lady threatened them again.[18]

Soon after his induction into the police force, the Human Torch had the first of many clashes with the Atlantean mutant known as the Sub-Mariner. Their battle raged across New York City and eventually the Sub-Mariner gained the upper hand when trapping the Torch in an air tight contained. Ultimately the Sub-Mariner was convinced to let the Torch go and leave by police woman Betty Dean.[19][20] Immediately after his encounter with the Sub-Mariner, the Torch defended the Atwell Gas Company from a crook named Palmer.[21] One of the Torch's most prominent early foes was the mysterious J.B. whom the Torch found responsible for allowing the black plague to spread through a slum part of town.[22] Wanted by police after burning down the slums in order to contain the spread of infection, the Torch eventually tracked down J.B. revealing her to be Jane Bradley, the daughter of a disgraced politician Nick Bradley and turned her over to the police, the charges against the Torch were then dropped.[23] He next stopped a group of crooks who gunned down subway commuters and stole their valuables.[24]

The Torch soon began to question what it was like to be human and sought out his creator. Finding an old photograph in the ruins of the place of his birth, the Torch visited a former colleague of his "father", Fred Raymond, and decided to visit his family again. By this time Fred was distraught over the fact that his wife Nora was deathly ill and that his son Thomas had gained mysterious flame powers. Somehow thinking the Torch was to blame, Raymond ordered the Torch to leave his home.[25]

World War II

1941

Human Torch (Android) (Earth-616) 1941 pin-up

Human Torch circa 1941

1941 saw the Torch bring to justice rogue members of the Fire-Men cult and their Fire-Monsters unleashed upon New York City.[26] The Torch soon also had his first clash with Nazi spies when he prevented Pinhead from bombing New York City.[27] The Torch soon found himself working with an unlikely ally, the Sub-Mariner, to stop an invasion of Imperial Japanese forces who were attempting to dig a tunnel to Alaska.[28] This alliance proved to be short lived as the Sub-Mariner soon attacked New York City again, but was brought down by the Human Torch and Captain America.[25]

Hearing a radio report about the death of Toro's parents in a train wreck, the Torch, he suspected the work of Asbestos Lady and rushed to Toro's aid after hearing he was adopted by a local circus owner. On the way, the Torch was confronted by Asbestos Lady and her minions who managed to douse his flame and toss him into a tanker filled with water. Despite being trapped in water, the Torch was able to flame on part of his body to create enough heat for the steaming water to burst open the tanker. Asbestos Lady and her men attempted to escape but were captured by the Torch and turned over to the police.[18]

The Human Torch soon was reintroduced to Thomas Raymond, at Pop's Circus as Toro the Flaming Boy. When the circus strong man Samson stole a rayon gun, the Torch and Toro teamed up to return it.[29] Soon Toro was targeted by the Nazis and with spies disguised as his parents was convinced to return with them to Nazi Germany to assist in the production of weapons for war. Discovering the falsehood, the Human Torch traveled to Germany and battled Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. Convincing Toro that he had been duped the two heroes returned to the United States.[30]

Taking in Toro as his ward, teaching him how to use his powers.[31] The Human Torch and Toro clashed with foes such as the Brain,[32] Blackjack,[33] the Hag,[34] Dr. Smart,[35] and arsonist Hawk Rivers.[36] By this time, Toro had allied himself with a members of Bucky's Sentinels of Liberty fan club to form the Young Allies. When the youths were trapped in China in the middle of a Tong war along with a British spy, Captain America and the Human Torch came to their rescue. This would be the first of many times the Torch came to Toro's assistance when adventuring with the Allies.[37] Later the Torch and Toro battled the Japanese spy known as Matzu.[38] Later, Betty Dean and the Ferrit recruited the Torch, Toro, Sub-Mariner and the Angel to assist in searching for missing scientist Philo Zog, inventor of the robot known as Electro. They rescued Zog from the Torch's old foe Dr. Manyac who was forcing Zog to build an army of robotic Green Flames for the Nazis.[39]

The Human Torch and Toro next clashed once again with the Sub-Mariner when he was convinced by another undersea dweller named Rathia to attempt to invade the world. After Toro was injured in battle, the Torch convinced Namor the errors of his way and helped him defeat Rathia.[40] Working as a pair the Human Torch and Toro clashed with Prince Itor and his Idol of Death,[41] saved the nation of Alslavia from Nazi invasion,[42] and embezzler Mr. Howe.[43] Later, in Pennsylvania, the flaming duo stopped Nazi spy N-4 from destroying a new prototype tank.[44]

The Human Torch and Toro then clashed with their first recurring foe as a pair, the fire proof criminal known as the Parrot, returning him to justice after a jail break.[45] The Torch and Toro next took down the so-called "King of the Crime Syndicates"[46] and foiled a jail break by the Parrot, which ultimately ended in the foe's death.[47] During this period they also stopped an oil smuggling operation by the Japanese Black Dragon Society,[48] illegal arms dealer Mr. Falton, and the suicidal Legion of Despair.[49] Later the Torch and Toro were asked to come to England to help escort Dr. Barrow and protect the plans for his newly invented engine as they took a train through the English countryside. The train was soon attacked by Teutonic Knight who succeeded in kidnapping the doctor. When the Torch and Toro attempted to chase after his getaway plane, the Knight dropped a bomb on a rail bridge forcing the two heroes to pull back and repair the damage to save the train and lost the Knight's trail.[50]

On December 7th, 1941 American authorities learned of a joint attack on American soil by Nazi, subversive Atlantean and Nazi forces. One of these attacks was on Pearl Harbor, and the Human Torch and Toro were sent on this mission to help turn back the invasion. It was a day that would stand in American history as the aftermath would end with the United States officially entering World War II.[31] So horrified by the senseless destruction caused by the Japanese forces, the Human Torch and Toro fought back in the days following the attack on Pearl Harbor, attacking Japan directly slaying Japanese Admiral Nodope in the process.[51]

Returning to the United States, on December 22, 1941 the Human Torch and Toro were assigned on in secret as part of the security for Dr. Anderson, one of the men involved in Operation Rebirth the experiment the created Captain America. When Anderson was captured by Nazi spies and forced to use his knowledge to empower their agent Master Man. Tracking Anderson to the secret Nazi lab, the two heroes were to late to stop the empowerment of Master Man. The super-strong Nazi easily bested the two heroes and the Nazis fled after shooting Dr. Anderson. Rushing Anderson to a hospital, the Torch and Toro soon met with Captain America and Bucky. Realizing that the Nazis were plotting to attack a ship carrying British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the United States they rushed to the scene. There with the assistance of the Sub-Mariner, the heroes stopped the Nazis and when Master Man's powers failed him captured the villain and turned him over to the authorities. After his rescue, Winston Churchill suggested that the group band together, suggesting they call themselves the Invaders.[52] In the aftermath of that battle, President Roosevelt officially sanctioned the group.[31]

The Invaders then went to England to begin investigating a Nazi scientist named Brain Drain who was the apparent mastermind behind the Master Man project. After an air raid in London, they met a woman named Hilda a near amnesiac with a strange ring that led them to a location in Germany. This led to a battle against three super-humans Froh, Donar and Loga who believed themselves to be the Teutonic Gods.[53] As the Torch and the others battled these so-called gods, Cap and Hilda clashed with Brain Drain, learning that the super-beings were not gods but members of the Tekeli-Li race. The battle ended with the aliens sacrificing their lives to destroy Brain Drain's lab in a massive explosion which the Invaders were able to escape.[54]

1942

Returning to the United States at the start of 1942, the Invaders intercepted a Nazi U-Boat and stole a coded message which told of another attempt on Winston Churchill's life on his way back to England following his US visit. The attack was to be carried out by the Atlantean traitor U-Man. When Namor attempted to go to fight U-Man alone, the Torch and other Invaders attempted to stop him, but Namor managed to escape with the help of Bucky.[55] After confusion with the military,[56] the Torch, Toro and Captain America went after both the Sub-Mariner and Bucky and assisted them in saving Churchill and Namor's friend Betty Dean from U-Man.[57] Sent on a mission to the Swiss Alps to investigate strange happenings, the Torch and Toro were captured by the mad scientist Basil Frankenstein. Frankenstein (descendant of Victor Frankenstein creator of the Frankenstein's Monster) sought to duplicate the Torch's abilities in his own creation for the Nazis. The other Invaders came to the Torch and Toro's rescue, destroying Frankenstein's Nazi monster.[58]

Back in the United States, the Torch and Toro became less restricted to just police work in New York City and expanded their scope to dealing with domestic crime, spies from Nazi Germany, Imperial Japanese invaders and more. They clashed with Nazi saboteur the Saint,[59] saved Toro and the Young Allies from the Black Talon with Captain America,[60] weapons smuggler Izan,[61] the insane Javelin,[62] and saved New York from destruction by Japanese spy Moppino and his Atom Expansion Ray.[63] Assisting with the war effort in the Pacific, the Human Torch and Toro stopped Japanese Agent X, and later stopped Nazi and Japanese spies from planting bombs all over New York's infrastructure.[64] They also prevented the Metal Mobsters from stealing an experimental metal called Y-9.[65]

Returning to the Invaders, the Torch participated in a war bond parade that was interrupted by the Red Skull who captured the Torch, Toro, Captain America and Sub-Mariner. He then left Bucky (seeing him as no threat) and brainwashed the Torch and the others to do his bidding, sending them to attack American munitions factories.[66] When Bucky formed the Liberty Legion to counter his friends, the Red Skull sent the mind-controlled Invaders to attack various American landmarks. The Torch and Toro are sent to destroy the Lincoln Memorial. They are opposed by Legion memberes Red Raven and the Whizzer and forced to retreat.[67] Furious the Skull sent the Invaders to attack Wriggle Stadium during a Yankees again and they were once more opposed by the Liberty Legion. During the fight, Toro (freed from the Skull's control) destroyed the airship that housed the equipment that kept the Torch and the others under the Red Skull's thrall, freeing them from the Skull's control.[68]

Returning to England with the Invaders, the Torch decided to take some time alone to brood over his condition following a Nazi air raid. While walking the streets he witnessed the Nazi vampire Baron Blood attacking first aid woman Jacqueline Falsworth. The Torch saved her life and was welcomed back to the home of her father Lord Montgomery who was the hero known as Union Jack during World War I. Learning that Baron Blood was a regular foe of Union Jack during the first war, the Human Torch summoned the rest of the Invaders to the Falsworth estate leading to another clash with Baron Blood. After the battle, the Torch introduced the Invaders to the Falsworth clan, including John, who unknown to them all was Baron Blood himself.[69] The Human Torch began to grow to have feelings for Jacqueline, who was staunchly against going to war. She also began to show more attention toward Captain America, making the Torch jealous. With Union Jack coming out of retirement to join the Invaders, the Torch assisted the group in another clash with Baron Blood ending with the Baron's escape.[70] When it was learned that Baron Blood had been feeding on Jacqueline, the Torch and Toro hid on the Falsworth property while the other Invaders went searching for Baron Blood again, catching the Baron in an attempt of feeding on Jacqueline again. The Torch was unable to stop Baron Blood from escaping with Jacqueline due to a rainstorm snuffing out his flame. The Invaders tracked Baron Blood to a cave where he was impaled through the heart with a stalagmite and killed. However the battle cost the Union Jack the use of his legs and Jacqueline required immediate medical attention.[71]

They rushed Jacqueline to a military hospital.[72] There, it was determined that Jacqueline required a blood transfusion but an element in her blood caused by Baron Blood's bite made even Type O blood incapable of assisting her. The Torch then offered his artificial blood, which miraculously worked. When Jacqueline regained consciousness, she mistook the Torch for Captain America, breaking the hero's heart. When the other Invaders were attacked by the Blue Bullet, the Torch was too weak from the transfusion to help. However, Jacqueline found she was endowed with super-speed powers from the mixture of the Torch's blood and the vampire enzyme and came to their rescue. She then joined the group as Spitfire.[73] Upset at developments, the Torch left the scene and contemplating leaving the Invaders until he questioned John Gold (the Blue Bullet) about why he turned against his country, and learned that his brother Jacob Goldstein was imprisoned in the Jewish ghettos of Warsaw, Poland. The Torch then rallied the Invaders to travel into Poland and help rescue Jacob. Jacob, a student of Jewish mythology refused to abandon his work and the Torch and the others were soon captured by the Nazis.[74] They were taken prisoner by the Nazi known as the Face, but were rescued by Goldstein who managed to transform himself into the Golem of Jewish lore.[75] Returning to England, the Torch and the Invaders were upstaged by a group of new British heroes called the Crusaders who ended up taking the task of protecting the King of England from the Invaders.[75] However, the Invaders soon learned that the Crusaders were -- unknown to them -- backed by a Nazi spy seeking to assassinate the King, and the two groups helped foil the plot.[76]

Soon after the Crusaders incident, the Invaders were given a headquarters in England within Big Ben. Torch, Cap and the Sub-Mariner were then given a mission to capture three Nazi agents: the Hyena, the Shark and Agent Axis. The Torch was dispatched to capture the Hyena, but was captured by the villain who extracted some of the Torch's blood to use to empower Nazi agents. Before the Hyena could eliminate the hero he was teleported away by the cosmic being known as the Grandmaster.[77] Finding himself transported to Nazi occupied France with Captain America and Sub-Mariner, the three heroes were used in a cosmic competition between the Grandmaster and the future warlord Kang and pitted against three of the modern era Avengers, Yellowjacket, Black Panther and the Vision. The Avengers easily defeated the three wartime heroes thanks to the Vision's phasing powers.[78] As the Avengers attempted to explain to the three Invader what was happening they were whisked back to their own time. The Grandmaster then returned the Invaders back to where their three foes had met and easily defeated them. The Torch recovered his stolen blood. The Torch's memories of his battle against the Avengers soon faded from his memories.[77]

Returning to the US with Toro, the Human Torch exposed sculptor turned spy Frank Portl.[79] When Nazi forces attempted to break out the Python from prison, the Human Torch and Toro worked with the Sub-Mariner and soon found themselves reunited with the Torch's creator Professor Horton. Horton was captured by the Python and forced to use the device he used to create the Torch to boost his powers exponentially. Turned into a compliant slave of the Python, the Torch terrorized New York City until he was restored to normal by Toro, the Sub-Mariner, and Horton. In the process the heroes prevented a Nazi invasion of New York and slew the Python. Afterward, the Torch and Horton parted on decent terms.[80] Back in New York the flaming duo stopped Von Brukk's attempt to steal TNT to blow up air craft factories in the area[81] and later captured Captain von Spitz and his spies.[82]

Returning to England with the Invaders the Human Torch joined them in tracking down the Private Biljo White -- creator of the Major Victory comic book, whose title hero had an origin similar to Captain America -- who had been captured by the Nazis. Tracking White to Hitler's stronghold in Germany, the Torch and the others were trounced by Master Man and taken prisoner.[83] While they managed to get information about Operation Rebirth out of White, the result only empowered one Nazi agent turning her into Warrior Woman. When the Invaders attempted to escape, they were defeated by the combined might of Master Man and Warrior Woman. With Captain America left for death, the Human Torch and the others are then recaptured.[84] They were then brought to Berlin to be executed following the marriage of Master Man and Warrior Woman.[85] An attempt to rescue them by Captain America and the Destroyer failed and resulted in the capture of both Captain America and Spitfire.[86] However the Destroyer (taking on his fathers guise of Union Jack) came to the Invaders rescue, freeing them during the wedding. During the battle, the Torch became enraged when Toro proved incapable of melting bullets fired at him and was shot.[87] With the aid of Dyna-Mite, the Invaders managed to escape Nazi Germany in a Nazi bomber, but were forced to splash dive into the English Channel.[88] Rescued by the British navy and brought back to England, the Torch tells the other Invaders of how Toro came to become his partner.[18]

In England, the Torch is told by doctors that Toro requires a specialized surgery that can only be carried out by an American surgeon named Hijiri Sabuki. When the Invaders were ordered to assist in preventing the Nazis from invading Egypt, the Torch trusted Toro's care to Bucky who traveled to the United States to seek out Sabuki. In Egypt the Torch and Sub-Mariner were tricked by Dr. Abdul Faoul to recover an ancient artifact allowing him to transform into the Scarlet Scarab and use its powers against the heroes.[89] Although Namor and the Torch were initially defeated by the Scarab, the rogue super-human joined the Invaders when he learned his Nazi allies intended to occupy Egypt themselves, and they soon defeated the invading force.[90] With business done in Europe, the Torch accompanied Captain America and the Sub-Mariner back in the United States to check on Toro's progress.[91] Following Bucky's trail, they learned that Sabuki was placed in a Japanese relocation camp. Arriving there, they learned that Bucky, Toro, Sabuki, his daughter Gwendolyne were captured by Agent Axis. Tracking down the hideout of Agent Axis, the Torch and the others crashed in just as Sabuki betrayed Axis by reviving Toro, and empowering Gwen and Davey Mitchell another prisoner.[92] The Invaders then captured Agent Axis with the aid of Bucky and the others who formed their own team the Kid Commandos.[93] Following this adventure, the Human Torch was briefly possessed by the spirit of the Vision to help the Captain America's future self (also possessing the body of his past self) to locate a slice of a mystical apple that held the fate of the universe in the balance.[94][95]

Back in the United States the Torch contacted his long time friend Carl Burgos a writer/artist at Timely Comics, to provide an idea for a story that made fun of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and arranged to have the comics air dropped all over Nazi Germany. Angry, Hitler ordered assassins in New York to kill the comic book creator. The Human Torch, Toro and Carl's colleague Bill Everett saved Carl before he could be fatally poisoned.[96] The Torch and Toro stopped war stamp counterfeiter Big Eyes in New York,[97] the Hooded Gang lynch mob in Somerville, and claustrophobic bank robber Johnny Clostro.[98] Later he assisted the Young Allies, Captain America and Betty Ross stop the Red Skull's plot to poison everyone in Washington D.C., an adventure that ended in the Red Skull's seeming demise.[99]

Briefly returning to England with the Invaders, the Human Torch once more clashed with the Teutonic Knight who had used stolen plans to build his flying arsenal warship.[50] After destroying the ship, the Torch and the others next stopped an attempt by Baron Strucker to assassinate Winston Churchill.[100] The Torch next accompanied the Invaders to Russia to help deliver tanks to Joseph Stalin. Their mission was compromised when Hitler and a time traveling Dr. Doom pulled Thor out of the ancient past and tricked him to battle the Invaders.[101] However, they managed to convince the thunder god that he was being tricked and prevented Stalin's assassination.[102] Returning to England, the Torch and the other Invaders investigated why the Destroyer had turned against the allies, and exposed Master Man, who was posing as the hero. The Torch, Sub-Mariner and Captain America were next called by to the United States where they learned from the Whizzer that the Liberty Legion and Professor Schneider were captured by Nazi operative Iron Cross.[103] After their initial clash with Iron Cross, the heroes chased him to a U-Boat where the armored Nazi set the U-Boat to sink with the Liberty Legion inside while he escaped with the professor[104]. The combined forces of the Invaders and Liberty Legion incapacitated the Iron Cross' armor and rescued the professor.[105]

After stopping Nazi spies at a factory and taking on the Whizzer and Miss America as members of the team, the Invaders are called to San Diego to investigate spy activity there, calling on the Kid Commandos to meet them there.[106] When they arrive they find the Kid Commandos have been defeated in battle with U-Man and fail to stop the rogue Atlantean from kidnapping Golden Girl. The Torch joins the Invaders and Kid Commandos in rescuing Golden Girl from U-Man and his employer the Japanese spy known as Lady Lotus.[107] Later, the Torch assisted the Invaders in stopping a resurrected Baron Blood from causing chaos at Idlewilde Airfield.[108] As Baron Blood fled the scene, the Torch followed his trail to the House of Lotus, where he stumbled upon Lady Lotus' gather of U-Man, Baron Blood, Master Man and Warrior Woman. Using her hypnotic power on the Human Torch, Lady Lotus and her Super-Axis team clashed with the Invaders. During the course of the battle, the Invaders managed to free the Torch from the mind control and he assisted his allies in defeating Super-Axis.[109]

On June 19, 1942 The Human Torch joined the other Invaders on security detail for a meeting between President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. During this duty, they saved the two world leaders from two Nazi assassins equipped with a growth formula to increase their size.[110] On June 22nd the Human Torch joined his fellow Invaders in preventing a Nazi U-Boat from bombing New York harbor. This led to a clash between Dr. Nemesis and his group of Nazi super-operatives Battle-Axis. Following a sound defeat against Battle-Axis, the Torch and the others traveled to Liberty Legion headquarters where Thin Man informed them that the members of Battle-Axis were all mostly failed American super-heroes.[111] They are soon met by Miss America who tells them that Battle-Axis had captured the Whizzer and were going to Los Angeles to capture a John Gold, who had relocated there after the Invaders rescued his brother in Warsaw. While the others search for Gold at his lab, the Human Torch and Sub-Mariner try his home. There they find Dr. Death and Jacob Goldstien who was being manipulated into Battle-Axis' service. During the fight, Jacob transformed into the Golem and easily defeated the Torch and Sub-Mariner, taking the Torch prisoner in the process.[112] Prisoner of Dr. Nemesis, the Torch learned that he was his creator's old partner James Bradley. Nemesis also revealed that there was a second android that he and Horton created that he had taken following their dissolution, but he always sought to obtain the original before joining the Nazis. Before Dr. Nemesis could activate an earthquake device to shake up the west coast the Invaders found the Human Torch and Whizzer. Before they could free their comrades, they were then felled by the ace in Dr. Nemesis' plan -- the other-dimensional Vision whom Nemesis had blackmailed into helping him.[2] When the Torch attempted to escape again he was once more incapacitated. However, Captain America broke himself and the other Invaders free when he made Battle-Axis member Volton realize he was the second android and was programmed with false memories. In the final battle, Dr. Nemesis was seemingly killed by Volton and was defeated in battle by the Human Torch. In the battles aftermath Battle-Axis was defeated and turned over to the authorities.[113] Following this adventure, the Torch and Toro joined Captain America, Bucky, the Destroyer, Black Widow, Black Marvel, Blazing Skull, and the Thunderer in invading a Nazi compound in Europe.[7]

After, the Torch and Toro traveled to Canada on vacation, and prevented the so-called "Canadian Fuhrer's" bombings of Canadian cities.[114] Returning to the United States, the pair stopped a spy ring led by J-97.[115] The Torch and the Invaders also banded together to defend the Brooklyn shipyards from what they believed to be an attack by the time displaced Thor Corps.[116][117] The Torch later teamed up with Captain America once more to stop the Owl's planned invasion of the United States through a movie set in California but were beat to the punch by the Young Allies.[118] Later the Torch and Toro tackled the Bloodsucker Plants,[119] and Stumpy's gang of fingerprint planters.[120]

Joining the American Navy on patrol of the Atlantic, the Human Torch and Toro aided in the attack of a Nazi U-boat battalion and discovered that the Sub-Mariner was aboard one of the ships. Thinking Namor was a spy, the two heroes turned their sometime ally over to the British authorities and he was locked up in Castle Depthford. The Sub-Mariner escaped and was soon tracked back to New York City. The Torch and Toro learned that the Sub-Mariner was posing as a traitor in order to learn how the Nazis were learning the positions of American boats. They discovered that it was the work of members of the old "White" Russia, the Baron and Baroness Kidersky who were famous ballerinas that used interpretative dance to send messages to their Nazi cohorts. Taking them captive, the Torch, Toro and the Sub-Mariner forced them to put on a show that eventually led a massive Nazi fleet into an American ambush and aided in the sinking of all the ships.[121] When the ambassador of a South American nation was later kidnapped by the Nazi spy known as the Cobra, the Torch and Toro came to the rescue,[122] exposed a plot by Nazis to poison food concentrates being shipped to American soldiers fighting abroad,[123] and stopped would be ransomer and cross-dressing villain Madam Crime.[124] In addition to this, the Torch and Toro also stopped Nazi spy the Beak from replacing supplies being shipped to the Russian front with junk to strain American-Russian relations.[125] The Torch later helped the Young Allies battle Professor Kraut and the "Comet of Doom".[126]

While defending an American ship with Captain America and the Sub-Mariner, the Human Torch was captured by Nazi agents. Unknown to the heroes at the time, the Nazis had convinced Namor's mother Princess Fen that the United States posed a threat to Atlantis, and in exchange for being able to conduct their ghastly experiments in Atlantis they would defend her from the supposed American "threat". Examining the Torch's body, they brainwashed him and boosted his powers to extreme levels and set him to attack just as Captain America and Namor had arrived to convince the Atlanteans to turn against the Nazis, "confirming" the Nazis claims.[127] The process put the Torch at risk of burning himself out, but after he was "defeated" by Nazis he was put away. Nazi scientists then continued examining the Torch and created an army of Human Torches they dubbed the Firebrand Squadron to use against the Allies. When Captain America broke out of his cell, he managed to convince Fen of the Nazis lies when they unleashed the Torch against both Cap and Namor. Luring the Torch to the chamber where the Nazi guinea pigs, Captain America made the Torch look at the atrocities there which snapped the Torch free from the Nazis control. However, the Nazis soon unleashed the Firebrand Squadron to attack an American flee above them.[128] Luring the Firebrand Squad into a ship that Cap ordered the American troops to attack, the Torch made an attempt to convince the rogue creations to fight their programming and think for themselves. However, as the ship sank and the Firebrands refused to listen to reason, the Torch used his powers to destroy them. With the Nazis in Atlantis having surrendered, Captain America and Namor force the scientists who experimented on the Torch to restore his normal powers and repair the damage done to him.[129]

In October of 1942 the Human Torch and Toro joined Captain America and Bucky into Shanghai, China, to locate boy genius Zhang Chin clashing with Imperial Japanese forces.[130] They succeed in getting the boy to the extraction site. During the entire rescue operation, Zhang became fascinated by the Human Torch's abilities.[131] In early November of that year, the Human Torch and the Invaders joined a squad of Russian troops led by Colonel Vasily Karpov to lead an attack on the Nazi occupied town of Kronas. There they encountered the Red Skull and Master Man testing out a new ray gun weapon, forcing the villains to set it to explode and flee the scene. The Torch and the others had to stay behind to save the villagers who home was burned to the ground.[132]

1943

At the beginning of 1943, the Human Torch joined the Invaders in occupied Poland to help with the resistance movement. When Toro accidentally blew their cover while trying to prepare a surprise for Bucky's 18th birthday, they were ambushed by Master Man and Warrior Woman.[133]

Returning to the United States, the Human Torch and Toro came to the aid of Professor Horton and his niece Doris to help protect stolen Nazi secrets she smuggled into the United States from Sweden.[134] Continuing their solo adventures, together the Torch and Toro faced constant clashes with both Nazi and Japanese forces. The pair stopped Nazi Mr. Hefler's attempt to blow up American ships,[135] exposed experimental Japanese fighter planes hidden in Death Valley,[136] and prevented Nazi sympathizer Eric Ward from blowing up the recently completed Mount Rushmore monument.[137] Returning to the Invaders, the Torch assisted his comrades in locating Dr. Leo Jacobson who developed a cure for vampirism so that they could cure their comrade Captain America after he was bitten by Baron Blood.[138]

After, he and Toro prevented Colonel von Getter from stealing a new American bomber,[139] and prevented Herr Blutcher's attempted invasion of England.[140] Returning to New York they foiled a Nazi attempt to replace dummy rounds used in practice air raids with life ammo, and prevented Nazi agent the Blue Diamond from stealing a new experimental "Puff Gun" invented by Professor Philo Baker.[141] After exposing Nazi spies using prescription cough medicine to smuggle explosives[142] he joined Captain America on the west coast to warn the Young Allies of a secret Japanese tunnel, only to learn that the Allies had already destroyed it.[143]

Later, the Human Torch and Toro exposed Nazi saboteur Herr von Richter,[144] foiled Captain von Sar's bombing plot,[145] stopped the mad scientist named Bashon and his Gorilla-Men,[146] and put an end to the mysterious murderer known as the Sewer Man.[147] Traveling to Turkey, the Torch and Toro next foiled plans by Nazi spy Elinor von Drei to possess yashmak that would give her command over warriors in that country.[148] Returning to the US, the Torch and Toro then came to the aid of a German defector who was targeted for elimination for smuggling state secrets out of the country.[149] Participating in a FBI sting operation, the Torch and Toro prevented Nazi agents from claiming the body of their dead comrade Franz Papp which contained a hidden tattoo revealing defense secrets.[150] The Torch then reunited with the Invaders and assisted on an attack on the Red Skull and Nazi forces in Europe.[151] Next, the Torch and Toro prevented the Carnival of Doom from slaughtering the entire cast of an anti-Nazi play.[152] When Nazis began launching massive rockets from occupied France that could travel the length of the Atlantic, the Human Torch and Toro traveled there and destroyed the arsenal. After returning to the States, they reversed the brainwashing done on Russian war hero Sonia Petroya by the Nazi agent known as the Rabbit.[153]

Earning a citation from the president, the Torch and Toro traveled to Washington D.C. where they prevented Nazis led by Moonface from detonating bombs planted at key government facilities.[154] Next they stopped the Claw's acts of sabotage across the United States,[155] clashed with the saboteur known as the Vulture,[156] stopped the proliferation of tainted black market beef sold by Nazi agents,[157] foiled the Nazi's Purple Terror plot, and prevented Nazi spies from using newly developed "War Water" to destroy the George Washington Bridge.[158] The Torch and Toro clashed with Nazi agents led by Zomber,[159] stopped a Nazi attempt to blow up the White House,[160] stopped Nazi killer the Masked Fiend,[159] captured Nazi scientist Professor Fear,[161] and Japanese assassin the Kangaroo.[162]

Later, the Human Torch and Toro began operating out of an office that the Torch rented in New York City. From there they spoiled the Japanese scientist known as the Beetle from unleashing a swarm of lethally poisonous Japanese beetles.[163] Next, the duo traveled to Russia where they assisted Allied Forces on the front and stopped a Nazi plot to prevent the ousting of Nazi forces in the region.[164] Returning to the United States, the Torch and Toro foiled the black market meat operation of the Head,[165] took down Nazi operative the Hawk's airship Der Tag,[156] Nazi operative Ratter, the White Vampire and Herr Schmutz.[166][167] After exposing a Nazi spy Fritz von Arnheim posing as a Civil War veteran along the Mississippi River ,[168][169] disgruntled stunt man the Director of Death in Hollywood,[170] in Poland they prevented Nazis from developing a more powerful explosive[171] and stopped umbrella wielding criminal Wilbur the Great.[172] They also exposed Andrew Webster as the Reptile, as he attempted to murder his newly wed wife to inherit her vast fortune.[173] Traveling abroad again, the Torch and Toro prevented Nazi spy the Wisp from souring relations between the United States and the Middle East[174] before traveling to France to assist their fellow Invaders against Nazi forces led by the Red Skull and Master Man.[175]

In December 1943, the Human Torch and Toro accompanied their fellow Invaders and a squad of American troops into Monte Cassino in Italy to stop the Nazi's newest project Operation: Time Ghost. Ambushed by Nazi troops, the Torch, Toro, Captain America, Bucky, Sub-Mariner and Private Paul Anselm all found themselves transported to the modern era by the Cosmic Cube. The group appeared in New York City as the Thunderbolts were once more attempting to apprehend Spider-Man for violating the Superhuman Registration Act. Thinking the Thunderbolts to be Nazi operatives, the Torch and the others easily trounced them, the Torch felling Venom with his flame powers, before the group fled to make sense of what happened to them.[176] Realizing that they were in the future, the heroes were soon confronted by Iron Man and the Mighty Avengers who had come to contain the Invaders before they could learn too much about the future and endanger history. The Invaders, unwilling to trust anyone in this era attempted to fight back but were all captured save for the Sub-Mariner who managed to escape.[177]

The Torch and the others were then detained within the SHIELD Helicarrier. There, the Torch was visited by some of the Helicarrier's Life Model Decoys, who claimed to be sentient and asked the Torch to help liberate them from their slavery under SHIELD.[178] Eventually, the Torch was freed by Bucky who was charged with freeing the other Invaders. The Torch is horrified by the "slaughter" of the LMD's, and seeing the serial numbers stamped on their wrists likens them to the many Jews in the concentration camps back in their own time.[179] Soon Dr. Strange's New Avengers joined the fray helping the Invaders escape, however Captain America and Namor were recaptured.[180] While the Invaders and New Avengers go searching for the Cosmic Cube, the Torch abandons them in order to attempt to liberate the LMD's aboard the SHIELD Helicarrier. Linking to the LMD's the Torch is able to stage a coup of the Helicarrier and has the LMD's lead him to where Captain America and Bucky are being held prisoner. His is taken to a room where his two friends are being contained in a Virtual Reality simulation and are at risk of dying in it, the Torch agrees to go into the virtual world to free his friends.[3] However, while the Torch is in the VR simulation he is betrayed by the LMD's who have been taken over by robot Ultron who had been manipulating the Human Torch in order to feed on his blood in the hopes of becoming truly alive.[181] Freed by the modern eras Captain America, the Human Torch goes after and destroys the Ultron controlled LMD's in revenge. By this time the New Avengers had recaptured the Cosmic Cube, but before they could use it to send the heroes back home, Paul Anselm grabbed Cube and used it to go back in time in the hopes of saving his fellow soldiers from dying in combat. This caused a time wave to come crashing to the present threatening to erase everyone out of existence. Dr. Strange then used his magic to send the Torch, Toro, Cap, Bucky, Namor, Iron Man, Ms. Marvel, Wasp, Spider-Woman, Luke Cage, Spider-Man, and Wolverine to 1943 to correct the past.[182]

Upon their arrival they were shocked to find out that the Red Skull had taken control of the Cube and used it to take over the world. After fleeing Nazi occupied New York City aboard an Atlantean sub, the assembled heroes traveled to Europe to find that the Skull had erected a massive "Aryan Wall" around the continent.[183] Rerouting to Wakanda they then teamed up with the Black Panther, Nick Fury and his Howling Commandos, and used a drill to dig their way into Europe. There they reunited with their comrades Spitfire and Union Jack but were too late to prevent two of the Red Skull's Dogs of War of learning their presence and reporting to to their master.[184] Traveling to Berlin, the gathered heroes faced opposition from U-Man, Baron Blood, Master Man, Warrior Woman, Thor, and Iron Cross.[185] After defeating these villains, the heroes were attacked by the Red Skull, and the Torch was slain in battle. However, when Paul Anselm retrieved the Cosmic Cube he used it to defeat the Skull and restore history back to its proper order, resurrecting the Torch in the process. The Torch's memories of these events were wiped from his mind as a result.[186]

1944

Back in their own time, the Human Torch and Toro resumed their adventures together. First they stopped Nazi loyalist Pop Kunz (aka the Flaming Steel) from sabotaging a New York shipyard,[187] exposed Senator Doaks as the Nazi spy known as the Brain, stopped Nazi Hans Thysenn from selling tainted meat to the military, and stopped Nazi spies from using information on soldiers dog tags to terrorize their families back home.[188] Later in the Pacific, the Torch foiled an attempt by the Imperial Japanese Navy to bog down American ships by blasting loose icebergs and sending them south.[189]

Reuniting with the Invaders, the Human Torch joined them in defending Bunbrook Bomber Station in England from a Nazi Sleeper Robot. During the fight the Invaders were knocked out by the robot and were rescued in secret by Walter Destine in his monster form.[190] Back in the United States, the Torch and Toro stopped the mobster known as the Dagger from selling black market products.[191] In New York, the flaming duo stopped the Nazi organization known as the Hours from blowing up every clock tower in the city.[192] They later traveled to Brazil to investigate the disappearance of American aircraft, taking down a Nazi operation commanded by the definitive Colonel Straudheim.[193]

Reuniting with the Invaders, the Human Torch ventured into Wakanda again to investigate rumors that Nazi agents were attempting to acquire Vibranium, clashing with Master Man and Warrior Woman.[194] Returning home, the Torch and Toro exposed phony medium Professor Tarbu.[195][196] Later, the Torch and Toro ventured to Washington D.C. where they protected General Mershing from a Nazi assassination plot,[197] stopped Nazi spy the Jackal from sabotaging American rail lines,[198] and then stopped the Mistress of Death from smuggling secret shipping routes to her fellow Nazis through merchant sailors dog tags.[199]

The Human Torch next joined the Invaders in taking down the massive German battleship called the Deutchland and turned it over to the British authorities. There, he and Toro used their flame powers to help melt the ship down to be reused in the Allied war effort. Later, while aboard a British vessel, the Torch went to investigate a strange fast moving craft they picked up on radar. To his surprise the strange craft was piloted by Baron Strucker, who was rendezvousing with his newly formed Hydra organization. The ship he was flying was built from knowledge stolen from the future, and the Torch was unprepared for the ships after burners or its faster than sound speed. The Torch was then called in by the FBI and the Whizzer along with the Sub-Mariner and Captain America. They were then told that Hydra intended to build an atom bomb in advance of the United States own efforts and the three heroes agreed to help stop this menace from happening.[200] They next stopped a bunch of thieves hired by Hydra to steal weapons casings from a Texas munitions plant, but found that this was a ruse. Realizing that Hydra target the supply of Plutonium being shipped to the Manhattan Project, the heroes had the Whizzer pose as the soldier transporting the material (replacing the Plutonium for a harmless sample of Radium). Sure enough Hydra agents came and succeeded in capturing the Whizzer, despite the heroes attempts to stop them.[201] When the Whizzer signaled the location of Hydra's ship, the Dragon of Death, the three Invaders attacked it. The Torch caused serious structural damage to the vessel preventing it to submerge and clashed with Hydra forces. Baron Strucker was forced to sink the vessel and the Torch and the others abandoned the ship victorious in stopping Strucker from developing an atomic weapon.[202]

Later, the Torch assisted the Invaders in attacking Nazi forces in Normandy.[203] He and Toro provided cover for soldiers storming the beaches.[204] Back in the United States, the Torch and Toro foiled cross-dressing Nazi Madame X from forcing female factory workers to blow up their places of employment,[205] stopped Nazi counterfeiter the Wolf from causing America's economy to collapse. Later they traveled to Turkey to stop Baron von Ritter from using stolen plans to gain a strategic advantage in the area.[206] Returning to the Pacific, the Torch and Toro destroyed a Japanese naval base on Kobe Island, stopped Nazi spies operating out of a British pub in England, and prevented the Robber Baron from robbing a bank back in New York.[207] Next, the flaming duo stopped a Nazi spy named Mawbry from stealing plans from American defense plants,[208] destroyed the Nazis's "Mechanical Mole" device from causing massive earthquakes in New York City,[209] and stopped another Nazi spy -- named Lambert -- from stealing government plans.[210]

Reuniting with the Invaders, the Torch assisted in attacking Japanese fleets in the pacific. When the Red Skull and Warrior Woman intervened in an attempt to capture the Sub-Mariner to learn the location of Atlantis, they captured Captain America by mistake instead. The Torch and the other Invaders located the Red Skull's secret hideout and rescued Cap, forcing the Skull and Warrior Woman to flee.[211] The Torch then assisted the Invaders in fighting Nazi forces in France,[212] and by August 1944 participated in Operation Dragoon to liberate the country. The Torch joined the Invaders and Allied Forces in battling through Buchenwald and ultimately to Allied victory.[213]

Returning to the United States, the pair became involved in a Hollywood film titled the "History of Fire". On September 9th their shoot was ruined by the intervention of the heat hating Snowball who was then fired from his job and vowed revenge on anyone who wronged him.[214] The Human Torch and Toro stopped Professor Svengalie and his giant robots,[215] foiled the ransom plot of the Cadaver,[216] and stopped the Nazi known as Herr Bat from destroying an American glider school.[217] The Torch and Toro then foiled an illegal gambling operation in a mid-western town run by the crooked chief of police.[218]

Reunited with Captain America and Namor in Europe, the Human Torch assisted in an attack on a Nazi death camp where, unknown to them, mutant geneticist Mr. Sinister had created a clone of Namor, dubbed N2. The trio were attacked by the creature, and the Torch and Namor proved no match for the clone. Surprisingly, Captain America was able to slay the Sinister's creation, prompting Sinister to flee before the heroes could learn of his involvement.[219] On Christmas Eve that year, the Torch attended a Christmas party at the Falsworth estate in London.[220]

1945

Returning to the United States with Toro, the pair witnessed a murder committed at the Relasco Theater by a killer calling himself the Past and captured him, exposing him as the theater's embittered janitor.[221] The flaming duo also rounded-up the Bandit Murder Gang,[222] and traveled to Oregon where they captured a gang of crooks who murdered everyone aboard a train to steal gold bullion.[223] When on the trail of Ghostly Terrill, an escaped con, the crook died attempting to flee the Torch and Toro. Later, they exposed unscrupulous lawyer Mr. Howard as being a saboteur hired by Japanese spies, and helped to clear the name of reformed con Jim Langdon who was framed for a robbery by his neighbour.[224] They also exposed the wealthy Mr. Jordan's insurance scam which involved murdering a homeless man that looked exactly like him.[225]

Also during this time they put down criminal Luke Bowie,[226] shut down a doll maker's extortion racket,[227] stopped Mark Mankin from blackmailing Mary Simpson in order to purchase her father's store for a lucrative redevelopment scheme,[228] and stopped a group of Nazi spies from trying to replace a manifest of other spies attempting to smuggle themselves into the United States.[229] Later, the pair prevented insane violinist Benjamin Loufitz from murdering his rivals before taking a trip to Brazil to assist diamond prospectors and capturing escaped American criminal Alonzo Gonzales.[230] Back in the United States, they protected the McCarthy Steel Mill from rival Carter Blackstone and his hired thugs the Three Aces.[231] Also during this time they exposed a man named Rawlings who was attempting to keep the discovery of pitch blend in a mine secret so he could buy it at a cheap price.[232]

Going on vacation to Atlantic City, the Human Torch and Toro exposed puppeteer Professor Kilgory as a thief who was assisted by a dwarf posing as his puppet.[233] Back in New York, the pair helped to solve the murder of actress Rita Worth, and with a tip from the FBI tracked down and captured a group of diamond smugglers.[234] The flaming duo also got caught up in the love triangle between Laura Dane, her employer Percival Lawrence, and mechanic Chuck Brandon. When Lawrence attempted to frame Brandon for a crime, the Torch and Toro exposed the frame up and brought Lawrence to justice.[235] Afterword, the pair captured Danbury Fawcett, an obsessive art collector who hired crooks to steal works of art that were not for sale.[236] Also during this period, they stopped a group of crooks trying to obtain a stolen jewel hidden in a worthless glass necklace.[237]

On April 25, 1945 the Human Torch and Toro were part of a super-hero invasion of Berlin in the final days of the war in Europe.[238] Burning their way into Hitler's bunker, the flaming duo arrive just moments before Hitler could commit suicide. The Torch offered Hitler to surrender to the United States instead of the Russians, however Hitler resisted capture firing on the Torch and forcing the hero to burn him alive.[239][240] After Hitler's death, the Torch and the rest of the Invaders were called back to London where they were informed that Captain America and Bucky seemingly died battling Baron Zemo. Shocked by this revelation, the Invaders were then called back to Washington. There President Truman introduced them to the new Captain America and Bucky, William Nasland (formally the Spirit of '76) and New York Yankees bat-boy Fred Davis Jr.. Torch, Toro, and the Sub-Mariner then welcomed the new Cap, Bucky, and returning Miss America and Whizzer into the Invaders ranks.[241] The group soon clashed with remaining Nazi forces in Europe.[242]

Returning to pair work for a time, the Torch and Toro encountered the man called Snowball as he robbed a bank on May 16th but they failed to capture him until the next day.[214] The pair exposed yet another group of diamond thieves attempting to smuggle stolen diamonds out of Brazil,[243] broke up an illegal nylon black market in New York,[244] and dismantled the illegal gambling operations of Lucky Benson and his gang of juvenile delinquents.[245] Later they shut down the Black Master's cult the Legion of Black Worshipers. When they failed to stop the murder of a star witness in the Waxy Jordan murder trail, the Torch and Toro collected evidence proving that Jordan killed the witness sending him to jail.[246] Also during this period, the Torch and Toro found a group of Nazi spies who were still active, and attempting to turn the workers against their colleague who was a recent immigrant from Europe.[247] They also came to the rescue of a young woman who was the prisoner of Chris Ramsey -- aka the Mad Sculptor -- who murdered her fiancé in an attempt to force her to marry him.[248] During this period, the Torch and Toro reunited with the Invaders to clash with Japanese forces on the South Pacific.[241][249][250] Soon after they returned to America where they helped to solve the murder of Rufus King.[251]

With the war coming to an end, the Invaders were allowed to remain together to fight lawlessness in the Untied States and renamed themselves the All-Winners Squad. In July of that year, the team was sent to Boston where they learned that the Torch's creator Phineas Horton created a new android Adam II. Adam II turned out to be evil, and the All-Winners Squad prevented him from replacing Presidential hopeful John F. Kennedy with an android duplicate. The battle did not come without a price, as William Nasland was killed in action, but he was replaced by Jeff Mace, the hero formally known as the Patriot.[241][252]

Post World War II

1946

The Human Torch and Toro eventually caught up with Snowball again, this time foiling his attempt on their lives, and sent him to death row. The flaming duo foiled an art smuggling ring that saw many priceless paintings altered and smuggled out of war torn Europe and resold in the United States.[214] The Torch and Toro got involved in a complicated inheritance fraud scheme that sought to keep Ted Young away from his family fortune through murder, deception, and voodoo.[253][254] Following this, the twosome helped to capture the Cat who was attempting to murder millionaire Thornton Kennedy.[255]

In a more mundane case, the two heroes helped a group of local children in New York to take down a bike theft ring,[256] and stopped an attempt by Mr. Werner to fake his own death in order to steal his co-owned company from his colleague.[257] The Torch and Toro next chased a man named Baxter, who could "wish" his victims to death, to New Jersey where they finally arrested him.[258] The pair then rescued the son of Judge Drake who was kidnapped by Tony Sloan's gang who were trying to pressure the judge into giving their boss a lighter sentence. Next they busted Trigger and his gang of pawn shop robbers, and put an end to a Hollywood movie revenge scheme orchestrated by cameraman Homer Hamlen and his accomplice Ace Maxwell.[259] When Walt Neilson was framed by his uncle for a bank robbery, the Human Torch and Toro helped to clear his name.[260] Later, the Torch and Toro's discovery of a murder at a retirement home revealed that the owners were stealing oil from a government pipeline.[261]

In one of their more prolific mission of the year, the Human Torch and Toro teamed up with the government to stop a group of Nazi war criminals from using stolen atomic bomb plans to threaten the world, destroying their island and atomic weapons in the process.[262] This was followed by more mundane cases such as when they stopped Ernest Parker from posing as his employer, renown economist Professor Marshall, in order to fool investors into making bad investments; foiled an insurance fraud scheme planned by Jay Kelsey by framing former arsonist John Drake; and stopped actor Edmund Kenyon's murder spree after he began believing he was really Mr. Hyde.[263] Also during this time they stopped the criminal operations of Danny Grogan[264] and were personally hired by J. Edgar Hoover to help the FBI to capture a number of Nazi spies who were still loose in the United States.[265]

In one of their more bizarre adventures, the Torch and Toro were captured by John Harriman and almost forced to marry his niece as part of an inheritance scheme. However the Torch and Toro defeated Harriman and his operative the Eye.[266] They also investigated an apparent haunted house, but soon uncovered a murder plot by criminal Dr. Marshall to kill a newspaper photographer and destroyed evidence of his criminal activities.[267] The Human Torch was later forced to help Crusher, a death row inmate, escape prison when the crook took Toro and the warden's daughter hostage. However the Torch and Toro eventually captured Crusher and his pal Steeley, who had previously managed to avoid police capture[268] and afterwards stopped criminal ventriloquist Bert and his mechanical dummy Ollie.[269]

The Human Torch and Toro then gathered the All-Winners Squad to the local history museum where the team was issued a challenge by a criminal named Isbisa who challenged the heroes to solve various crimes based on a the various ages of man. To the Torch's surprise, when Namor was implicated in by Isbisa, Toro took Namor's side and went to work with him instead, leaving the Torch to work alone for the first time in years. The Torch's clue involved the steel age and he and a local police woman worked together to stop the crooks from robbing a bank through a secret passage. Reuniting with Toro and the other All-Winners Squad members, they all deduced that Isbisa created these schemes to distract the heroes while he attempted to steal an atomic bomb. Rushing to the facility, the Torch and Toro burned the knockout gas Isbisa used out of the air allowing their teammates to catch up and capture Isbisa.[270]

Returning to pair crime fighting, the Torch and Toro stopped the ransom scheme of the Wax Master,[271] saved a small Connecticut town from a werewolf, stopped the Invisible Terror's revenge scheme, and prevented the sabotage planned by the so-called House Killer.[272] Later, the Torch was almost forced into a life of crime by the Queen of Crime when she took Toro hostage, but the two heroes freed themselves and stopped her armored car robbery.[273][274][275] After, the Torch and Toro captured would-be criminal Ed Fallon after he was given the eyes of a Indian mystic.[276] The duo also busted Elmer Bright the owner of an illegal gambling den who left his clients to die in a fire, busted up Arch Murdock's numbers racket which was manipulating fortune teller Futura to eliminate their enemies, and stopped a group of racketeers who were defrauding family members of soldiers who died in the war.[277] The Torch and Toro also stopped the robberies of Mother Goose and "her" minion King Cole.[278]

Called back to action with the All-Winners Squad by the new Captain America, the Human Torch and Toro were informed of the threat of the Future Man and his woman Madame Death. Future Man created a number of global disasters, prompting the Torch and Toro to defend North America. They were briefly distracted by a deliberate forest fire started in Canada, meant to distract them from the real threat: an Atomic Match set to burn North America from the Southern deserts. The Torch and Toro managed to douse the flames with it's own ashes, foiling the Future Man's schemes. The Torch and Toro then reunited with the All-Winners Squad and they clashed with the Future Man and Madame Death aboard his time ship.[279] When Captain America damaged the controls to Future Man's ship, the team fled as Future Man and Madame Death where hurtled into the distant past. When the All-Winners Squad headquarters was attacked by apparent zombies of death US soldiers including the supposed reanimated corpses of Steve Rogers and James Barnes, the Torch realized that they were really illusions and revealed their creator: Madame Death. She had returned from the distant past to get revenge against the All-Winners Squad for the eventual death of Future Man, but she herself died battling the All-Winners Squad.[280]

In September of 1946, the Human Torch joined the rest of the All-Winners Squad on a mission to England where they prevented atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs from being captured by Russian operatives led by Red Guardian. Shortly thereafter, Captain America attended the funeral of his reporter friend Jack Casey in his old guise of the Patriot due to the negative public relations going as Captain America would have caused due to Casey's homosexuality. After the funeral, and public outcry that ruined the Patriot's legacy, Captain America had the Torch burn his old Patriot uniform.[281]

1947

In 1947, the Human Torch and Toro resumed mostly adventures on their own. Early in the year they clashed with the serial killer known as the Catman who was a mental patient and being manipulated by Dr. Kale to murder former patients who he has tricked into willing their material worth.[282] In one of their few missions with the All-Winners Squad that year, the Torch and Toro were tasked with protecting a newly built atom bomb called "Rosebud". However, they failed to stop a criminal named Dutch from stealing it, as he was aided by the time traveling She-Hulk and Wanda Mason.[283] Later the Torch and the All-Winners squad teamed up with his old wartime friends, Union Jack and the Destroyer on a mission, which later inspired the two British heroes to later form the V-Battalion.[284] Returning to pair work, the Torch and Toro began investigating the apparent murder spree of criminal musician Ed Clements and discovered that Clements had reformed and his former employer Sidney Otis was framing musician in an attempt to kill his partners and sell off their music recording company.[285] Similarly they put a stop to the Green Mask Killer, who was framing struggling writer Hillary King for his murders.[286] When the Human Torch and Toro began investigating the revenge murders for the late theater actress Helen Hale, apparently carried out by her long lost son, the flaming duo exposed the real killers: Robert Newell and his wife Jane who were trying to eliminate investors who purchased phony stocks from Robert. They next arrested actor Jack Jordan for murdering Ralph Mortimer, after Jordan attempted to throw them off by acting as his two non-existant brothers and later prevented Roy James from murdering his surviving family members so that he could inherit the family estate.[287][288]

Always the humanitarians, the Torch and Toro prevented the Autistic Blank Benny from being exploited by his relatives who were paid by a local mob to use his ability to crack safes.[289] Sent to investigate a chemical explosion at the Kenny Tool Company, the Torch and Toro uncovered the fact that the owner, Lydia Kenny, was using her legitimate business to create burglary tools for criminals.[290] Later they apprehended "Killer" Murdock, the brother of the the Torch's old foe the Asbestos Lady. When Mulligan was executed for his crimes, Asbestos Lady attempted to get revenge against the two heroes. Although they bested her death trap, the Torch and Toro failed to capture Asbestos Lady.[291] She later trapped the two heroes in an asbestos lined net and left them to drown in a river, then began a crime spree which ended in an attempted robbery of the Fort Wright's gold reserve and trying to frame the Torch for the crime. The Torch and Toro freed themselves and stopped the robbery, and sent Asbestos Lady and her gang to jail. Later, when the talented Bourbon Sisters were being threatened by curio shop owner Madame Defarge, the Torch and Toro exposed her as one of the sisters. Defarge was disguised veil wearing third sibling, Yvette, who had a prematurely aged face.[292]

Soon after, the Torch and Toro came to the assistance of Joyce Curtis and her wealthy father John who were being blackmailed by the Photo Phantom who threatened to use a doctored photo of Joyce to implicate her in the murder of photographer Bruce Fearing. The pair exposed the Phantom as the Curtis family lawyer Kenneth Stanton who was really responsible for the killing.[293] They also assisted Joyce Clayton who was being forced out of her family fortune by her cousin Tom, who was attempting to get her insane twin sister Elaine to pose as Joyce and sign over the fortune. The flaming duo also took down fast rising criminal "Scarface" Ed Sampson with the help of Officer Daniel O'Toole, who just happened to be Samson's childhood friend.[294] The pair rounded off the year by stopping the Thief of Bagdad who had came to America to steal expensive wedding gifts for the daughter of the sultan of Baghdad.[295]

1948

The Human Torch and Toro began the year traveling to Florida where they protected Jack Bartley of the Typhoons baseball team who was being targeted by a gambling racket led by his own coach.[296] The pair next went to Hollywood where they participated in an anti-crime picture. There they stopped Starra, an embittered stunt woman who had turned to crime. Returning to New York, the duo witnessed the tragic life of theater comedian Hubert Humperdinck as he committed suicide on stage after putting on the dramatic performance he always yearned to have.[297] The Torch and Toro then stopped the Turtle from murdering members of the "Famous Names Club" as part of an insurance fraud scheme being carried out by one of their own members.[298] The Torch and Toro once more went on a mission with the All-Winners Squad, working with their old wartime allies Union Jack and the Destroyer.[299]

By April 1948 the All-Winners Squad had moved into their new headquarters located within the Baxter Building. There the Torch and Toro celebrated Captain America's birthday with the other members of the All-Winners Squad.[281] That night, Bucky was gunned down by a criminal calling herself Lavender. The Torch and the other members of the All-Winners Squad offered to join Cap in the manhunt for Bucky's shooter, but Cap refused the offer, wanting 24 hours to capture the shooter himself. After Cap captured Lavender with the aid of his new partner Golden Girl and Bucky's successful surgery, the Torch and the other All-Winners wished Cap good luck after he decided to leave the All-Winners Squad.[300]

Following this, the Torch and Toro decided to take a trip to Africa where they prevented ivory poacher Prester Jim from discovering the location of an elephant graveyard.[301] Returning to the United States, the Torch and Toro assisted nightclub owner Willie Flower to promote his new club based on the "Gay 90's" and prevented his lead competitor Phil Brady from using criminal means to shut it down. After, the Torch and Toro clashed with their old wartime foe the Hyena who was hired to sabotage the Miller Trucking Company in order to force its owner to sell.[302] Traveling to a town owned by the miserly Garko, they failed to stop a murderer from killing the spiteful old man but revealed the killer to be his own disowned stepson.[303] Back in New York, the pair paid a visit to their friend Ted Sparks a horror writer who lived in Greenwich Village and helped him with his relationship woes.[304] Later, the duo put a stop to the murderous Gambler and shut down fraudulent fortune teller Swami Krishna before he could swindle the fortune of their friend Alice Graham.[305] They also stopped the Gay Blade's string of thefts[306] and solved the murder of inventor Bert Neaver.[307]

By this time the Human Torch had hired Mary Mitchell as his secretary, who during the 1920s was the costumed heroine known as Sun Girl. When the Toro was called back to Pop's Circus to deal with family affairs, Mary (having developed an attraction to the Torch) convinced him to allow her to be his partner and resumed her costumed identity.[240] With Sun Girl, the Torch helped to clear Robert Dammer of murder charges, and exposed the murderous insurance fraud scheme of Timmy Jordan.[308] Later, the pair convinced retired Dr. Gerrald to perform a delicate surgery on a young girl who accidentally swallowed a diamond hidden in a lollipop.[309] Shortly thereafter, the Torch took on a bet from Sun Girl that he could solve a crime without using his flame powers and succeeded in doing so apprehending the Patcher Gang.[310] Soon after the Earth was threatened by the Jovians who began using their Ray of Madness on the Earth. The Human Torch, Sun Girl and Captain America worked together to make a plan to save the planet before the ray began effecting humans. The Torch was able to carry out the seemingly impossible task of flying to Jupiter under his own power and slaying the Jovians and their leader Kleezar saving the Earth. Going solo for the first time in years, the Torch investigated the supposedly haunted Hotel Walton, discovering that the "haunting" was caused by a disgruntled former employee.[311]

Working with Sun Girl again, the Torch put a stop to the Granite Bandit's crime spree,[312] and failed to prevent Bull Gresham from going back into a life of crime, a decision that ended in his death.[313]

1949

1949 saw the final year of the Human Torch's partnership with Sun Girl, and a number of his most bizarre adventures to date. The first of which was investigating the disappearance of many famous people and artefacts, including President Truman. The Torch and Sun Girl soon found themselves captured and transported to the two-dimensional world of Flatula where the Flatulian leader B-4 was collecting three-dimensional beings for a zoo. The duo managed to free themselves and the other captives and brought B-4 to Earth, thus preventing the people of Flatula from menacing the Earth again. Later, the pair put a stop to hypnotic comedian Mark Funny.[314]

Taking a vacation to the Swiss Alps, the Human Torch and Sun Girl were attacked by Professor Grimm who used a growth formula to enlarge a baby into the massive Borkor. The Torch and Sun Girl tracked Grimm back to his secret hideout and administered the cure to Borkor, restoring the baby to his normal size, but not before it went on a rampage and killed Professor Grimm. The Torch and Sun Girl then tracked down Borkor's biological parents and returned him to his family.[315][316] Shortly after this the Torch and Sun Girl put a stop to the criminal career of gadget themed crook Dizzy Daze.[8]

The Human Torch was next called by the Academy of Science and informed that Professor Horton had passed away. The Torch paid his final respects to his creator,[8] but was left unaware that the Professor Horton's death was faked by the government, seeking to stop Horton from creating any new androids. The Torch was shortly reunited with Toro who had returned from his family business and the two resumed being sidekicks with Sun Girl resuming her role as the Torch's secretary. They began investigating organization called the Crime Syndicate operating in the city and soon the boss of this mob contacted the Torch and revealed his location.[240] Knowing it was a trap the Torch and Toro went anyway. The Crime Boss was ready for the flaming duo and doused them with Solution X-R a chemical that prevented them from flaming on and knocked them out. The Torch's body was then transported to the Yucca Flats, Nevada and buried alive. There the Torch remained dormant for a number of years.[239]

1950s

In December 1953, atomic tests in the region revived the Human Torch, freeing him from Solution X-R and boosting his flame powers to exponential levels. His first order of duty was tracking down and apprehending the Crime Boss. This put him in contact with Chief John Wilson of the NYPD who assisted him in locating Toro, who had been brainwashed into assisting communist forces in the Korean War. Freeing Toro from his brainwashing the two heroes rescued Chief Wilson's daughter Mary Wilson from the new Crime Syndicate boss known as the Butcher. Happily reunited, the Human Torch and Toro resumed their crusade against crime and the new threat of communism.[239]

Their first case brought them into conflict with Dr. Markov who was offering a de-aging device to New York's elderly in exchange for committing robberies, with the consolation that if they got caught they'd still be young when they were released from prison. The Torch and Toro infiltrated Dr. Markov's hideout and revealed that a side-effect of the treatment caused subjects to dust after 30 days. Dr. Markov died in the resulting confrontation.[317] Shortly thereafter, the Torch and Toro clashed with their first new recurring foe, the international criminal named Vulture who was attempting to build atomic weapons in the New Mexico desert. They destroyed the Vulture's base and rescued Mary in the process, but the Vulture managed to escape.[318] The Torch and Toro also stopped communist spies from stealing the plans to a new atomic ray, a radioactive dinosaur that was awoken by atomic testing, and rescued the son of miserly millionaire Dan Carlisle who was being held for ransom by the mobster known as the Ape.[319]

The pair next stopped the international criminal the Hypnotist who attempted to organize criminals around the world in a bid to overthrow the world government, the Hypnotist died in the encounter, before he could drink the blood of Betty Wilson, Chief Wilson's other daughter, to revitalize himself.[320] When investigating sightings of flying saucers at a local fair, the Human Torch and Toro exposed and thwarted an invasion of mechanical beings who claimed to be Martians.[321] Not long after this the Vulture resurfaced and kidnapped Betty also and took her to the Florida Everglades where he pitted his army of robots against the Torch and Toro. The pair destroyed his robots, and the Vulture once more evaded capture.[322] Returning to New York, the duo foiled the Jet's attempt to sabotage the city's infrastructure in order to loot New York.[323]

They investigated sightings of vampires but learned that the killers were not true vampires but members of the Psi Centarian race who were exiled on Earth millions of years ago. The pair stopped their reign of terror just as benevolent members of their race came to recapture the exiles. After this they exposed governor hopeful Dean Prentiss as a communist spy and rescued a missing atomic scientist in the process. Following this they exposed an member of the extra-dimensional race known as the Tyclosians who was trapped on Earth and sought to conquer it with an army of life-like robots.[324] While touring a top secret germ warfare lab in Maine, the Torch and Toro thwarted communist spies attempting to steal the highly toxic Virus X.[325] Getting involved with the United States's first tests in rockets to reach outer space, the Torch and Toro prevented the Vulture from stealing a rocket in an attempt to conquer the moon. While in space, the Torch encountered the so-called Guardians of Space who told the Torch that so long as mankind was at war with itself it was not ready for space. When the Torch returned to Earth he told the authorities that man could not survive in space, setting back the race to the Moon by another decade.[326] Investigating yet another alien sighting, the Torch and Toro discovered a peaceful member of the Arc Centurian race, who restored Toro to life when he was accidentally killed trying to attack the creature. Learning the alien was trapped on Earth, the Torch helped to repair the alien's ship and send him on his way home before a lynch mob came to kill the creature.[327]

The Torch and Toro encountered yet another alien visitor, this time the alien Ksa whose arrival coincided with a cosmic dust cloud that spread a plague on Earth. Ksa sought to provide a cure to the people of Earth, but the prejudiced and paranoid American thought him an invader and only realized the truth after they beat the alien to death. The antidote was then administered to those infected. The entire incident continued to reinforce the Torch's ideals that mankind was not yet ready for the stars.[328] Next the Torch and Toro faced more terrestrial threats in the way of the mad Professor Marko who threatened to steal all of Earth's oxygen so his crippled daughter could rule a dead world. They then traveled to Korea where they rescued a high ranking general's daughter from Colonel Kung. Returning to the States, they proved that Captain Joring of the USAF was not a coward when they assisted him in stopping communist spies from stealing a new super-jet.[329] Later the Torch and Toro returned to New York and stopped a complex criminal scheme to steal all the diamonds in the city.[330]

Around 1955 the Human Torch sensed that the radiation from the bomb that initially boosted his powers years earlier was causing him to lose control of his flame, and that he would eventually "die" by burning himself out. After bidding farewell to Toro, the Torch flew to a desert in the western United States where he tried to destroy himself by overloading his solar cells in a single burst of maximum output flame. The Torch succeeded in burning himself out and plunged to earth to lie insensate.[331] During the decades that the Torch was inert in the desert his body was visited by the time traveling Immortus who created a chronal duplicate of the Torch as part of his complex manipulation of the modern day Avengers, the ramifications of which would not be realized until decades later.[332]

Modern Age

The first duplicate was finally discovered by the criminal genius called the Mad Thinker, one of the world's leading experts on robotics and androids. Using his knowledge of androids, the Thinker restored most of the Torch's original synthetic tissue and nervous system. The Thinker partially restored the android's memories but coerced the Torch into battling the Thinker's enemies, the Fantastic Four (which counted a new Human Torch among their number). On realizing the implications of what the Thinker wanted him to do, the Torch sacrificed his artificial life to save the Fantastic Four from a sneak attack by the Thinker's computer Quasimodo. The Thinker fled, and the Fantastic Four left the Torch's body in the Thinker's laboratory in Nevada.[333]

The other duplicate was recovered by the robot known as Ultron who sought to use the Torch as a vessel of revenge against his creator Henry Pym and the super-hero group known as the Avengers.[334] This recreation of the Human Torch became known as the Vision[335] and ultimately became a long time member of the Avengers.

Avengers West Coast

The Mad Thinker buried the Torch in a nondescript grave. The hero team Avengers West Coast revived the Human Torch when in the course of investigating the Vision's origin. They invited the revived Torch to join their team, and he gratefully accepted.[336]

However, he served for only a short time before taking a personal leave of absence, during which time he lost his powers to save the life of his aged comrade Lady Crichton.[337] He then semi-retired from adventuring, although Hammond returned to join the Avengers' West Coast branch as reserve member, and served alongside the team on a couple of adventures.[338]

Heroes for Hire

Months later, he agreed to lead the re-launched hero team Heroes for Hire with Iron Fist. Acting behind-the-scenes in an office capacity as CEO of Oracle, Inc., Namor's business representation in the States, Hammond ran the parent company for the Heroes.[339] After spearheading several adventures, Hammond was revealed to be used by the villainous Master to destroy the Heroes for Hire, although the Heroes triumphed over their foe and rescued Hammond, who recovered. During this time, Hammond recovered his ability to throw fireballs, although the full extent of his powers remain lost. When the unscrupulous Stark-Fujikawa Corporation bought Oracle and began restructuring Heroes for Hire, Hammond resigned.[340]

New Invaders

Hammond returned as part of the New Invaders, taking the young android Tara under his wing.[341] He ended up sacrificing his life to save this new "Lady Torch." The majority of the Invaders left the team after this.[342]

Dead Again

In the months following the "Secret Invasion" of Earth, Hammond's inert body was discovered in the UN building by retired Chinese scientist, Zhang Chin. Chin's agent, the Man with No Face, recovered the body and brought it back to Taipei where Chin modified Jim's DNA and cell structure into a virus. Chin intended to use this virus to eradicate half the world's population, so that resources could be better controlled. This incident prompted Captain America (Bucky Barnes) and the Sub-Mariner to go to China to rescue their old teammate's remains. They succeed in stopping Chin and made sure that Hammond received a proper burial.[343]

Third Resurrection

Later exhumed by the Mad Thinker, the Torch was used in experiments involving the "Horton Cells" that made up his body and in the process was revived as a living weapon the Thinker intended to sell to A.I.M. Though set on a course for destruction, the Torch was stopped by his formerly-deceased ex-sidekick Toro and the Thinker's control was lifted, though the interaction with rogue Horton Cells developed by the Thinker led to the Torch's body degrading. Not wanting to sit around waiting to die, the Torch assisted Toro in finding answers about his parents, leading the duo to South America and the Nazi colony of New Berlin.[344]

Torch later on joined his fellow Invaders member Namor at Utopia to fix a section of the island. Hammond then questioned his own usefulness in todays modern world. When Anole and Rockslide asked him if he killed Hitler he answered that he did.[345]

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  319. Human Torch Comics #36
  320. Young Men #27
  321. Sub-Mariner Comics #33
  322. Captain America #76
  323. Men's Adventures #27
  324. Human Torch Comics #37
  325. Sub-Mariner Comics #34
  326. Young Men #28
  327. Captain America #77
  328. Men's Adventures #28
  329. Human Torch Comics #38
  330. Sub-Mariner Comics #35
  331. Fantastic Four Annual #4
  332. Avengers: Forever #8
  333. Fantastic Four Annual #4
  334. Avengers #133
  335. Avengers #53
  336. Avengers: West Coast #50
  337. Namor the Sub-Mariner #12
  338. Avengers: West Coast #83
  339. Heroes for Hire #1
  340. Heroes for Hire #19
  341. New Invaders #1
  342. New Invaders #9
  343. Captain America (Volume 5) #44-48
  344. Torch #1-8
  345. Invaders Now! #1
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