Marvel Database

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Marvel Database


The recent dates are given regarding the comics' edition. Due to the sliding timescale, the temporal connections (sometimes stated in the comics) may be incoherent outside of the comics context.

Those dates can also be replaced if proven in comics (or handbooks) to be different from the publication dates.

To be noted that the chronological order is based on proven facts: Therefore, some mutants, among them The Forever Man, Garbha-Hsien, and Nicodemus, may be the first mutants, but aren't confirmed as such due to a lack of information.

The mutant population have varied on Earth-616, climbing to millions and decreasing to a few hundred individuals.

Out of Earth[]

Many species outside Earth developed mutants among them, and some of them preceded the human mutants:

  • Five and a half billion years ago, Maht Pacle was an alien obsessed with killing whatever he hunted. He was also a mutant of his species, whose biological systems were focused on his body's preservation, causing his adult body to not age. He became the Elder of the Universe known as the Obliterator.[1]
  • One billion years ago,[2][3] on Mars, Chak was a mutant, beakless and nigh-human, among the Wing-Men.[4]
  • Gaia was born at least 17,000 years ago.[5]

Pre- and early History[]

Avengers (Vol. 8) #5 recently reworked most of what is known about superpowers in humans (including mutants). Instead of being products of the First Host, superpowers are the result of the Progenitor. This is why there are "mutants" like Firehair before the First Host.


Around two billion years ago, in the Proterozoic Era, the mutant civilization of Threshold was created when the Marauders travelled back in time and used the Seed containing the genetic materials of the massacred Genoshans to birth the mutants in the waters. The Threshold became a thriving society governed by two houses, the Enriched, referring to the mutants, and the Enshrined, referring to baseline humans.[6] However, they faced numerous enemies such as the Shi'ar, the Unbreathing and the living bacteria Arkea and Sublime they created as bioweapons that turned against them.[7] The Marauders from before creating Threshold were informed of its existence by the Threshold Three that arrived to help with fighting their enemies,[8] but were forced to depart later on. Threshold eventually perished, leaving Okkara and Xilo the only surviving Thresholders, with the former becoming the living island of Okkara.[9]

Before the First Host[]

One million years ago, as the Stone Age Avengers were rushing to the a returning First Host, Agamotto mentioned that the roster included a mutant.[10] Phoenix was the mentioned mutant, as she was gifted with the powers of telepathy and telekinesis at her birth, which attracted the Phoenix to her.[11] She had been part of a tribe of mutants known as the Tribe Without Fear formed by the Highwalker rescuing unwanted children left to die on the Burnt Place. This tribe would meet its end when the Neanderthals tried to exterminate them, leading to both of the groups killing each other and leaving Firehair the only survivor.[12]

First Host[]

For the full presentation of this event, please consult the First Host page.
Eternals (Homo immortalis), Homo erectus, and Deviants (Homo descendus) from X-Force Vol 1 97 001

The Eternals, the Deviants, and latent superhuman potential in baseline humanity

During their First Host on Earth, one million years ago,[13] the Celestials collected the Wanderers,[14] a tribe of Homo erectus.[15] Gammenon the Gatherer collected the ape-men and send them to Ziran the Tester who mutated them to have an unstable genome, creating the Deviants[16] (Deviants (Homo descendus)),[17] a race with various mutations, who were then released and went hiding in the caves. With other subjects, Nezarr the Calculator then created the Eternals[16] (Eternals (Homo immortalis)),[13] hairless, upright tall beings able to tap into the cosmic power. They were themselves released, flying out of the Celestials' laboratory-ship. Finally, Oneg the Prober created a latent gene for the expansion of human potential and those modified yet apparently unchanged ape-men were released.[16]

The potential for superhuman powers was only latent:[citation needed] That dormant "DNA complex"[18]/"mutant genes" implanted in Homo erectus.[15]

That potential was transferred to Homo antecessor,[19] then to Homo neanderthalensis, both species experimented on by Kree in order to create the Inhumans (Inhomo supremis).[20]

An early Inhuman named Tuk decided to live among humans, passing his unique genetic code and increasing the potential of humanity for mutation.[21]

It later came to fruition into the form of Homo superior, the mutants.[22]

For the focused history of the Mutant Genes, please consult this page.

On Earth, mutants have existed for countless millennia,[23][24] often explained through magic[24][25] or folk beliefs.[24]

Dawn of Man[]

There had been a cluster of mutants that appeared more than 1,000,000 years ago and joined together as a tribe. So far they have been documented as the first known mutants:

A few individuals have been stated to be among the first known mutants as well, originated from the beginnings of human live (although their origin remains unclear as far):

Selene Gallio (Earth-616) from X-Necrosha Vol 1 1 0001

The birth of the (possibly) first mutant: Selene

  • The Forever Man was seemingly one of the first mutants,[26] possibly the first according to Iron Man, and claimed to have lived 10,000 lives,[27] although it may be an hyperbole or an underestimation.[26]
  • Hungry, possibly the "ultimate primal mutant" (or a demonic entity)[28] from the dawn of humanity, having existed as long as the human species.[29]
  • Garbha-Hsien was state to be one of the oldest, even by External standards.[30] He himself said that he was already old when the continents shook,[31] and to be the oldest of them.[32] Selene said that he was the oldest of Externals,[33] and Captain Britain once said his mind was like an avalanche, hundreds of thousands of years of thought.[34]
  • Amahl Farouk said himself that he lived since the dawn of humanity,[35] although this statement was probably referring to his parasite, the multiversal entity the Shadow King. Amahl (the host) himself was born a mutant before the 20th century, but in the 16th century, not the dawn of man.[36]
  • Nicodemus was stated to be as old as the Swiss mountains themselves.[37] If true and the first mutants were discovered over 1 million years ago, he could (possibly despite Garbha-Hsien and Selene's statements) not only be the oldest of the Externals but the oldest living mutant.[10] Apocalypse once made a possibly off handed remark about him, saying the intelligence of eons, and you still get it so wrong.[38]

Hyborian Age[]

The first recorded (with a clear date) human mutant on Earth was Selene, born in Central Europe 17,000 years ago, "after the Oceans swallowed Atlantis" and "before the rise of the sons of Aryas",[39] during the Hyborian Age, and even clashed with Kulan Gath over 10,000 years ago.[40]

Though his exact origin is unknown, Crule was believed to originate from the northern regions of what became Africa and a centuries old animosity towards Gideon,[41] but he invoked Ishtar[42] and Mitra,[31] deities primarily worshiped in the Hyborian Age.

Biblical Times: The Neyaphem and Cheyarafim[]

For years, it was thought that the mutants were only a handful individuals at the first stages of humanity.[43][44]

Neyaphem from Uncanny X-Men Vol 1 422 0001

15,000 years old mutants in a mass grave

That theory was proven wrong by the discovery, in 2003, of a mutant civilization built "many many centuries earlier than Mayan, Aztec or Moche"; Carbon dating has stated that the age of the mutant remains found in Isla des Demonas to be 15,000 years old (When neolithic revolution and domestication of animals by humans dates back to 9000 BC) and long before the rise of the Egyptian empires,[45] an ancient and advanced mutant civilization predating all other known civilizations.[46]

Among those mutants, called Neyaphem, who enslaved humanity was Azazel, calling himself Satan. He and his kind were repelled to another dimension by the "Angels", the Cheyarafim, another early group of mutants. Among the other Neyaphem to be trapped were also Ydrazil.[47]

The Banciewicz family[]

Allegedly for thousand years, the first-born sons of the Jewish family Banciewicz developed powers while reaching puberty.[48]

Ancient Egypt[]

Many of the early recorded mutants were active during ancient Egypt, including communities, groups, and families:

  • The Man (eventually known as "Demon") and others of his kind (named the same way) were activated by uranium pits. They were active at least since Ancient Egyptian times.[49]
  • The Forever Man was one of the first mutants on Earth, has possibly lived 10,000 lives and was active at least in Ancient Egyptian times.[26]

30th century B.C.[]

En Sabah Nur stated that he was the first mutant[50][51][52] was often stated to be,[53] and thought himself to be[52][54] (his name meant "The First One"),[55] although Selene predated him by 12,000 years at least. He was reportedly born 5,000 years ago, in Egypt,[56] during the First Dynasty (30th century B.C.).[57] Apocalypse also stated he was the cause of the Bronze Age collapse that devastated the Near East around 1200 B.C.[58] He was also believed, erroneously, to be their common ancestor.[53]

After him, many powered individuals among his descendants, the Clan Akkaba, were witnessed in positions of powers in Egypt.[59][60]


Apocalypse was in fact the first of the "second generation" of mutantkind.[61] He was among a multitude of mutants that resided on the mutant island of Okkara. Here, Apocalypse took a wife; Genesis, who bore him four children. Okkara became a prosperous mutant society, but their utopia was cut short when the demonic hordes of Amenth invaded, splitting the island into two halves with the Twilight Sword. Apocalypse and the other mutants of Okkara fought bravely to defend their homeland and Earth itself from invasion, but when their defeat became inevitable, a decision was made to seal off the demon-infested half of Okkara; known as Arakko, along with every Okkaran mutant, who would continue to fight the demonic horde while Apocalypse prepared the Earth's defenses. Arakko and its mutants were sealed-off into Amenth, while Apocalypse and the other half of Okkara; known as Krakoa, were left behind.[61]

13th century B.C.[]

Anath-Na Mut was active in 1275 B.C.,[62] and served Ramses II.[63]

4th century B.C.[]

In the fourth century B.C.E., twin mutants tried to cross the English Channel, and drowned themselves on their raft. That event was witnessed by Apocalypse, who looked for "his people scattered over the world, but he didn't intervened, as their deaths was by their own means.[53]

3rd century[]

Decimus Furius activated his powers in Rome in the year 281, seemingly a young boy or an adolescent then. After rampaging civilians, spending years in prison and acting as a gladiator, he was worshiped, thought to be the Minotaur, until he was collected by Apocalypse and "stored" for later use as the War of his Final Horsemen.[64]

It was later speculated by Nova Roman Lucius Aquilla that the Gods were maybe simply mutants.[65]

4th century[]

Sanjar Javeed was active in the year 325 in Persia. He was "collected" by Apocalypse and "stored" for later use as the Death of his Final Horsemen.[64]

5th to 6th Centuries[]

Later, at least one member of the Clan Akkaba was active and was involved in the sack of Rome.[66]

The Neo[]

At some point, many generations ago, some mutants, the Neo, secluded themselves from mankind, hoping to inherit Earth once the humans had destroyed themselves. They built hidden cities in various locations, including Alaska and South America.[67] They remained in hiding for centuries.[68]

The exact time of this seclusion is unknown.

Medieval Period[]

11th century[]

In 1013, Apocalypse came to Scandinavia to kill Thor on the counsel of Rama-Tut who informed him of beings and ancestors of people who would cause a threat to him in the future. He then sent his four Four Horsemen (Pestilence/Phantom Bats of the Twelve Minds, War, Native-American Famine, Death) to kill Folkbern Logan, ancestor of Wolverine, but they were all destroyed by Thor.[69]

In the early 11th century Externals Garbha-Hsien, Nicodemus, and possibly Crule had already banded together as the High Lords.

Candra was active in the early to mid 11th century.[44][70]

12th century[]

Around the beginning of the 12th century, Garbha-Hsien found the Celestial Ship in the Ho-Lo Shan Mountains of Northern Mongolia.

Garbha-Hsien first met En Sabah Nur in the middle of the 12th century, and claimed to have lived already several lifetimes.[71]

At some point, Nathan Summers traveled in time to fight En Sabah Nur, as the Traveler. He went from tribe to tribe to keep them informed and unified.[72]

The Skornn[]

The possibly alien or demonic race called the Skornn terrorized Macedonia and other areas between periods of slumber. They feasted upon the energy signatures of the few mutants they could find then.

During one of those slumbers, a gathering of powerful mutants including En Sabah Nur and Garbha-Hsien created the Five Fingers of Annihilation blade to destroy the Skornn,[73] who imbued it with their own mutant life force while forging it.[25]

At some point after that meeting, mutant priestess D'narda was possibly activated in Karanada, Macedonia, Greece (80 miles south of modern-day Plovdiv, Bulgaria).[25][73]

There, the local priests threatened to awaken the Skornn, causing the Council of Nirinthia to seek out the Traveler.

En Sabah Nur having sent a cadre of killers after the Traveler, he responded the call months after, to find only D'narda alive, the Skornn awakened and having fed upon the lifeforce of the townspeople and priests of Karanada, and the Council of Nirinthia.[72][73] When D'narda sacrificed herself to save the Traveler from the Skornn, her blood and sacrifice activated the Five Fingers of Annihilation, stopping the Skornn.[25]

Third Crusade[]

During the Third Crusade,[74] Bennet du Paris encountered in Akkaba the mutants Sahreed and The Scarab, before manifesting his own powers.[75] Offered him to be become his servant, Apocalypse locked the knight he had renamed Exodus for centuries.[74][citation needed]

14th century[]

The Changelings/Killcrops[]

Another form of "early mutants" also during the same period, with notably Dafydd ap Andras, born in the year 1337,[76] active at least in 1347. This kind, named "killcrops", was characterized by early appearance of powers, and allegedly leading the way to the modern mutants with puberty-induced mutation.

The Changelings were believed to take the place of human babies, to be Satan's hellspawn, and were recognize to their powers (strength, aerokinesis...) and also to their knowledge.[77]

The Proto-Mutants[]

Around six to seven hundred years ago,[78] a population of three hundred "Proto-Mutants" (an "early" form of mutants with "less evolved" X-Genes), a different species from mutants, like Neanderthals to humans,[79] lived in the mountains of Crimea.[80]

  • The man who would become known as Gabriel Shepherd was stated to be 700 years old,[81] possibly as a simplification.
  • Ister was stated to be around 665 years old, and was consequently born around the half of the 14th century[82]

It isn't known yet how far the origin of the Proto-Mutants started.

A Primal Scream caused by a Cosmic Being annihilated half of Europe's population in the guise of the Black Plague.[83] Due to the Proto-Mutants not being affected, they were targeted by the humans, seeking a cure or simply driven by fear and anger, and were eventually all killed. Despite the Proto-Mutants retreating in the hills, they were all slaughtered and buried in a mass grave near Kuryk, Kazakhstan, off the Caspian Sea.[80]

From Renaissance to late 18th Century[]

At some point, presumably between the 13th and 18th centuries, the immortal mutant Laslo Magzel was active in Slorenia.[84]

15th century[]

In the year 1459 in Romania, the Horseman of War led Apocalypse's Riders of the Dark against Vlad Dracula's army.[59]

Gideon activated in 1492,[85] travelling to America as part of Columbus' expedition in the Pinta.[71]

17th century[]

The Clan Akkaba allegedly had at least a member on the Mayflower journey to America, in 1620.[59]

Ogun, believed to be a mutant, was, according to some reports, alive in the early part of the 17th century.[86]

Hamburg from Cable Vol 1 94 0001

The meteor that indirectly caused the emergence of the Sisterhood

During the autumn of the year of 1660 a radioactive meteorite fell next to Hamburg, Germany affected Hans Knoblach, who had three children in America, themselves "affected":[87]

Burke was already active (or activated then) in the 17th century, where he was burned at the stake.[89]

18th century[]

Fiona Knoblach married in 1707 and had three daughters. Her first husband died five years later, and she soon remarried to another man and had three more daughters before he died in 1718. She married for a third time in 1720 to a Vernon Reaves and had a seventh daughter.[87]

Gideon stoked the flames of war causing the American Revolutionary War and independence in 1776 as part of the Externals machinations plan.[85]

In 1780, Fiona Knoblach had around twenty grandchildren and sixty great-grandchildren, mostly girls.[87] It is unknown how many were mutants.

Elias Bogan may have been alive in the 1780s.[90]

At least a member of the Clan Akkaba was active in the guillotine executions during the French Revolution,[91] around 1789-1799.

Burke was guillotined in the 18th century.[89]

19th century[]

From 1800 to 1870[]

More and more mutants started to appear:

X-Club from Uncanny X-Men Vol 1 512 0001

Evolution of the mutant population in the last two centuries

From 1840 to 1870, there was a small yet significant increase in the mutant population.[23]

Clan Akkaba member Kabar Brashir was born in the 1850s.[92]

Tobias Messenger was born in 1859 and activated circa 1878 at 19 years.[93]

The same year, Nathaniel Essex presented his work and theories on the Essex Factors, illustrated by a cadaver he pieced together from human and animal remains. He was rejected by the Royal Society of London. He then looked for "freaks" and was shown a collection of some of them by the Marauders[94] during his search for the ones with the Great Mutation, the right "Essex Factor", the "Essex Men".[94] He also met with Apocalypse and time-travelling Cyclops and Phoenix.[citation needed][95] It is unknown if some of those "freaks" were indeed mutants.

1870 to the end of the 20th Century[]

From to 1870 to 1890 by a decrease equivalent to the increase from 1840 to 1870, and from then, the mutant population increased exponentially.[23]

Candra was active centuries ago,[97] and was known to be active in the year 1887.[98]

Absalom was active at least in 1891[99] (although he was believed to be activated in 1896).[71]

In 1891, the Externals Burke, Saul (Garbha-Hsien), Absalom, Nicodemus and Gideon had already banded together as the High Lords,[99] although they were stated to exist for centuries.[100]

Frederick and Hamilton Slade, their mother Margaret Slade, Jack Starsmore, Kabar Brashir, and dozens other members of the Clan Akkaba were active mutants in 1897,[101] but their numbers were reduced to a handful.[60][102]

In the same year, John Howlett Jr. died.[103]

Some others are identified as being around a century old, but may in fact be much older:

  • Silas Burr was accounted to be born in Canada toward end of 19th century (but was also tied to possible murders back in 1828).[55]
  • Elias Bogan was stated to have been alive for at least one century, but could have been the inspiration for the original, founding chapter of the Hellfire Club, in the 1780s.[90]
  • Ogun, believed to be a mutant, is at least one century old,[55] was active in the 1910s but, according to other reports, was already alive in the early part of the 17th century.[86]

20th century: The Modern Mutant Race[]

There was an exponential increase in the mutant population from 1890 and through the 20th century. Mutants became a statistically significant evolutionary offshoot of Homo sapiens around that time, and it is considered that the "modern mutant race" is only a century old.[23]

Over-Men, Wonders[]


In 1906 in San Francisco, the local branch of the Hellfire Club, led by Molyneux, assembled a league of "seers", "sensitives" and psychics, who were both in his vision "the first step" to the "Over-Men", and a way to detect them. He also stated that using those, he had been able to find some of those Over-Men. The concept of Over-Men was inspired by both Charles Darwin and Nietzsche's works.

Alerted by his seers of the coming of the Overmen (in fact the X-Club from the 21st century, coming back in the past to understand the origins of mutants), Molyneux activated his Sentinel.

Wednesday, April 18th, the battle between the Hellfire Club's Sentinel and the X-Club caused the Great San Francisco Earthquake.[23]

  • The Forever Man was reborn as Morgan Hardy during a fire following the earthquake.[111]
  • Doctor Nemesis was born the 1st of December 1906, and is considered among the first modern mutants.[112]


In 1907 in New York lived many powered beings, named "Wonders". among them Klara Prast,[113] a mutant.[114]

It is unknown if some of those "seers" and "Wonders" (apart from Klara Prast) were indeed mutants.

Among the possibly or confirmed members of this modern mutants are:

Homo insectus[]

Adriana Soria was born at least in 1920th and was active in WWII.[117] Her mutation had her split from the mutants and humans to new sub-phylum: Homo insectus.[118]

First mutant boom[]

World War II[]

During WWII, mutants were still publicly largely unknown.[132]

In 1944, Nazi scientist Mister Sinister (also known as "Nosferatu") experimented on prisoners in concentration and death camps in order to find and activate mutants.[133] Sinister created Experiment N2, cloning from Namor's blood. In order to create Experiment N2, Sinister used the blood of some Nazi concentration or death camp prisoners.[131] It is unclear if those prisoners were mutants.

Crule was active in the death camps.[41]

Candra was active during the war as well, and used Wolfgang von Strucker to obtain the Momentary Princess gem[134]


The Lebengebrochennacht, the "night of broken lives", was the night the Nazis began hunting down mutants.
That event became famous in "mutant world history", while humans weren't much told nor learned of it.[135]


Mutants were stile seemingly unknown from the public around 1954,[110] while scientists knew of it in 1956.[49] During those years and the time Steve Rogers was frozen, the climate towards mutants shifted to hostility.[132]

In 1959, socialite Henry Marsh theorized as well the existence of many mutants unaware of their powers or keeping them hidden. He revealed his theory to Vincent Farnsworth, who activated (or discovered his powers) that day. Farnsworth also suspected Marsh of being a mutant as well.[139]

In 1962, Tad Carter activated. He was informed that many mutants existed[141] by Messenger, who recruited him into the Promise.[93]

At least in that year, Lucius Farnsworth was active as well.[142]

In 1963, Gideon was involved in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy as part of the Externals machinations plan.[85]

Until a certain point, the Soviet Union euthanized mutant children. Afterwards, they started having them serve the state instead.[143]

Mutant Gatherings[]

During the latter half of the 20th century, mutant births began to occur more frequently. A popular explanation for this marked growth is the proliferation of nuclear technologies in the modern era, starting with the first atomic bomb, which is believed to have led to widespread genetic mutation due to latent radiation, though the actual reason for the spike in mutations would remain unknown.[144][145]

This spike in mutant births was eventually perceived by the Eternals as a sign of the coming Fourth Host.[146]

During the 20th century, a young mutant telepath known as Charles Xavier was approached by a young woman named Moira Kinross. Moira revealed to Xavier that she herself was a mutant, with the ability to reset her own personal timeline upon her death. As a result of this power, Moira had lived nine lives and spent most of them fighting in vain for the survival of mutantkind, always ending with their people's extermination. Moira opened her mind to Charles, allowing him to see the truth, and together, they would attempt to make this lifetime different, and ensure the survival of mutantkind.[147]

Witnessing the oppression of mutantkind, Xavier[148] created the X-Men, bringing together Scott Summers, Bobby Drake, the winged Warren Worthington III, Henry McCoy and Jean Grey as his first students. Xavier would train the X-Men to control their powers and to become superheroes, hoping that by proving that mutants could use their gifts for the benefit of all mankind, mutants might grow more accepted.[43]

Charles Xavier was not the only man gathering mutants to his cause, however. Years before founding the X-Men, Xavier had encountered a Holocaust-survivor by the name of Max Eisenhardt (then going by the name of Erik Magnus Lensherr). The two became friends, but found themselves frequently debating the subject of human-mutant co-existence. Scarred by his experiences as a prisoner of the Nazi death-camps, Magnus was convinced that humanity would turn against mutantkind, and that only by claiming their position as the dominant species by force, could mutantkind survive. Xavier and Magnus would soon go their separate ways, and Magnus eventually began calling himself Magneto, recruiting mutants who shared his violent ideology to his Brotherhood of Mutants.[149] Magneto's Brotherhood would find themselves embroiled in conflict against Xavier and his X-Men.[43]

During her many lifetimes, Moira MacTaggert had walked the paths of Xavier, Magneto and even Apocalypse in the search for mutantkind's salvation. Now on her 10th and possibly final life, Moira sought to bring all three mutant leaders together, believing that mutantkind could succeed united where they had previously failed. To this end, she subtly manipulated them to bring her vision to pass. After Magneto was de-aged into an infant during a conflict with the X-Men, Moira altered his genetic structure to reduce the impact of his vast magnetic powers on his mind and personality. Once re-aged, Magneto was more stable, and when Xavier and Moira revealed the truth of her many lives to him, he agreed to join their cabal.[150] No longer fighting the X-Men, Magneto would eventually join and even lead the team for a time.[151] The X-Men themselves underwent many changes through the years, with Xavier's five original students leaving and rejoining the team on various occasions, and being joined by an ever-expanding roster of mutants. In time, the X-Men would spawn various break-off groups, such as X-Factor and X-Force.

While Magneto's Brotherhood and Xavier's X-Men would be the foremost mutant groups assembled in the 20th century, they were far from the only ones. The mutant terrorists Mystique and Destiny would also pursue a radical and violent path to mutant supremacy. Guided by Destiny's pre-cognitive powers, the pair assumed the mantle of Magneto's Brotherhood after he had stopped using the moniker, leading a team of mutant fighters on a campaign of terrorism and assassination. In order to avoid imprisonment, the couple would reform the Brotherhood as Freedom Force, a mutant strike force in service to the U.S. government.[152]

Apocalypse himself would eventually awaken from a long period of dormancy, leading his renewed Horsemen back on the world stage.[153] His exceedingly harsh and cruel world-views led to him being opposed by the X-Men and other mutant groups.

In the tunnels beneath New York City, a group of mutants calling themselves the Morlocks emerged. The Morlocks were mutant outcasts, many with powers that were not especially suitable for combat or left them deformed. Banding together, the Morlocks found safety in numbers and isolation, though it would not last long. The vile Mr. Sinister had taken a great interest in mutantkind and the mutant genome, even going so far as to turn himself into a mutant.[154] Sinister learned of the Morlocks and deemed them scientifically useless and a threat to the mutant genepool. He began plotting their extermination, contracting a mutant thief under his employ nicknamed Gambit to recruit a group of mutant mercenaries known as the Marauders who would cleanse the Morlock tunnels. Unaware of the group's mission, Gambit led them into the tunnels, where they began the Mutant Massacre. All the Morlocks would have died, if not for the intervention of the X-Men, X-Factor, and Thor.[155]

Legacy Virus[]

In an attempt to exterminate mutantkind Stryfe, the clone of X-Man Cyclops' son Cable, unleashed a custom-made plague known as the Legacy Virus. The virus targeted mutants, causing the deaths of hundreds before mutating to also effect baseline humans. Through the work of X-Man Beast and the sacrifice of X-Man Colossus, a cure was developed.[156]

The epidemic would have far-reaching consequences however. Having learned of Moira MacTaggert's manipulations of his genome, a furious Magneto abandoned his covenant with her and Xavier, leaving the X-Men and once more pursuing a more radical and violent path to mutant salvation. He gathered a new group of mutants known as the Acolytes.[157] For a time, Magneto created a base known as Asteroid M in Earth-orbit which he hoped would serve as a sanctuary for mutants. When those plans were undone, Magneto returned to Earth and used his vast magnetic powers to seize control of the Earth's magnetosphere, blackmailing the world community into sanctioning the creation of an independent mutant nation. The United Nations eventually agreed to his demands, ceding the island nation of Genosha to Magneto.[158]

When the Legacy Virus began circulating in the mutant community, thousands of infected mutants had been quarantined on Genosha. When the virus was cured, Magneto gained a vast army overnight, and began preparing for a campaign of world domination.[159] A team of X-Men managed to foil his schemes, with Magneto being left wheelchair bound due to injuries inflicted by the X-Man Wolverine.[160]

With the vast consequences of her manipulation of Magneto and her failures to unite the three leaders of mutantkind apparent, Moira MacTaggert used the Legacy Virus as a front to fake her own death, retreating into the shadows from whence she could continue to fight for mutantkind's survival.[150][161]

21st century[]

Before the Sentinel Massacre[]

A mutant baby boom occurred in 2001. By this time, the vast majority of Earth's mutant population lived in the nation of Genosha, ruled by Magneto. Beast believed that the surge in the mutant population was linked to the emergence of secondary mutations.[162]

It was also discovered at the same time that the Extinction Gene (a gene activated when an "entire species is about to go extinct") present within the human genome was slowly pushing them towards extinction, and that humans would be extinct within three, maybe four generations, to be replaced wholly by mutants.[162]

Genosha from New X-Men Vol 1 115 0001

Sentinel attack on Genosha

Sentinel Massacre: Genosha's destruction[]

Before the Wild Sentinels attack on Genosha occurred the same year, the mutant population of Genosha was estimated at 16 million.[163] In a plot orchestrated by Cassandra Nova, Genosha was destroyed, with almost all of its 16 million citizens being killed. After the destruction of Genosha, Cassandra Nova possessed Xavier's body and outed both him and the students of his school as mutants.[163] Nova would go on to spread havoc throughout the universe, before the X-Men could finally stop her.[164] As a result of their increasing visibility, mutant culture grew more popular. Despite the Genoshan genocide decimating the mutant population, mutant birthrates continued to increase.[165] One year before the passing of the Superhuman Registration Act, a census revealed that mutant population would overtake humans within 10 to 20 years.[166]

A drug known as Kick, derived from the essence of the sentient bacteria Sublime, began to spread among the mutant community. X-Man Xorn would become addicted to the drug. Driven insane by it, he impersonated Magneto, who was believed to have been killed during the Genoshan massacre, and launched an ill fated attack on New York. The X-Men managed to kill Xorn, at the cost of one of their own members, Jean Grey.[167] The attack sent shockwaves throughout the human world, causing mutants to become more hated and feared than ever before.

Wanda Maximoff (Earth-616) from House of M Vol 1 7 001

The spell

House of M, M-Day, & Decimation[]

For the full presentation of those event, please consult the House of M and Decimation pages.

Magneto had in fact survived the attack on Genosha, and made amends with his old friend Charles Xavier. When his daughter Wanda Maximoff was driven insane by her reality-warping powers and killed several of her Avengers teammates, he took her in to try and aid her.[168] Despite his and Charles Xavier's best efforts, they could not help Wanda. Fearing his sister would be euthanized out of fear of her reality warping powers, her brother Quicksilver convinced her to use her powers to create a reality wherein their friends had all they ever wanted, and where mutants were the world's majority; a world where their father Magneto was the most powerful man on Earth.[169]

This world would gradually come undone as the heroes of Earth slowly realized what had happened. In a fit of rage, Magneto killed Quicksilver after learning what he had done in his name. Distraught over her father's abuse and accusing him of loving mutantkind more than his own children, Wanda warped reality again; uttering the words "No more mutants",[170] de-powering virtually all of mutantkind.[171]

The US Government estimated that 198 mutants remained,[166], but acknowledged that there were a few thousand.[166][172] Another number given was300 [173] though Tony Stark admitted that a low estimate had been produced.[166] Dani Moonstar stated that there were 198 known mutants, but others had remained off the grid until then, including Jonas Graymalkin or Leon Nunez,[174] but also known mutants, like the "199th mutant", off the record of the 198 as part of a deal with the government,[173] or Wiz Kid who hacked into S.H.I.E.L.D.'s database.[175][citation needed]

Not only did Wanda's spell remove the X-Gene from formerly active mutants, it prevented the birth of any new mutants.[23][176] Mutants went from poised to become Earth's dominant species, to surviving on the brink of extinction.[132]

Several powerful and influential mutants, such as Xavier and Magneto, were now de-powered. Despite losing their powers, former mutants remained targets for extremist groups such as the Purifiers. The X-Men converted the Westchester School into a refuge for the few remaining mutants, whether they had previously been friend or foe to the X-Men. Concerned with controlling the surviving mutant population, the O*N*E was created, and a squad of human-piloted Sentinels was deployed to secure the school.[177]

Attempts at Reversing M-Day[]

The true reasons behind the Decimation remained unknown to the majority of mutants and to the public at large, since the X-Men feared that if the world knew that a mutant had made and unmade the world in her own image, humanity would not rest until the surviving mutants were exterminated.[178]

In the immediate aftermath of the Decimation, several attempts were made at reversing its effects. While some of these were effective on an individual basis, none managed to find a viable solution for all those de-powered. One notable attempt was made by Quicksilver. Himself depowered, he sought aid from his estranged wife's people, the Inhumans, believing their Terrigen Mists could be used to reverse the effects of Wanda's spell. Using stolen crystals, Quicksilver was able to restore the powers of depowered mutants, but these powers more often than not spiraled out of control, resulting in serious injury or death to those exposed to the mists.[179] Only Quicksilver was able to permanently restore his powers through use of the mists.

Beast went on a journey of his own, contacting the greatest minds of the world for help, compromising his ethics, and even searching for the Scarlet Witch herself. In the end however, he returned empty-handed, no closer to reversing the Decimation.[180]

With mutantkind lost and at the brink of death, Apocalypse returned to shepherd his people. Using his Celestial technology, he was able to reverse the M-Day effect on at least one mutant; Polaris. He planned to level the playing field between mankind and mutants by decimating the human population, leaving only 10%, just as mutantkind had been decimated. Apocalypse's plans were foiled, and he was hurled into unknown space before being captured by the Celestials.

Messiah Complex and gathering in San Francisco[]

Through the machinations of the Phoenix Force, a mutant child was born in Alaska; the first mutant birth since the Decimation. The child was immediately hunted by various factions, including the Marauders, X-Men, and Purifiers, who all wanted the child for their own reasons. The child was first found and saved by Cable. Cable believed the child to be a messiah that would save mutantkind from extinction. With the X-Men's blessing, he took the child into the future to raise and protect her until she would be ready to return. The two were pursued by former X-Man Bishop, who came from a future where the child grew up to kill a million humans and brought about a world where a resurgent mutantkind was forced into concentration camps.[181]

After this event, Forge created his "New Mutants", in order to bolster the mutant population, but all were seemingly killed after going through a Ghost Box.[182]

During the battle for the messiah child, the School was destroyed, scattering mutantkind. The X-Men would re-group in San Francisco and opened their doors once more to all current and former mutants who required sanctuary.[183]


During a conflict with Norman Osborn and his Avengers, the X-Men were forced to depart from San Francisco and instead raised the ruins of Asteroid M from the bottom of the ocean, creating the island of Utopia. Cyclops, leader of the X-Men, declared Utopia an independent mutant nation. Allying with Prince Namor and Atlantis ensured the safety of the fledgling nation, which would become a sanctuary to all mutants.[184]

Necrosha and the Second Coming[]

In a bid to become a living goddess, Selene orchestrated the resurrection of the deceased mutants of Genosha. While most of the dead mutants had been de-powered by Wanda's spell, this still grew the mutant population to 1,652,106 mutants world-wide,[185] Dubbing the island "Necrosha" and making it the crown jewel of her new empire, Selene succeeded in sacrificing the resurrected mutants and achieving godhood. She was still stopped by Warpath and X-Force, putting an end to her short-lived empire. After Necrosha and the loss of many mutant lives, Doctor Nemesis stated that the mutant population consisted of 181 individuals.[186]

Having grown to adulthood, the mutant messiah, now known as Hope Summers decided that she was ready to return to the present. Her return coincided with the final plan of Bastion, a Sentinel with knowledge of the future who sought to wipe out mutantkind once and for all. Bastion launched an all-out assault on Utopia, but Hope succeeded in destroying him.[187]

New mutant activations and Neo extinction[]

After Hope's return to the present, new mutants began to be born.[188] These first mutants were known as the Lights, mutants whose powers were initially unstable, but who were inherently connected to Hope and were meant to herald her as she bonded with the Phoenix. Six Lights were born and successfully stabilized,[189] but the Seventh Light committed suicide as a result of his mutation.

With mutant births seemingly once again possible, Wolfsbane would give birth to the half-mutant demigod Tier.[190]

Hope Summers (Earth-616), Wanda Maximoff (Earth-616) and Phoenix Force (Earth-616) from Avengers vs

No more Phoenix

Avengers/X-Men War and Reversal of M-Day[]

As a result of the Scarlet Witch's spell, the Phoenix Force reconstituted itself and came to Earth in order to claim Hope Summers as its host and to restore mutantkind. A conflict erupted between the X-Men who believed that the Phoenix was coming to save mutantkind and the Avengers who believed that the Phoenix was coming to destroy the Earth.[191]

After much conflict, the X-Men, lead by Cyclops, were proven right. Hope Summers and the Scarlet Witch used the Phoenix to reverse the M-Day effect and new mutants began to emerge across the globe.[192] Since the dispersion of the Phoenix, there has been no clear census of the mutant population, but new mutants are to be counted at least in dozens.

Mutant Revolution[]

Following the war against the Avengers and the re-ignition of mutantkind by the Phoenix Force, tensions between mutantkind and humanity were high, in part due to the actions of the Phoenix Five. In an attempt to protect mutants against human abuse, Cyclops led a team of X-Men into confrontation with human authorities and declared a mutant revolution. He also founded a new school in the old Weapon X facility, where he trained mutants willing to fight for their rights.[193]

Fearing that the tensions caused by Cyclops' actions would result in all-out war between humanity and mutantkind, Beast travelled back in time and retrieved the younger versions of the five original X-Men, hoping that their presence might prompt Cyclops to re-consider his actions. Beast's plan was a failure, as Cyclops stayed his course, and because of his actions, the time-displaced X-Men found themselves stuck in the present, unable and unwilling to return home.[194]

In response to the accusation that he and the Avengers had never done enough to help mutantkind, Captain America founded the Avengers Unity Division, an Avengers team composed of mutants and non-mutants led by Cyclops' brother Havok. This team was faced with the challenge of the Red Skull, who stole the brain of Charles Xavier, using Xavier's telepathic powers in an attempt to cleanse the world of mutantkind.[195]

Pursuing her own agenda, Mystique used the chaos as an opportunity to amass a massive amount of wealth, which she used to purchase the island nation of Madripoor, transforming it into a mutant refuge, as well as using it as a base for her own criminal activities.[196]

The actions of Cyclops' X-Men, and anti-mutant forces within the government, led to a tense conflict with S.H.I.E.L.D.. After inheriting the Jean Grey School in Xavier's will, Cyclops immediately turned it over to Storm, and called on every mutant to attend a rally in Washington, D.C.. With a massive number of mutants gathered at the rally, Cyclops gave a speech, telling them that the mutant revolution was all of them coming together peacefully in one place, proving that those who feared mutants were wrong about them.[197]

As the world order began to come undone after the early end of the multiverse was revealed to the general public by the Cabal, Cyclops created Nation X, a sovereign mutant nation protected by re-programmed Sentinels, granting asylum to mutants on the run from human law, among them his old friend Beast.[198]

The fate of Nation X is unclear following the recreation of the universe by Reed Richards. At some point, the X-Men's schism appears to have ended, and the X-Men once again re-united.[199]


The Terrigen Bomb[]

During the conflict between Thanos and the Inhumans a Terrigen Bomb was detonated, releasing the Terrigen Mist into the atmosphere. While initially harmless, the Terrigen Mists in the atmosphere eventually began affecting mutants, making them ill with the so-called "M-Pox" disease. Many mutants died as a result of exposure to the mists, and it also prevented new mutants from manifesting.[200][201]

Mutant/Inhuman conflict[]

After Cyclops and the X-Men investigated Muir Island while a Terrigen cloud was passing over it, the X-Men became aware of the danger the cloud posed to mutants, and Cyclops died due to exposure to the mists. Emma Frost, grieving her beloved's death, created a mental projection of Cyclops and set to work on destroying the Terrigen Clouds. Her scheme led to the successful destruction of one of two clouds, but in a climactic confrontation with the Inhuman Royals, Black Bolt "killed" Emma's mental projection of Cyclops. Storm and Medusa negotiated a truce between the two peoples, with the Inhumans agreeing to give Beast access to their labs in order for him to find a cure.[202] At the same time, Emma Frost began preparing for war with the Inhumans, in case Beast was unsuccessful. She made liaisons with various powerful mutants, planning together with Storm and Magneto.[203]

Hydra Empire / New Tian[]

When Hydra took control over the United States, the mutants entered a treaty with Hydra, and formed the mutants' sovereign republic of New Tian[204] in what was Northern California in exchange for abstaining from intervening in their war. New Tian was ruled by King Xorn, controlled by Emma Frost,[205] and Hank McCoy acted as ambassador for the nation.[206] Subsequent treaties were signed between the New Tian and Hydra Nation, including trade and energy treaties, as well as the repelling of any X-Gene carrier, and those with mutant immediate relatives, from Hydra Nation. New Tian posed as a nation where mutant and human people lived in alleged peaceful coexistence, prejudice and police brutality towards humans were known to exist.

The regime was under attack from various threats: On one end, Hydra's High Council distrusted them despite the lack of evidence provided by the monitoring of their communications,[204] and Doctor Faustus even mesmerized some mutants to attack an Hydra borderpost with New Tian in order to escalate tension (an attempt defused by New Tian and by Hydra Supreme Steven Rogers.[205] New Tian's regime was also targeted by the Underground, comprised of human and mutant elements, who attempted at Frost's life,[207] as did Domino, hired by an unknown party.[208]

After the collapse of Hydra, New Tian issued a negotiated surrender with the United States. The United States Armed Forces, along with Sentinels entered the nation to conduct planned demolitions operations. As the world celebrated the fall of a fascist rule, Emma Frost felt they returned to live under it while McCoy saw in New Tian a glimpse of what a mutant nation could be.[206]

Krakoan era[]

After apparently abandoning his dream for peaceful coexistence, Professor X with the assistance of Magneto and Moira established a nation for mutants on Krakoa.[209]

At the third Hellfire Gala, Professor X was forced to made mutants on Earth going through Gateways.[210]

All the dead Genoshan in the Wild Sentinels attack were resurrected while Atlantic Krakoa stayed in the White Hot Room.[211]

After Orchis and the Enigma were neutralized, Pacific Krakoa merged with the Atlantic Krakoa and decided to go to the White Hot Room along with the Atlantic Krakoan's mutant population, reforming the mutant nation and living in peace without the chaos of Earth.[211]

Alternate realities[]

Please find here the history of alternate realities mutants.

Mutant Editorial History[]

Though the mutants are considered a modern concept, introduced with Marvel Comics Uncanny X-Men Vol 1 1 (September, 1963), the term was (seemingly) introduced by Marvel predecessor Atlas Comics. Also, some Timely Comics (Atlas predecessor) characters were later retconned as mutants.
Please consult the "mutant editorial history" page for more informations.


  • It was stated by the Stranger that he had been manipulating the evolution of the mutants of Earth[212] (or more generally "Earth's genetic evolution"), for decades,[213] as humans are allegedly meant to become the sole survivor of this universe, wishing to speed up their evolution in order to usurp that role.[212] That statement is controversial considering he also claimed to have visited Earth only recently, a few years ago.[213]


  • After a fan asked to Tom Brevoort what was Tuk mutant powers and that Brevoort answered him ("Being alive when there were still dinosaurs."), it was believed by other fans that he was indeed a mutant, and that Homo superior predated 'Humans (Homo sapiens).[214]


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