The recent dates are given regarding the comics' edition. Due to the sliding timescale, the temporal connections (sometimes stated in the comics) may be incoherent outside of the comics context.
Those dates can also be replaced if proven in comics (or handbooks) to be different from the publication dates.a
To be noted that the chronological order is based on proven facts: Therefore, some mutants among them The Forever Man, Garbha-Hsien and Nicodemus, may be the first mutants, but aren't listed as such due to a lack of consistent information.
The mutant population have varied on Earth-616, climbing to millions and decreasing to a few hundred individuals.
Out of Earth
Five and a half billion years ago, Maht Pacle was an alien obsessed with killing whatever he hunted. He was also a mutant of his species, whose biological systems were focused on his body's preservation, causing his adult body to not age. He became the Elder of the Universe known as the Obliterator.
Pre- and early History
Before the First Host
One million years ago, as the Stone Age Avengers were rushing to the First Host, Agamotto mentioned that the roster included mutants. Though it is unknown which members were referenced, Lady Phoenix was presumably the mentioned mutant, due to the Phoenix Force pattern of choosing telepathic redheaded mutants as hosts.
During their First Host on Earth, one million years ago, the Celestials collected the Wanderers, a tribe of Homo erectus. Gammenon the Gatherer collected the ape-men and send them to Ziran the Tester who mutated them to have an unstable genome, creating the Deviants (Homo descendus), a race with various mutations, who were then released and went hiding in the caves. With other subjects, Nezarr the Calculator then created the Eternals (Homo immortalis), hairless, upright tall beings able to tap into the cosmic power. They were themselves released, flying out of the Celestials' laboratory-ship. Finally, Oneg the Prober created a latent gene for the expansion of human potential and those modified yet apparently unchanged ape-men were released.
Dawn of Man
A few individuals have been stated to be among the first mutants, originated from the beginnings of human live (although their origin remains unclear as far):
- The Forever Man was seemingly one of the first mutants, possibly the first according to Iron Man, and claimed to have lived 10,000 lives, although it may be an hyperbole or an underestimation.
- Hungry, possibly the "ultimate primal mutant" (or a demonic entity) from the dawn of humanity, having existed as long as the human species.
- Garbha-Hsien was stated to be one of the oldest, even by External standards. He himself said that he was already old when the continents shook.
- Amahl Farouk said himself that he lived since the dawn of humanity.
- Nicodemus was said to be centuries old, and "as old as the mountains".
The first recorded (with a clear date) human mutant on Earth was Selene, born in Central Europe 17,000 years ago, "after the Oceans swallowed Atlantis" and "before the rise of the sons of Aryas", during the Hyborian Age, and even clashed with Kulan Gath over 10,000 years ago.
Though his exact origin is unknown, Crule was believed to originate from the northern regions of what became Africa and to be at least centuries old, but he invoked Ishtar and Mitra, deities primarily worshiped in the Hyborian Age.
Biblical Times: The Neyaphem and CheyarafimMayan, Aztec or Moche"; Carbon dating has stated that the age of the mutant remains found in Isla des Demonas to be 15,000 years old (When neolithic revolution and domestication of animals by humans dates back to 9000 BC) and long before the rise of the Egyptian empires, an ancient and advanced mutant civilization predating all other known civilizations.
Among those mutants, called Neyaphem, who enslaved humanity was Azazel, calling himself Satan. He and his kind were repelled to another dimension by the "Angels", the Cheyarafim, another early group of mutants. Among the other Neyaphem to be trapped were also Ydrazil.
The Banciewicz family
Allegedly for thousand years, the first-born sons of the Jewish family Banciewicz developed powers while reaching puberty.
Many of the early recorded mutants were active during antique Egypt, including communities, groups and families:
- The Man (eventually known as "Demon") and others of his kind (named the same way) were activated by Uranium pits. They were active at least since Ancient Egyptian times.
- The Forever Man was one of the first mutants on Earth, has possibly lived 10,000 lives and was active at least in Ancient Egyptian times.
- En Sabah Nur stated that he was the first mutant (and thought himself to be,his name meaning "The First One"), although Selene predated him 5,000 years at least. He was reportedly born 5,000 years ago, in Egypt, during the First Dynasty (30th century B.C.).
- After him, many powered individuals among his descendants, the Clan Akkaba, were witnessed in positions of powers in Egypt.
- Anath-Na Mut was active in 1275 B.C., and served Ramses II.
- Crule was possibly born in northern Africa, was at least centuries-old, he prayed to Ishtar  and Mitra and consequently was possibly born at least in the beginning of the Common Era.
- Nicodemus was said to be centuries old, and "as old as the mountains".
- Decimus Furius activated his powers in Rome in the year 281, seemingly a young boy or an adolescent then. After rampaging civilians, spending years in prison and acting as a gladiator, he was worshiped, thought to be the Minotaur, until he was collected by Apocalypse and "stored" for later use as the War of his Final Horsemen.
- Sanjar Javeed was active in the year 325 in Persia. He was collected by Apocalypse and "stored" for later use as the Death of his Final Horsemen.
5th to 6th Centuries
At some point, many generations ago, some mutants, the Neo, secluded themselves from mankind, hoping to inherit Earth once the humans had destroyed themselves. They built hidden cities in various locations, including Alaska and South America. They remained in hiding for centuries.
The exact time of this seclusion is unknown.
In 1013, Apocalypse came to Scandinavia to kill Thoron the counsel of Rama-Tut who informed him of beings and ancestors of people who would cause a threat to him in the future. He then sent his four Four Horsemen (Pestilence/Phantom Bats of the Twelve Minds, War, Native-American Famine, Death) to kill Folkbern Logan, ancestor of Wolverine, but they were all destroyed by Thor.
During one of those slumbers, a gathering of powerful mutants including En Sabah Nur and Garbha-Hsien created the Five Fingers of Annihilation blade to destroy the Skornn, who imbued it with their own mutant life force while forging it.
En Sabah Nur having sent a cadre of killers after the Traveler, he responded the call months after, to find only D'narda alive, the Skornn awakened and having fed upon the lifeforce of the townspeople and priests of Karanada, and the Council of Nirinthia. When D'narda sacrificed herself to save the Traveler from the Skornn, her blood and sacrifice activated the Five Fingers of Annihilation, stopping the Skornn.
During the Third Crusade, Bennet du Paris encountered in Akkaba the mutants Sahreed and The Scarab, before manifesting his own powers. Offered him to be become his servant, Apocalypse locked the knight he had renamed Exodus for centuries.
Another form of "early mutants" also during the same period, with notably Dafydd ap Andras, born in the year 1337, active at least in 1347. This kind, named "killcrops", was characterized by early appearance of powers, and allegedly leading the way to the modern mutants with puberty-induced mutation.
Around six to seven hundred years ago, a population of three hundred "Proto-Mutants" (an "early" form of mutants with "less evolved" X-Genes), a different species from mutants, like Neanderthals to humans, lived in the mountains of Crimea.
- The man who would become known as Gabriel Shepherd was stated to be 700 years old, possibly as a simplification.
- Ister was stated to be around 665 years old, and was consequently born around the half of the 14th century
It isn't known yet how far the origin of the Proto-Mutants started.
A Primal Scream caused by a Cosmic Being annihilated half of Europe's population in the guise of the Black Plague. Due to the Proto-Mutants not being affected, they were targeted by the humans, seeking a cure or simply driven by fear and anger, and were eventually all killed. Despite the Proto-Mutants retreating in the hills, they were all slaughtered and buried in a mass grave near Kuryk, Kazakhstan, off the Caspian Sea.
From Renaissance to late 18th Century
- Gloria Knoblach, born in 1673, possibly active (hung as a witch at Salem) in June 1692.
- William Knoblach was born in 1675, and disappeared after 1700, possibly already activated at this time, and confirmed to be soon after.
- Fiona Knoblach was born in 1680.
Fiona Knoblach married in 1707 and had three daughters. Her first husband died five years later, and she soon remarried to another man and had three more daughters before he died in 1718. She married for a third time in 1720 to a Vernon Reaves and had a seventh daughter.
In 1780, Fiona Knoblach had around twenty grandchildren and sixty great-grandchildren, mostly girls. It is unknown how many were mutants.
Burke was guillotined in the 18th century.
From 1800 to 1870
More and more mutants started to appear:
- Jonas Graymalkin activated two hundred years ago.
- Silas Burr was possibly involved in a murder in 1828 (although he was accounted to be born at the end of 19th century).
- Ichisumi first activated in 1833 in Kumamoto, Japan. She was collected by Apocalypse and "stored" for later use as the Famine of his Final Horsemen.
From 1840 to 1870, there was a small yet significant increase in the mutant population.
The same year, Nathaniel Essex presented his work and theories on the Essex Factors, illustrated by a cadaver he pieced together from human and animal remains. He was rejected by the Royal Society of London. He then looked for "freaks" and was shown a collection of some of them by the Marauders during his search for the ones with the Great Mutation, the right "Essex Factor", the "Essex Men". He also met with Apocalypse and time-travelling Cyclops and Phoenix. It is unknown if some of those "freaks" were indeed mutants.
- Jeb Lee activated in 1863 in the USA. He was collected by Apocalypse and "stored" for later use as the Pestilence of his Final Horsemen.
- Amanda Mueller was apparently born around 1860.
1870 to the end of the 20th Century
From to 1870 to 1890 by a decrease equivalent to the increase from 1840 to 1870, and from then, the mutant population increased exponentially.
Frederick and Hamilton Slade, their mother Margaret Slade, Jack Starsmore, Kabar Brashir and dozens other members of the Clan Akkaba were active mutants in 1897, but their numbers were reduced to a handful.
- Irene Adler was born in the 19th century (she was active in 1936).
- Victor Creed was born in the late 19th century.
- Clara and Saul Creed, the younger siblings of Victor Creed, were born at least in the end of 19th century, and were already adult in 1907.
- James Howlett was born in the end of the 19th century, and activated in 1900.
- Absalom stated he activated in Wyoming at the end of the 19th century, in 1896 (although he was seen already active and part of the Externals in 1891.
Some others are identified as being around a century old, but may in fact be much older:
- Silas Burr was accounted to be born in Canada toward end of 19th century (but was also tied to possible murders back in 1828).
- Elias Bogan was stated to have been alive for at least one century, but could have been the inspiration for the original, founding chapter of the Hellfire Club, in the 1780s.
- Ogun, believed to be a mutant, is at least one century old, was active in the 1910s but, according to other reports, was already alive in the early part of the 17th century.
20th century: The Modern Mutant Race
There was an exponential increase in the mutant population from 1890 and through the 20th century. Mutants became a statistically significant evolutionary offshoot of Homo sapiens around that time, and it is considered that the "modern mutant race" is only a century old.
In 1906 in San Francisco, the local branch of the Hellfire Club, led by Molyneux, assembled a league of "seers", "sensitives" and psychics, who were both in his vision "the first step" to the "Over-Men", and a way to detect them. He also stated that using those, he had been able to find some of those Over-Men. The concept of Over-Men was inspired by both Charles Darwin and Nietzsche's works.
- The Forever Man was reborn as Morgan Hardy during a fire following the earthquake.
- Doctor Nemesis was born the 1st of December 1906, and is considered among the first modern mutants.
It is unknown if some of those "seers" and "Wonders" (apart from Klara Prast) were indeed mutants.
Among the possibly or confirmed members of this modern mutants are:
- Silver Fox was active in the 1910s.
- Circa 1910, Tobias Messenger had gathered at least three other activated mutant adults, who participated to WWI and died within the 10 following years.
- Raven Darkholme was active in the early 20th century. and at least in 1921.
- Jacob Shaw's shapeshifting abilities were activated in 1915 by Sinister.
- At least before 1920, Grigory Rasputin was active, posing as a mystic. He was urged by Sinister to sire children as much as possible.
- Irene Adler (born in the 19th century) was active in 1936.
First mutant boom
- Robert Frank was born circa 1910s-1920s and was active in 1942.
- Jacqueline Falsworth was born circa the end of WWI.
- Namor, born in 1920, is considered the "first of the first mutant boom" (he is also sometimes considered erroneously as the very first mutant).
- Lenore activated herself as a young adult in 1947, and was presumably born in the 1920s.
- Namora / Aquaria Neptunia was born circa 1921.
- Max Eisenhardt was born in the 1920s in Germany.
- Meyer Banciewicz was born in Poland in 1924.
- Born in 1932, James "Jimmy Jupiter" Jankovicz was possibly an early mutant.
- Wolfgang Heinreich was born in the year 1932, in Germany.
- Ethan Warren activated at puberty, and was a lieutenant in US Army during WWII.
- Faye Livingstone was active in the 1930s, and killed in the same period.
- Amahl Farouk was active at least in 1936, although he said himself that he lived since the dawn of humanity.
- The original members of the Promise Gene Bitner, Craig Farnsworth and Ernest Scope were adults and activated mutants in the 50's.Namor, a notorious mutant, attacked New York City and caused tens of thousands of deaths and millions of displaced, along with early anti-mutant sentiment. -->
- Meyer Banciewicz was active during the Nazi invasion of Poland, at thirteen years old.
- Jimmy Jupiter, maybe an early mutant, was active in WWII.
- Stonewall, Super Sabre and Crimson Commando fought together against the Nazis.
- Jacqueline Falsworth was active at least in 1942.
- John Greycrow was active at least in 1944.
- Experiment N2 was created in 1944, cloned from Namor's blood.
In 1944, Nazi scientist Mister Sinister (also known as "Nosferatu") experimented on prisoners in concentration and death camps in order to find and activate mutants. Sinister created Experiment N2, cloning from Namor's blood. In order to create Experiment N2, Sinister used the blood of some Nazi concentration or death camp prisoners. It is unclear if those prisoners were mutants.
The Lebengebrochennacht, the "night of broken lives", was the night the Nazis began hunting down mutants.
That event became famous in "mutant world history", while humans weren't much told nor learned of it.
- Simon Lestron was born in 1945.
- Daken was born in 1946.
- Robert Frank Jr. was born in 1950, but was placed in stasis for years.
- Gloria Dayne was born in 1950.
Mutants were stile seemingly unknown from the public around 1954, while scientists knew of it in 1956. During those years and the time Steve Rogers was frozen, the climate towards mutants shifted to hostility.
- Irving Banciewicz was born around 1956.
- Namorita Prentiss was born in 1958, cloned from her "mother" Namora.
In 1959, socialite Henry Marsh theorized as well the existence of many mutants unaware of their powers or keeping them hidden. He revealed his theory to Vincent Farnsworth, who activated (or discovered his powers) that day. Farnsworth also suspected Marsh of being a mutant as well.
As mutant telepath Charles Xavier witnessed the violence of others towards mutants (already referred to then as "muties",) he created the X-Men, bringing together Scott Summers, Bobby Drake, the winged Warren Worthington III, Henry McCoy and Jean Grey.
- Arkady Rossovich was active at least in 1968.
- Irving Banciewicz activated at fourteen, in 1970.
A popular explanation for this marked growth is the proliferation of nuclear technologies in the modern era, starting with the first atomic bomb who began the wide-spreading of genetic mutation resulting from the radiation.
In 1983, it was still unknown from governmental sources what was the source of the mutation.
Before the Sentinel Massacre
It was stated (in 2001) that the descendants of Fiona Knoblach were nearly thirty thousands, with a least part of them forming the Dark Sisterhood, selected among powerful members of her descendants. It is unknown how many were mutants.
It was also discovered at the same time that the Extinction Gene (a gene activated on when an "entire species is about to go extinct") present within the human genome was slowly pushing them towards extinction, and that humans would be extinct within three, maybe four generations, and mutants (or something even stranger) would replace them.
Sentinel Massacre: Genosha's destruction
Almost all of them killed during the raid. Charles Xavier witnessed the event on Cerebra, with a population counter (on his monitor) falling from 16,521,063 to 763 or less. The body count estimated by Purity was of 16,743,618, then a "Mutie Death Count" of 17,483,229, presumably including the few human victims.
It was later stated that Bolivar Trask, as the inventor of the Sentinels, killed 16,521,618 mutants, but it is unknown how much of these victims are not included in the Genosha attack. It was stated to be 15 million victims by Cyclops, seemingly as a simplification.
All of Genosha's population wasn't wiped out, as Xavier picked up a few signals using Cerebra.
It was stated that more than half of the world's known mutant population died during the Sentinels attack.
After the Sentinel Massacre
The attack on Genosha prompted Xavier (in fact Cassandra Nova possessing his body) to out his school and himself as mutants. (In fact those two events themselves prompting other events in the mutant culture, mutant-human relations and violence...
Soon after that event, yet another rise in mutant birth occurred, tied to solar flares.
Soon after, at 11.15, a Tuesday morning (In New York City) or off-coast of Callao, Peru, at 3:00 PM in the afternoon of November 2nd, the Witch cast another spell, "No More Mutants", de-powering a massive majority of mutants, millions of them.
The US Government estimated a number of 198 mutants, cataloged, but acknowledged that there were a few thousands, around 300 individuals who were recognized as mutants, and Tony Stark admitted that a low estimate had been produced. Dani Moonstar stated that there were 198 known mutants, but others had remained off the grid until then, including Jonas Graymalkin or Leon Nunez, but also known mutants, like the "199th mutant", off the record of the 198 as part of a deal with the government, or Wiz Kid who hacked into S.H.I.E.L.D.'s database.
Stolen from the Inhumans, the Terrigen Mists were used by Quicksilver to mimic or reactivate X-Gene granted abilities in several former mutants, but the effects were dangerous and temporary, quickly causing the re-activated mutants to lose control of their new powers, usually resulting in their deaths. Quicksilver's attempts to use the mists to re-power mutants were stopped by X-Factor Investigations.
Messiah Complex and gathering in San Francisco
When Eli Bard, under orders of Selene, used his Techno-Organic Virus to resurrect deceased mutants, the population grew back to 1,652,106 mutants world-wide, thanks to mutants who had died before M-Day but with active X-Genes being resurrected. Caliban estimated that population to a million mutants. They soon returned to the dead as they were sacrificed by Selene in order to ascend into a goddess.
New mutant activations and Neo extinction
Soon after, one year after the M-Day, the Neo of the Guardian Clan came to Utopia to find answers for their own Decimation, and all of their kind were seemingly slaughtered across the world by the Evolutionaries.
Avengers/X-Men War and M-Day effect cancellation
As a result of the Scarlet Witch's spell, the Phoenix Force reconstituted itself and came to Earth in order to claim Hope Summers as its host and to restore mutantkind. A conflict erupted between the X-Men who believed that the Phoenix was coming to save mutantkind and the Avengers who believed that the Phoenix was coming to destroy the Earth.
After much conflict, the X-Men, lead by Cyclops, were proven right. Hope Summers and the Scarlet Witch used the Phoenix to reverse the M-Day effect and new mutants began to emerge across the globe. Since the dispersion of the Phoenix, there has been no clear census of the mutant population, but new mutants are to be counted at least in dozens.
After the dispersion of the Phoenix and the activation of new mutants, several mutant's powers began to be adversely effected. Beast, Colossus, Cyclops, Magneto, and Emma Frost have all experienced some level of power instability, while Magik's powers were actually enhanced.
No More Humans
Once Cerebra census showed about twenty thousand mutants clustered at more than a hundred locations, with three thousand at the Jean Grey School. The specifics of the situation rapidly overloaded the X-Men, who were to be peacekeepers among tensed mutants.
The Terrigen Bomb
During the conflict between Thanos and the Inhumans a Terrigen Bomb was detonated, releasing the Terrigen Mist into the atmosphere. While initially harmless, the Terrigen Mists in the atmosphere eventually began affecting mutants, making them ill with the so-called "M-Pox" disease. Many mutants died as a result of exposure to the mists, and it also prevented new mutants from manifesting.
After Cyclops and the X-Men investigated Muir Island while a Terrigen cloud was passing over it, the X-Men became aware of the danger the cloud posed to mutants, and Cyclops died due to exposure to the mists. Emma Frost, grieving her beloved's death, created a mental projection of Cyclops and set to work on destroying the Terrigen Clouds. Her scheme led to the successful destruction of one of two clouds, but in a climactic confrontation with the Inhuman Royals, Black Bolt "killed" Emma's mental projection of Cyclops. Storm and Medusa negotiated a truce between the two peoples, with the Inhumans agreeing to give Beast access to their labs in order for him to find a cure. At the same time, Emma Frost began preparing for war with the Inhumans, in case Beast was unsuccessful. She made liaisons with various powerful mutants, planning together with Storm and Magneto.
Hydra Empire / New Tian
Despite an alleged normalization of mutant-inhuman relations, resent and defiance kept on.
Please find here the history of alternate realities mutants.
Though the mutants are considered a modern concept, introduced with Marvel Comics Uncanny X-Men #1 (September, 1963), the term was (seemingly) introduced by Marvel predecessor Atlas Comics. Also, some Timely Comics (Atlas predecessor) characters were later retconned as mutants.
Please consult the "mutant editorial history" page for more informations.
- It was stated by the Stranger that he had been manipulating the evolution of the mutants of Earth (or more generally "Earth's genetic evolution"), for decades, as humans are allegedly meant to become the sole survivor of this universe, wishing to speed up their evolution in order to usurp that role. That statement is controversial considering he also claimed to have visited Earth only recently, a few years ago.
- After a fan asked to Tom Brevoort what was Tuk mutant powers and that Brevoort answered him ("Being alive when there were still dinosaurs."), it was believed by other fans that he was indeed a mutant, and that Homo superior predated 'Homo sapiens.
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Update #5; Obliterator's entry
- ↑ Creatures on the Loose #18 mentions the Sun as being four millions when it is five in Gullivar Jones' age
- ↑ Creatures on the Loose #21
- ↑ Creatures on the Loose #18
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Update #4
- ↑ Avengers Vol 8 #1
- ↑ "Marvel Just Retconned its Entire Mutant Timeline" at CBR
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Thor & Hercules: Encyclopaedia Mythologica #1
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men Annual #1989
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Marvel Fact Files #8
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 What If? #23
- ↑ New Eternals: Apocalypse Now #1
- ↑ Blackwulf #7; Godstalker talked about such DNA complex to mutant Sparrow
- ↑ Fantastic Four #577
- ↑ Inhumanity #1
- ↑ Blackwulf #8; Godstalker stated that Sparrow's kind (mutants) was the fruition of genetic experiment performed one million years
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 Uncanny X-Men #512
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 Heroic Age: X-Men #1; Namor's entry
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 X-Force Vol 2 #6
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 Avengers Assemble #1; Forever Man's entry
- ↑ Avengers #218
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 Wolverine: Weapon X Files #1
- ↑ Heroes for Hope Starring the X-Men #1
- ↑ X-Force #53
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 X-Force #23
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 X-Men: True Friends #2
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 27.2 X-Force #10
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 X-Force #20
- ↑ X-Necrosha #1
- ↑ X-Men: Messiah Complex - Mutant Files #1
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 31.2 X-Men: Earth's Mutant Heroes #1; Crule's entry
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 X-Force #12
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 X-Men #1
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 X-Men #60
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men #422
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men #429
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men #433
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 Justice: Four Balance #4
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 Journey into Mystery #40
- ↑ Uncanny X-Force #2
- ↑ Uncanny X-Force #30
- ↑ Further Adventures of Cyclops and Phoenix #2
- ↑ Rise of Apocalypse #3
- ↑ 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 Wolverine Files #1
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Heroic Age: X-Men #1
- ↑ Civil War Files #1
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 47.2 X-Men: Apocalypse vs. Dracula #1
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 X-Men: Apocalypse vs. Dracula #3
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 Marvel Encyclopedia #Fantastic Four
- ↑ Marvel Encyclopedia #1; 2009 edition
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 Uncanny X-Force #3
- ↑ New Mutants #10
- ↑ X-Men: Apocalypse vs. Dracula #1; It is unknown in which sack of Rome, but probably the ones involving the Germans (Ostrogoths (410), Vandals (455) or Visigoths (546))
- ↑ X-Men: Earth's Mutant Heroes #1; Neo's entry
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 X-Men: Giant-Size #1
- ↑ Uncanny Avengers #6
- ↑ X-Men #61
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 X-Force #37
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 X-Force Vol 2 #1
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 60.2 Deadpool Corps: Rank and Foul #1; Skornn's entry
- ↑ 61.0 61.1 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 4 #19; Apocalypse
- ↑ Black Knight: Exodus #1
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Update #4; Damian Tryp
- ↑ X-Factor Vol 3 #10
- ↑ X-Men Vol 3 #31: The DNA was estimated to 7 hundred years by Dr. Hunter
- ↑ X-Men Vol 3 #31
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 X-Men Vol 3 #32
- ↑ X-Men Vol 3 #36
- ↑ X-Men Vol 3 #32 (2012): Ister was told to be about 665 years old
- ↑ Captain Marvel Vol 5 #5
- ↑ Marvel Atlas #1; Slorenia's entry
- ↑ Stryfe's Strike File #1
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 73.2 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 4 #6
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 74.2 74.3 74.4 74.5 74.6 Cable #94
- ↑ Cable #93
- ↑ 76.0 76.1 76.2 Cable #151
- ↑ 77.0 77.1 X-Treme X-Men #43
- ↑ X-Men: Apocalypse vs. Dracula #1; Seemingly the First French Revolution of 1789–1799.
- ↑ X-Men: Apocalypse vs. Dracula #2; In 1897, he mentioned he first met Apocalypse 36 years ago (in 1861) when he was a child.
- ↑ 80.0 80.1 80.2 X-Men: The Hidden Years #19
- ↑ 81.0 81.1 Further Adventures of Cyclops and Phoenix #1
- ↑ 82.0 82.1 82.2 82.3 All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #7; Mister Sinister's entry
- ↑ X-Men: Earth's Mutant Heroes #1; Amanda Mueller's entry
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Update #1
- ↑ Gambit Vol 3 #12
- ↑ 86.0 86.1 86.2 Gambit Vol 3 #14
- ↑ X-Men: Apocalypse vs. Dracula #2
- ↑ X-Men: Apocalypse vs. Dracula #4
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 4 #6; Wolverine's entry
- ↑ 90.0 90.1 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 4 #7
- ↑ 91.0 91.1 X-Men: True Friends #3
- ↑ Origin II #2
- ↑ X-Men Origins: Wolverine #1
- ↑ Origins of Marvel Comics #1; Wolverine's page
- ↑ Alpha Flight Vol 3 #6; He stated to be 43 years old at time Nagasaki was bombed.
- ↑ 96.0 96.1 Alpha Flight Vol 3 #1
- ↑ Spider-Woman #33
- ↑ 98.0 98.1 Uncanny X-Men #509
- ↑ Runaways Vol 2 #28
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z #14
- ↑ X-Men: Earth's Mutant Heroes #1
- ↑ Wolverine Vol 3 #61
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z #9
- ↑ Spectacular Spider-Man Vol 2 #18
- ↑ 105.0 105.1 Vampires: The Marvel Undead #1
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men Annual Vol 2 #2
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 4 #8
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men #305
- ↑ Women of Marvel: Celebrating Seven Decades Handbook #1
- ↑ X-Men: Magneto Testament #1
- ↑ X-Men: Earth's Mutant Heroes #1; Magneto's entry
- ↑ Avengers: Roll Call #1; Jimmy Jupiter's entry
- ↑ 113.0 113.1 Captain America Vol 6 #2
- ↑ X-Factor Annual #1
- ↑ 115.0 115.1 X-Men: The Hidden Years #18
- ↑ X-Men: Grand Design #1
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men #215
- ↑ 118.0 118.1 118.2 118.3 Weapon X Vol 2 #14
- ↑ 119.0 119.1 119.2 Heroic Age: X-Men #1
- ↑ Excalibur Vol 3 #7
- ↑ Spider-Man and the Black Cat #5
- ↑ Captain America: America's Avenger #1
- ↑ Gambit Vol 3 #21
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 4 #9
- ↑ Tales of Suspense #6; November 1959
- ↑ 126.0 126.1 126.2 Wolverine: Weapon X Files #1; Logan's entry
- ↑ Amazing Adult Fantasy #14; July 1962
- ↑ Tales of Suspense #32
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Update #2; Ursa Major' entry
- ↑ Astonishing X-Men Vol 4 #7; Marvel Legacy Primer Pages
- ↑ X-Men Forever #4
- ↑ X-Men: The Hidden Years #21
- ↑ New Mutants #2; Year of publication
- ↑ 134.0 134.1 New X-Men #114
- ↑ 135.0 135.1 135.2 135.3 135.4 New X-Men #116
- ↑ New X-Men #115
- ↑ X-Treme X-Men #37
- ↑ X-Treme X-Men Annual #2001
- ↑ X-Force Vol 3 #3
- ↑ 140.0 140.1 Uncanny X-Men Vol 2 #1
- ↑ New X-Men #118
- ↑ 142.0 142.1 142.2 142.3 Civil War Files #1; The 198's entry
- ↑ House of M #2
- ↑ Generation M #1
- ↑ X-Men Vol 2 #191
- ↑ House of M #7
- ↑ Fear Itself: Fellowship of the Fear #1
- ↑ 148.0 148.1 Avengers: The Initiative #5
- ↑ Young X-Men #8
- ↑ Statement that author Christos N. Gage stated it.
- ↑ X-Men Annual Vol 2 #2007
- ↑ X-Factor Vol 3 #20
- ↑ X-Men Vol 2 #205
- ↑ Astonishing X-Men Vol 3 #30
- ↑ X-Force Vol 3 #21
- ↑ X-Force Vol 3 #22
- ↑ X-Force Vol 3 #25
- ↑ X-Men: Second Coming #1
- ↑ Fear Itself: Fellowship of Fear #1; Second Coming's entry
- ↑ Publication year of the issues
- ↑ Heroic Age: X-Men #1: Steve Rogers stated he had decorated Cyclops "recently", the apparition of new mutants occurring the night after it
- ↑ X-Men: Second Coming #2
- ↑ Generation Hope #6-7
- ↑ X-Factor #224
- ↑ X-Men Vol 3 #33
- ↑ Avengers vs. X-Men #1
- ↑ Avengers vs. X-Men #12
- ↑ All-New X-Men #1
- ↑ Cable and X-Force #2
- ↑ All-New X-Men #3
- ↑ 171.0 171.1 X-Men: No More Humans #1
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men #600
- ↑ Avengers Vol 6 #0
- ↑ Uncanny Avengers Vol 3 #1
- ↑ Death of X #4
- ↑ Inhumans vs. X-Men #1
- ↑ X-Men: Blue #10
- ↑ X-Men: Blue #7
- ↑ Cable #150
- ↑ Astonishing X-Men Vol 4 #1
- ↑ Astonishing X-Men Vol 4 #2
- ↑ Astonishing X-Men Vol 4 #3
- ↑ Astonishing X-Men Vol 4 #4
- ↑ Astonishing X-Men Vol 4 #5
- ↑ Astonishing X-Men Vol 4 #6
- ↑ Despicable Deadpool #293
- ↑ 187.0 187.1 X-Men: Red #1
- ↑ X-Men: Red #2
- ↑ X-Men: Red #3
- ↑ X-Men: Red #4
- ↑ X-Men: Red #5
- ↑ X-Men: Red #6
- ↑ X-Men: Red #7
- ↑ X-Men: Red #8
- ↑ X-Men: Red #9
- ↑ Hunt for Wolverine: Weapon Lost #1
- ↑ 197.0 197.1 X-Men Forever #3-6
- ↑ 198.0 198.1 All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #11
- ↑ Tom Brevoort's statement