- Secret Subway line, Underground Kingdom... so theatrical. And pointless. What was I thinking? The strength and healing powers of the Goblin Serum are gone from my system... but for the first time in ages, so too is the madness. I won. I got exactly what I wanted. Alchemax has been secured for my heir and my legacy. And next time? I'll return with a new plan... and a new face. All these years, Spider-Man and his kind have dealt with a giggling lunatic. A madman. You've never faced the real Norman Osborn, a man with all his wits about him. Poor fools. Next time you'll never see me coming.
- -- Norman Osborn src
As a child, Norman Osborn became obsessed with gaining wealth and power. His father, a failed business inventor who claimed that he was swindled out of his inventions and personal fortune, took out his rage on Norman. Norman would not allow himself to become a failure like his father, he realized that he could not depend on him for financial security, thus began working after school.
Norman studied chemistry and electrical engineering at Empire State University, and also took a number of courses in business administration. One of his teachers was Professor Mendel Stromm. They became good friends and later formed a business partnership. Since Norman put up the bulk of the financing, they called their company Osborn Chemical (Oscorp).
He married his college sweetheart; Emily Lyman and they had a son Harold "Harry" Osborn. Unfortunately, his wife became ill. After she died, he buried himself in his work and rarely had time for young Harry. 
As the co-owner of Oscorp, Norman Osborn, loving wealth and power, decided to take full control and had his business partner Mendell Stromm arrested after he discovered he was committing embezzlement, granting Norman complete control over the company; making him the official CEO of Oscorp. While going through Stromm's notes, he found a secret formula that would make him superhumanly powerful. However, his son, Harry, tired of always being ignored and rejected by his father, switched the chemicals in the serum, causing it to explode in his face. Later, at the hospital, Osborn found himself thinking more clearly than ever before, not knowing that he would slowly reach insanity.
Attempting to achieve power beyond his wildest dreams, Norman Osborn planned to become the most powerful gang-lord of all by uniting all the independent gangs under his leadership in an attempt to gain control over all of New York's crime. To prove his power and establish his reputation, he decided to choose Spider-Man as his victim of choice, and sent two criminals, the Headsman and Scorcher, after Spider-Man. The two were soundly defeated, and then Osborn decided to take matters into his own hands. Remembering a giant green goblin monster from childhood nightmares, he created a costume that resembled that monster, and he became the "Green Goblin".
The Green Goblin first battled Spider-Man with the help of the Enforcers, by getting Spider-Man to participate in a movie about him. Attempting to defeat him in New Mexico, he let Spider-Man battle the Hulk, after the Green Goblin, the Enforcers, and Spider-Man accidentally stumbled upon the Hulk's stomping grounds. Escaping the Hulk, Spider-Man attempted to capture the Green Goblin, but was too exhausted to prevent his escape. Returning to New York, the Green Goblin easily hid amongst New York's vast population.
Spider-Man and the Green Goblin fought a few months later at a fan club meeting for Spider-Man organized by Eugene "Flash" Thompson. However, when Spider-Man heard that his Aunt May was extremely ill, he was forced to retreat, giving him a sour reputation by most of New York's citizens, including several superheroes, super-villains, citizens, and, of course, J. Jonah Jameson, and giving the Green Goblin an impressive reputation. Later still, the Green Goblin pretended to be helping the police by attempting to capture Lucky Lobo, a big gang leader, and, after seeing defeat by Spider-Man, attempted a partnership with the Crime-Master, which again ended in defeat.
With constant defeat, the Green Goblin became more determined. In time, Osborn became obsessed with Spider-Man and began directing all of his efforts to find a way to defeat his web-swinging adversary.
And he did. The Green Goblin managed to discover Spider-Man's secret identity, by utilizing a false gang that sprayed Spider-Man with a gas that nullified his spider-sense, allowing the Green Goblin to follow him without being detected. Capturing Spider-Man with ease, he brought him to his hideout and revealed himself to be Norman Osborn, the father of Peter Parker's friend. After revealing his past, he let Spider-Man escape, so as to prove his superiority. Spider-Man managed to defeat the Goblin by sending him into a bunch of disconnected, high-voltage wires that were drenched in chemicals. Suffering amnesia, Osborn lost all memory up to the years that his son was in high school. Spider-Man, content in this knowledge, burned the Green Goblin's costume, hoping never to see him again.
Probably thanks to the chemicals, the Green Goblin became a separate entity in Norman Osborn's brain. Norman's memories eventually returned, and the Green Goblin persona attempted to take over Norman and defeat Spider-Man once more, this time with a bomb that was filled with a gas that nullified his wall-clinging ability. Spider-Man defeated him this time by landing on his back and luring him to the hospital room of Norman's son, extremely ill from drug abuse. Snapped back to reality, Norman returned to normal. However, Norman eventually regained his memories and became more unhinged and obsessed with obtaining revenge against Spider-Man than ever.
Osborn was involved in a brief affair with Gwendolyne "Gwen" Stacy while she was still in a relationship with Peter Parker, which resulted in the birth of twins (Gabriel and Sarah). The twins were taken with Osborn to Europe to be raised during his sabbatical. They rapidly aged and developed superhuman strength and endurance thanks to the Goblin Formula in Norman's blood.
"Death" of the Green Goblin
To torture Spider-Man, the Green Goblin kidnapped and nearly killed Gwen Stacy by throwing her off a bridge, after which Spider-Man attempted to save her with a web-line, but killed her by applying the 1100 pounds of force required to bring her to a dead stop. Filled with rage, Spider-Man savagely attacked the Green Goblin, nearly killing him. He returned to his senses at the last minute, but the Green Goblin took the opportunity to attempt one final trick by remote controlling his goblin glider to impale the wall crawler. Spider-Man was able to dodge the glider which instead impaled the Green Goblin, seemingly killing him.
Harry Osborn had witnessed the final defeat of his father at the hands of Spider-Man and removed the Green Goblin costume before the authorities could arrive, thus preserving his secret identity. He even bribed the coroner so that further autopsies would show no trace of the "Goblin" formula in Norman's blood. And for many years, the world believed Osborn to be dead.
Many tried to follow in the original Green Goblin's footsteps, including his first-born son Harry Osborn, therapist Barton "Bart" Hamilton, and millionaire Roderick Kingsley created his own variation on the goblin motif. Each subsequent Goblin variation were defeated and Harry eventually died as a result of exposure to an untested experimental version of the formula that had given his father his abilities. Little did anyone know that Norman Osborn was in fact alive, and devising a master plan that he hoped would ruin Spider-Man forever.
The Return of Norman Osborn
The same formula that had given Norman Osborn his heightened strength and intellect also gave him powerful regenerative abilities, allowing him to survive the impalement by his goblin glider. He had escaped the morgue, replacing his body with that of a drifter he had murdered (and impaled through the chest) and fled to Europe. There he joined the Brotherhood of the Scriers, eventually moving up in their ranks and completely taking them over. After the death of Harry Osborn, whom Norman believed would prove himself in his absence, Osborn accelerated a series of plans he had formulated over the past several years.
From the shadows, Osborn manipulated Empire State University Professor Miles Warren as part of a grand scheme to have Peter Parker believe he was in fact a clone and that Ben Reilly (the real clone) was the original. However, with Mary Jane Watson pregnant and the possibility of a life without Spider-Man on the horizon, Peter freely relinquished his alter-ego to Reilly.
Unsatisfied with these results, Osborn returned as the Green Goblin revealing himself as the mastermind behind the entire fiasco and killed Ben who sacrificed himself to save Peter. Reilly's body disintegrated, proving that Peter was in fact the real Spider-Man all along. In addition, Osborn had his employee Alison Mongrain drug Mary Jane into an induced premature labor, kidnapping the child.
Returning to his former seat of power, Osborn regains control of his business and also buys out the Daily Bugle, humiliating former friend and societal peer J. Jonah Jameson as the latter no longer has control over the newspaper. He also torments Ben Urich and demands a retraction over an exposé of his time as the Goblin, providing faked evidence that he never was the supervillain, despite Urich's extensive research. However, he saves his most sadistic treatment for Peter, acting not only as a constant reminder of all the pain he's inflicted on his nemesis over the years, but a looming threat that could strike at any time. He would then state that he was in hiding from his enemies, including Spider-Man. When Peter's apartment and raided, this build-up of pressure eventually makes Spider-Man snap by savagely beating the civilian and non-resistant Osborn in front of the latter's CCTV, which, combined with Osborn convincing the Trapster to frame Spider-Man for murder, results in Spider-Man becoming a fugitive again. To get around this, Spider-Man adopts four new identities, using two of these identities to convince Trapster to expose his own role in Osborn's scheme, and provide fake evidence that the individual that beat up Osborn was an impostor.
For a time, Osborn retires his costumed persona and uses a stand-in so as not to be suspected of being the Green Goblin. This fifth Goblin kidnaps Norman's grandson and clashes with a wanted and injured Spider-Man. Norman also crosses paths with Roderick Kingsley and initiates a hostile takeover of the latter's corporate empire, in retaliation for raiding the Goblin's arsenal and identity.
Gathering of Five
Osborn attended the ceremony known as the Gathering of Five. The ritual with five arcane relics, where the people are granted either immense power or they pay the ultimate price. These relics, when brought together and the ritual performed, allow the five who posses them to be blessed or cursed with: power, knowledge, immortality, insanity and death. But the catch is that these powers doesn't seem what they are at first: what first seemed madness was in fact knowledge, what seemed power was madness and death seemed like immortality. Morris Maxwell received "Knowledge", Cassandra Webb received immortality and Mattie Franklin was granted the gift of power and Greg Herd received "Death". Osborn however received "Insanity" causing him to threaten the world with genetic bombs. During this time, Norman reveals to Peter that he faked his Aunt May's death as the real May was alive and the previous one who died was an actress Osborn hired to take her place. Osborn's complete madness is evident, as he hallucinates unmasking and killing Peter; yet in reality Peter easily defeats him. He is rescued from custody thereafter by his cabal of henchmen.
Identity Revealed and ImprisonmentNorman Osborn's next grand scheme was to make Spider-Man his heir, first drugging him into wearing the Green Goblin costume and then attacking his friends. After days of physical and mental torture at the Osborn Estate, Peter Parker nearly gave in, but refused at the last minute. Next, the Green Goblin sent a drunken Flash Thompson to drive a truck into Midtown High School, where Peter had taken a job as a teacher. The accident caused Flash brain damage, and spurred Peter into a final battle with his old enemy. Although, it seemed that in some strange way Norman wanted Peter to finish him off, Peter refused, saying he did not want to fight him anymore and declared a truce.
Sometime later, Osborn was finally revealed to the public as the Green Goblin by Ben Urich and the Daily Bugle after he murdered a Bugle reporter named Terri Kidder who had confronted him about a number of missing Oscorp employees. Osborn set off a large explosion in his Oscorp office when Urich, super-powered Bugle employee Jessica Jones, and a large contingent of NYPD officers arrived to arrest him for Kidder's murder. Though she and Urich were rescued by Spider-Man, Jones feared that the explosion had killed her unborn child. The Goblin managed to escape despite Jones striking him with his own Goblin Glider. The next day, Osborn turned himself in to authorities and appeared to be fully cooperating with police in an attempt to make this look like another round of groundless harassment perpetuated by the Daily Bugle against him. Outside the courthouse, however, Luke Cage, Jones' boyfriend and father of her unborn child, attacked Osborn's limo, stating: "You do not mess with Luke Cage's family!!" Despite Spider-Man showing up in an attempt to deescalate the situation, Osborn popped out of the limo on his Goblin Glider and wearing his Goblin mask. After a climatic battle that raged across Manhattan, Osborn was finally captured after being savagely beaten unconscious by Cage and was finally imprisoned.
Things were far from over, however. From behind bars, Osborn once again masterminded a plan against Spider-Man. This time he had MacDonald "Mac" Gargan (Scorpion) kidnap Aunt May. The plan was for Spider-Man to break Osborn out of prison in exchange for his aunt's life. Peter reluctantly agreed and with the help of the Black Cat proceeded to break Osborn out, only to have twelve of his greatest enemies waiting for him on the outside. Osborn had assembled a team, which included Gargan newly bonded with the Venom symbiote. However, Mary Jane had contacted S.H.I.E.L.D., and the villains were faced with the combined might of Captain America, Iron Man, Yellowjacket, Daredevil and the Fantastic Four. During the fracas, the Green Goblin had escaped to kidnap Mary Jane Watson and took her to the George Washington Bridge in order to replay his murder of Gwen Stacy. However, a drugged Doctor Octopus intervened, attacking the Green Goblin. Spider-Man was able to save Mary Jane after a bolt of lightning sent the two villains into the river. Following some verbal clues from the Green Goblin, Peter was also able to discover where he had hidden Aunt May and rescued her as well. It was revealed that Osborn sent Peter a letter before the fight, thanking Peter for giving his life meaning and purpose, but Peter never received the letter due to moving from his residence.
After the Green Goblin's takedown, Norman and Gwen's twins confronted Spider-Man. They believed Parker to be their father as well as responsible for killing their mother and abandoning them. Spider-Man told the twins the truth - Gabriel Stacy rejected Spider-Man, and accepted the Gray Goblin mantle, becoming insane in the process. After battling Spider-Man, the deranged Gray Goblin disappeared, while Sarah Stacy sought training to use her powers for good.
The Green Goblin later watched in shock as Spider-Man publicly revealed his identity as Peter Parker, railing that his nemesis "broke the rules!". Peter also confirmed on TV that Osborn was the Green Goblin, and that he killed Gwen Stacy. He was then approached by S.H.I.E.L.D. agents who were seeking his aid. When Osborn fled during his last jail break, S.H.I.E.L.D. agents picked him up outside of France and returned him to his jail cell under heightened security.
The Green Goblin confronted and attacked Ben Urich in an alley, but S.H.I.E.L.D.'s nano-machines caused him to stop, involuntarily making him collapse and foam at the mouth. He later attacked a group of Atlanteans in his gear, killing and wounding many.
Norman Osborn made a deal with a shadowy figure from the pro-registration side who gave him a serum to override the control of the nano-machines implanted by S.H.I.E.L.D. The figure was indicated to be highly trusted by the superhero community, though whether he was a superhero himself was unspecified; Sally Floyd and Ben Urich believe it to be Tony Stark.
Later, when an Atlantean ambassador attempted to give a speech, Norman appeared and shot him, wounding but not killing him. As he was being taken away by security, Norman said he was 'sick' and not in control of his actions. While being interrogated by two officers, Norman became increasingly agitated when they questioned who gave Norman access to the press conference and assisted in smuggling a weapon there. At first, Norman became angry, threatening to kill the two officers' families, then he became more and more afraid until a government figure interrupted the interview (assumed from Norman's comments to be the man who neutralized his nano-machines) at which point Norman begged the officers not to let him go, even promising to reveal all he knew to them.
Osborn became the government appointed new director of the Thunderbolts, and was prescribed medication to stabilize his personality. He remained unbalanced, however, and prone to maniacal laughing fits. One such occurrence happened after he read a file on the Steel Spider. Now he planned to take down the Steel Spider so as to punish Spider-Man for his defiance.
In addition to calling the Thunderbolts to New York to hunt down Spider-Man, Norman agreed to help New York mayoral candidate Randall Crowne who got into trouble when Ben Urich's newspaper Front Line revealed that he had been operating an illegal sweatshop. Norman confronted the man who took the photos: Peter Parker. Norman was unable to find a way Parker could contact Spider-Man and left him. When he later observed a fight between Venom, Anti-Venom, and Spider-Man, Norman was confronted by Menace. After a short confrontation, Menace spared him, after accusing Osborn of being a fool for devoting all his time and assets to Spider-Man's destruction. As Menace left, Norman found Peter Parker's camera and used it to reverse engineer the tracing system allowing the camera to zero on Spider-Man's chest. Norman later used the captured villain Freak to produce a counter-measure for Anti-Venom, at the same time providing Mac Gargan with a protective Scorpion battle suit that would distribute the cure throughout his body, healing the symbiote faster. However when faced with the combined might of Anti-Venom and Spider-Man, Anti-Venom fled the fight and Norman had to destroy his recent New York Headquarters after his fight with Spider-Man. However, he was still regarded as a hero within the eyes of the public.
Captain Marvel, revealed to be an sleeper agent of the Skrulls, attacked Thunderbolts Mountain, but he could not bring himself to kill Norman Osborn. Osborn offered him a chance to explain himself, spoke with him in private, and convinced him to leave. Following this, it became clear the Thunderbolts - due to Norman forcing the usage of Oscorp technology over Stark Industries products, the latter of which had been deactivated by Skrull agents - were the only team that could reach and defend Washington, D.C.. Norman successfully managed and directed the team, while personally joining the battle with a machine gun. During the conflict, several Skrulls shape-shifted into duplicates of Spider-Man, the sight of whom drove Norman into an apparent nervous breakdown. He gunned down every one of them, stating the slaughter to be "therapeutic" for him.
After saving the capital city, Norman successfully manipulated the media to promote himself and the team as patriotic heroes, and undermined the CSA and his former business rival Tony Stark. He subsequently led the team to New York, joining the final battle. His "heroic" status was exemplified when numerous TV cameras captured his gunshot killing Skrull Queen Veranke. When the President of the United States shut down S.H.I.E.L.D. and indicted Stark, Norman was given the role of running the S.H.R.A. and the Avengers Initiative. 
“Norman Osborn. America's last hero. That's who I am.”— Iron Patriot
Norman Osborn was seen as the Earth's greatest hero, and had been effectively granted the power to restructure the U.S. military-industrial complex to fill the gap left by S.H.I.E.L.D. Osborn secretly brought together a group of super-villains and morally-ambiguous heroes, comprised of Doctor Doom, Namor, Emma Frost, the Hood, Loki and later Taskmaster, under the name of the Cabal. Norman and his Cabal would initiate drastic changes that would tip the scales in favor of super-villainy, with Osborn promising to give them all an opportunity to reach their respective goals. To counteract the villain's inherently treacherous natures, they were threatened into compliance by the Sentry, though Namor, Emma Frost and Doctor Doom would all later leave or defect.
Norman reformed S.H.I.E.L.D. into H.A.M.M.E.R., with himself as director, and former S.H.I.E.L.D. accountant Victoria Hand as deputy. Osborn had former S.H.I.E.L.D. director Tony Stark portrayed as being indirectly responsible for the Skrull Invasion. Osborn had him hunted down as a fugitive, with the intention of recovering the sole remaining copy of the S.H.R.A. database, and also to obtain the secret behind the Iron Man armor's repulsor batteries.
Osborn renamed the 50-State Initiative to the Thunderbolts Initiative. With many of the previous members of the Thunderbolts folded into his new Avengers, he created a new team of Thunderbolts as his own black ops team. Led by the second Black Widow, this team's first mission was to assist Osborn in divesting himself of the bad publicity attached to the Green Goblin image. When Osborn was called to ride aboard Air Force One by the new U.S. President, he was confronted by Doc Samson who possessed footage of one of the Green Goblin's murderous rampages. However, Osborn's new Thunderbolts engineered a scenario in which Osborn appeared to save the President from a gamma-irradiated Doc Samson and a copycat Green Goblin (in actual fact, the Thunderbolt Headsman). Grateful, the President gave Osborn and H.A.M.M.E.R. his blessings.
When overseeing the closure of Thunderbolts Mountain, an irate Swordsman confronted Norman about his actions. Norman seized his sword and murdered him in a psychotic tantrum. Norman then began to realize that his Green Goblin persona was starting to resurface.
The Dark Avengers
Norman Osborn's next order of business was setting up his new team of Avengers. He was able to recruit Sentry and Ares as well as Marvel Boy as Captain Marvel, Moonstone as Ms. Marvel, Venom as Spider-Man, Bullseye as Hawkeye and Daken as Wolverine. With the help of Ghost, Osborn was able to create his own armored suit, fusing elements of Tony Stark's Iron Man suit and Steve Rogers's Captain America's costume, naming his new super-"hero" persona the "Iron Patriot".
The Dark Avengers' first mission was a response to a distress call from Doctor Doom who had been attacked in his homeland of Latveria by Morgan le Fay. Osborn and Doom linked their armors to travel back in time, killing Morgan before she could launch her assault. Osborn and the Dark Avengers would later encounter rogue Atlanteans and Molecule Man.
The Void and the Green Goblin Resurgent
Norman Osborn appeared initially to use his experiences of mental illness to empathize with Robert Reynolds's schizophrenia, helping to suppress the Void. However, it would gradually become apparent that Osborn was merely callously gaining Reynold's trust, so that he would more willingly acquiesce to Osborn's later requests to allow to the Void to take control. Perhaps as a result of Osborn's manipulations, the Void would eventually establish itself as the dominant persona and begin to destroy New York. Osborn was able to negotiate a deal of sorts, with Osborn promising the Void happiness if he followed his orders.
Concurrent to Reynolds' deterioration, Osborn's own psyche appeared to be fracturing. He began to suffer auditory and visual hallucinations of the Green Goblin persona - some (if not all) of which were revealed to be due to Loki's sorcery.
Norman Osborn became the father of Lily Hollister's child. Norman wanted to turn Harry Osborn into the "American Son", a hero combining Iron Man's armor technology and Captain America's super-soldier serum. When he offered a job at H.A.M.M.E.R., Harry refused, but reconsidered later when he found out that Lily was pregnant, believing the child was his. After Harry's first day working at the Avengers Tower, he snuck into restricted areas (using Green Goblin gadgets), and found a antidote serum for Lily. Lily mocked Harry, claiming she wanted to be Menace, and confessed the child was Norman's. Spider-Man, disguised as Venom, would infiltrate Avengers Tower to see why Harry accepted his father's proposal, but would end up getting being exposed, captured and tortured by Norman. Harry confronted Norman who confessed his plan to have American Son die after his inception, to bring Americans around Iron Patriot. Harry used the American Son armor to fight Norman in the Iron Patriot suit. Norman insulted Harry saying that he had to breed a better child to make up for Harry's failure. When Harry has the option of killing Norman, Spider-Man says to decapitate him, since Norman's healing factor may repair a blow to the head. Spider-Man also cautions Harry that killing Norman will cause Harry to "become the son Norman always wanted". Harry instead backs down, and turns away from his father forever, accepting that Norman is no longer his father.
When riots began in San Francisco over regulation for mutants, H.A.M.M.E.R. moved in to secure the situation. Norman Osborn branded Cyclops as the instigator of the chaos and turned public opinion against him and the X-Men. He had Namor and Emma Frost assemble a team of mutants to serve as Osborn's X-Men for the riots and round up many hostile mutants to subject to the Omega Machine, a device created by Dark Beast to sap them of their powers. Cyclops negotiated with Osborn and demanded that he leave the city once he had the riots under control. However, their arguments went nowhere, so Cyclops left. In a more sinister moment, Osborn announced that he would kill Cyclops personally.
Soon enough, Frost and Namor turned on Osborn, having been working for Cyclops the whole time, allowing X-Force to evacuate the captive mutants. They retreated to a rebuilt Asteroid M, christened the Utopia. Cyclops denounced Osborn and his methods on live television. Angered at this betrayal, Osborn became determined to kill his fellow Cabal members. However, his team was defeated one by one by the X-Men. Eventually, only Osborn and Sofen were left, forcing them to retreat.
The Siege of Asgard
Norman Osborn viewed the presence of Asgard above Oklahoma as a threat to the American way of life. At Loki's suggestion, Osborn sought to create a scenario that would force the President of the United States to allow H.A.M.M.E.R. to invade and destroy Asgard. Osborn tasked the Hood with recruiting a team of villains that would be able to instigate the Siege.
The Hood's U-Foes implicated Volstagg, an Asgardian, in the massacre of thousands of innocent spectators at a football game at Soldier Field in Chicago. With an Asgardian apparently responsible, Osborn was now able to justify his invasion.
Despite Ares' initial misgivings, and without receiving official clearance from the President, Osborn led the Dark Avengers, members of the Thunderbolts Initiative and the Hood's gang, and a surfeit of H.A.M.M.E.R. troops and helicarriers in an assault of Asgard. While the Void set about destroying Asgard proper, Osborn and his cronies battled with Thor, Maria Hill, Nick Fury and his Secret Warriors, the New and Young Avengers, the recently-returned Steve Rogers, and the recently-revived and Extremis-free Tony Stark.
Meanwhile, in the White House, appalled by Osborn's unsanctioned attack on Asgard, the President gave the order to dissolve H.A.M.M.E.R. and arrest Osborn for treason. Back in Oklahoma, Osborn encountered both Rogers and Stark. While fighting Rogers, Osborn's Iron Patriot suit was disabled by Stark's own MK IV armor. Osborn, realizing his imminent defeat, commanded the Void to destroy Asgard utterly. Before Rogers could place Osborn under arrest, the compromised Iron Patriot armor disintegrated, revealing that the stress of running H.A.M.M.E.R. had taken a grievous toll on Osborn's mental health: underneath, Osborn had been wearing a crude face-paint rendition of the Green Goblin mask. The images of Osborn's breakdown were broadcast worldwide, cementing his downfall and the end of the Dark Reign.
The assembled heroes were subsequently threatened by the grotesquely malformed Void. Osborn, deranged and defiant, claimed that his sympathy and influence was all that had kept the Void under control, and that without it, the Void was unstoppable. In the ensuing battle, Osborn briefly escaped, only to be recaptured by Volstagg and Rogers.
Imprisonment Once Again
Norman Osborn was initially incarcerated in the Raft penitentiary, still tormented by his Green Goblin persona, whom Osborn blamed for preventing him from successfully remaking the world as he saw fit. Later, Osborn was secretly transferred to the Special Containment Center. There, he met his secret follower Father Coulmier. When his other imprisoned followers rioted in the Second Wing, he and other dangerous villains, including Ai Apaec and June Covington, broke free. Afterward, Osborn surrendered himself to the police.
Preparing to be escorted by Luke Cage in his cell, the Green Goblin persona began to harass Norman Osborn over his failure. It told him that H.A.M.M.E.R. still existed and all he needed to do was call them. As expected, H.A.M.M.E.R. agents came to spring him during the transfer. After he threatened Jessica Jones's baby, he stated "the call has been given" and caused H.A.M.M.E.R. sleeper agents to come to his aid and free him before he could be apprehended.
He rejoined with H.A.M.M.E.R. which now included Superia, Madame Hydra and Gorgon. They later sent out Ultimo with the objective of acquiring Iron Man's armor, but as Ultimo was destroyed, it sent a machine to collect Wolverine's blood which then flew to a safe location, after which Osborn initiated a self-destruct on Ultimo.
Osborn then recruited a new team of Dark Avengers. This new team consisted of Skaar, Trickshot, Ai Apaec (whom he fed a drug, transforming his usual monstrous body into that of a six-armed Spider-Man), Gorgon (as Wolverine), Toxic Doxie (as Scarlet Witch), Superia (as Ms. Marvel), and Ragnarok (as Thor).Osborn's Dark Avengers made their first appearance controlling a situation which had broken out in Miami. Due to the planning of Victoria Hand (who had become a double agent within the Avengers), Luke Cage's Avengers arrived late and faced the Dark Avengers. This damaged their credibility as they had not only arrived late, but attacked the people who took care of the problem.
While these events transpired, Osborn also sent a hologram of himself to incite a riot at a protest outside Avengers Mansion. This egged the Avengers on to attack various H.A.M.M.E.R. bases and they were trapped by several enhanced H.A.M.M.E.R. agents (such as "Spider-Hulks", Giant-Men and Wasps).
Osborn then negotiated with the President of the United States to reclaim his position as head of national security, and seized Avengers Mansion by force. When various Avengers managed to get free from H.A.M.M.E.R.'s HQ, Osborn appeared with a defeated Vision leading an army of Hand ninjas. Meanwhile, the Dark Avengers were transferring Captain America and were ambushed by Luke Cage's team. Skaar betrayed his team and aided Cage's team in defeating them, revealing he was a mole for Captain America (as was Victoria Hand, who informed the team of Cap's whereabouts earlier).
After Red Hulk hit him, the Avengers realized Osborn had the powers of the Super-Adaptoid (thanks to a procedure performed by Monica Rappaccini). The Avengers tried to fight Osborn at a distance, but using Vision's phasing powers it was useless. It was with the reinforcements of Luke Cage's team that they finally managed to defeat Osborn (by everybody entering contact with him he was overloaded with power and rendered comatose) and brought into custody. H.A.M.M.E.R. disbanded, and Madame Hydra used the remaining members to reinforce Hydra.Later, after Hobgoblin returned to New York, a nurse and doctor are called to Norman's hospital room only to find him no longer in his bed.
Rise of the Goblin King
At some point in time, Norman Osborn underwent facial reconstruction surgery and became Alchemax's executive "Mason Banks", and started a plot to create an empire for his grandson. Gathering followers that were brutalized by the Superior Spider-Man to his cause, including Phillip "Phil" Urich and Menace, the Green Goblin gradually amassed an army in the underground sewers of New York. Thanks to Superior Spider-Man focusing on the larger picture, the Green Goblin was effectively able to own over half of New York's organized crime, and he made sure to stamp his authority by wiping out those against him. After kidnapping Carlie Cooper, the Green Goblin soon learned that Otto Octavius's mind is now in Spider-Man's body. He entered in a conflict with the Hobgoblin and defeated the impostor.
When Otto refused his offer of a partnership, the Green Goblin ordered that everything Otto cherished was to be destroyed, and those close to him be captured, beginning his full scale attack in New York city. His subordinate Menace was able to kidnap Anna Maria Marconi, which the Green Goblin used as a hostage.
Ultimately, his plans failed when he did not count on Otto sacrificing himself so that the original Spider-Man could regain control of his body. He was caught unaware when confronted by Spider-Man and attempted to flee. After an epic duel, Spider-Man unmasked the Green Goblin and injected him with the Goblin Serum antidote, effectively depowering him. However, he managed to escape captivity thanks to Liz Allan's interference. Adding to this was for the first time in years, Norman was now completely sane.
Following his return to sanity, Osborn allied himself with the new leader of Symkaria, Countess Karkov. Together, Osborn and Karkov put the resources of the country and exploited its people into building an empire of technologically-advanced weapons making that became known as the Goblin Army. He offered his services to despicable people, such as dictators. Additionally, Osborn started to make use of plastic surgery to better cover his tracks and keep his secrecy more easily.
Following world-shaking events involving the new Jackal, Spider-Man set his sights on capturing Norman Osborn. Hot on Osborn's trail, Spider-Man allied himself with Silver Sable to invade Symkaria and overthrow its current leaders. Norman attempted to grow his Goblin Army in numbers by gassing the Symkarian people with Goblin Serum, but the missile meant to spread the gas was disabled by Spider-Man's allies while the wall-crawler was personally fighting Osborn. When S.H.I.E.L.D. appeared on the scene, Osborn fled. Having concluded that the only times he had come close to beating Spider-Man were when he let his Green Goblin persona out, Norman set out to regain his insanity.
Rise of the Red Goblin
Unfortunately for Osborn, the cure Spider-Man gave him that rid him of his powers also prevented him from using the Goblin Formula to restore them. After science failed him, Osborn traveled to the Temple With No Name to learn how to become a magic user. Osborn was subjected to a test to determine whether he was worthy of learning magic, but despite his immense potential the keepers of the temple deemed him to be too villainous and evicted him. Osborn also tried to break into the Sanctum Sanctorum to rob of it of any magic he could use, but he was forced to flee when Doctor Strange was alerted to Osborn's attempted breach.
Osborn had two henchmen rob the Lock Box of the Carnage symbiote, where it was being stored. The mercenaries were successful in stealing the symbiote and Osborn quickly bonded with it to become the new Carnage. Though the symbiote initially asserted its dominance, Osborn gave Carnage a taste of the joys of torture and killing after the symbiote forced him to kill two of his henchmen. Norman agreed to let the symbiote savor more if he was given control. After restoring his facial features and making the symbiote eject the nanites that prevented him from regaining his powers from his body, Osborn decided to use the Goblin Formula to become a goblin/symbiote hybrid.
After taking the Goblin formula, Norman kidnapped J. Jonah Jameson and started stalking Spider-Man. After finding out his connection to Mary Jane, Normal became obsessed with finding out who Spider-Man was. When the Goblin King came to the Goblin cache where Norman kept Jameson, Osborn went to confront the new Goblin King. Taunting him about how he made him, Norman stopped Phil's attack and killed him with his symbiote blades. After Osborn suited up as the Green Goblin, Jameson said how he couldn't stop Spider-Man since even throwing Gwen Stacy off the bridge didn't stop him fighting back. Those words made Norman remember why he did it and how Peter Parker was Spider-Man.
Rigging the stolen tritium to explode and carrying it in a sack, Osborn attacked the Daily Bugle headquarters as the Green Goblin and told Peter to go get Spider-Man. While waiting, Osborn tauntingly informed Ben Urich his nephew was dead and pretended the tritium bomb was his severed head as a sadistic joke. When Spider-Man finally arrived, he and the Goblin got into a brawl as the Bugle's staff evacuated. Knocked aside, Osborn watched Spider-Man cocoon the bomb in webbing and was caught in the ensuing explosion; impaled on a girder and by several shards of glass. Pretending to be dying, Osborn thanked Peter for being his enemy, revealing he knew who Spider-Man was under the mask, and got Spider-Man to admit that he wished he could have saved him as well. Revealing he had bonded to the Carnage symbiote, Osborn transformed into a monstrous form he dubbed the Red Goblin, causing Spider-Man to flee in terror. Incapacitating Peter, Osborn issued an ultimatum: give up being Spider-Man and live in peace, or watch the Red Goblin slowly and painfully kill all of his loved ones one-by-one. When Spider-Man accepted the terms the Red Goblin left in triumph, unaware that he intended to continue fighting as Peter Parker.
Despite Peter's fears that Norman would target his friends and family, the Red Goblin's next target was, in reality, his own family. Following Harry, Liz, and Mark Raxton to the Port Authority, Norman confronted his family and his wife, Emily Lyman, who was thought dead for years, as she tried to flee with her grandchildren. The Red Goblin was then assaulted by a combined assault from the Human Torch, Clash, Silk, and Spider-Man; however, due to the power boost afforded to the Carnage Symbiote by the Goblin Formula, the Red Goblin easily shrugged off their attacks and defeated all four in moments. The arrival of Agent Anti-Venom and his symbiote-destroying powers caught Osborn off guard, but he turned the tables by forcing Agent Anti-Venom to make a difficult choice: defeat him, or save his mortally wounded friends, who lay bleeding out as they spoke. Agent Anti-Venom chose the latter, but paid for it, as the Red Goblin cut him down while he saved the last of his friends. The Red Goblin then tracked down his family, who had attempted to flee in the confusion, and revealed his true objective: his grandson, Normie Osborn, who he then infected with a piece of the Carnage Symbiote.
The Red Goblin's next stop was at Alchemax to destroy the synthetic Anti-Venom stored there; he was successful, and was subsequently confronted by Spider-Man, who had voided his deal with Osborn in doing so. While he sent Normie, now dubbed the Goblin Childe, to attack Spider-Man's Aunt May, the Red Goblin travelled to Stark Tower to kill Mary Jane Watson. However, the Red Goblin was attacked by Venom, who had been sent ahead by Jameson to ensure her safety. Spider-Man also arrived to help, but the Red Goblin was still able to shrug off their attack and flee, wanting to aid Normie. When he arrived, he found Normie locked in battle with the Superior Octopus, who had sworn to protect May at all costs. Even the arrival of a Spider-Slayer controlled by Jameson was not enough to stop the Red Goblin, who badly injured Octavius and immobilized the Spider-Slayer before escaping with Normie in tow.
Norman and his grandson then confronted Liz and Harry at Alchemax to coerce them to sign over the company to Normie; however, Liz and Harry fought back with an army of Humanitrons, with Harry attacking his father using an old Goblin Glider and pumpkin bombs. It still wasn't enough, however, as the Goblin easily trounced the Humanitrons, wounded Harry, and flung Liz out the window, remarking on his proclivity for 'blondes in high places' as he did so. Liz was saved by the recently Venomized Spider-Man, however, who then attacked Norman alongside Harry and Normie, who had turned on his grandfather for trying to kill Liz and harming Harry. The Red Goblin was then impaled by Harry's Goblin Glider, mimicking his defeat so many years ago, and slammed into the wall. Now utterly furious and raving, he pursued Spider-Man across the city, where he revealed his master stroke: the symbiotic needles he had injured several of Spider-Man's friends and family with, including Mary Jane, Aunt May, Octavius, and Harry, had embedded themselves in their victims' bodies and would pierce their brains with a snap of the Goblin's fingers, painfully killing them. However, he was thwarted by Agent Anti-Venom, who had deduced the plan and neutralized the needles, saving Osborn's victims. Infuriated by having his victory snatched away, the Red Goblin brutally mauled and electrocuted the weakened Flash; despite an enraged Venomized Spider-Man punching Osborn away and through a building, Flash succumbed to his wounds and died.
Norman then crash-landed in Times Square, where he decided the best way to get to Spider-Man would be to simply start killing indiscriminately, which the Goblin took to with relish, firing Carnage Bombs off in every direction. While Spider-Man was distracted by the carnage and his attempts to save civilians, the Red Goblin pinned him down and began to strangle him; however, Spider-Man noted that the credit for his death would go entirely to the Carnage Symbiote, banking on Norman's enormous ego. Sure enough, the Goblin angrily shed the symbiote, insisting that all he needed to kill Spider-Man was himself. Spider-Man, who had shed the Venom symbiote, then went toe-to-toe with the Green Goblin, emerging victorious. When Norman desperately attempted to re-bond with the Carnage symbiote, however, Spider-Man incinerated it, and the mental backlash destroyed Norman's mind. Later, when questioned by Spider-Man in Ravencroft Asylum, the brain-damaged Osborn told him he believed Spider-Man to be Norman Osborn, and that he himself was Cletus Kasady. Spider-Man then left the former supervillain to his madness, stating "Norman Osborn no more."
Osborn's mind apparently recovered at an unknown period of time, and he joined the Power Elite, a secret cabal of influential people that was formed after Hydra's takeover of the United States to strengthen the country.
|Power Grid |
Goblin Formula: Thanks to the chemical composition of the Goblin Formula, Osborn gained the following abilities:
- Superhuman Strength: Osborn can easily overpower humans by lifting them up with one hand or by hurling them around. He and can also lift extremely heavy objects, crush and break through wood panels and templates, bend metal, and can punch through glass without gaining injury. As shown on many occasions, Osborn could match Spider-Man even before bonding with the Carnage symbiote.
- Superhuman Speed: Osborn can run and operate at superhuman speeds.
- Superhuman Stamina: Osborn can operate or maintain his movements for up to a day without exhausting himself.
- Superhuman Durability: The formula also fortified all of Osborn's bodily tissues, making them far tougher and more resistant to injury than normal humans. While Osborn can be injured by something along the lines of a knife or small conventional bullets composed of conventional material, he is very resistant to great impact forces and blunt trauma. He can withstand powerful impacts, such as falling from several stories or being repeatedly struck by a superhuman enemy, that would severely injure or kill a normal human with little to no injury to himself.
- Regenerative Healing Factor: If Osborn does sustain injury, his body's increased metabolism allows him to heal damaged tissue much faster and more extensively than a normal human is capable of. While not nearly as efficient as the healing powers possessed by Wolverine, he can heal from injuries that would prove lethal to an ordinary human. For example, Osborn survived being impaled by his Goblin Glider and made a full recovery with only a scar left on his chest. He also recovered from having over a dozen of his bombs explode while webbed to his chest.
- Superhuman Agility: Osborn's agility, balance, and bodily coordination are enhanced to levels beyond the natural physical limits of the finest human athlete.
- Superhuman Reflexes: His reflexes are similarly enhanced and are superior to those of the finest human athlete.
Gifted Intelligence: Even before consuming the Goblin Formula, Norman was extremely smart and intelligent, was extremely skilled with mathematics and science, possessing an immense knowledge of chemistry and the side-effects of drugs on humans and animals. The Goblin Formula enhanced Osborn's mental capacities and creative talents. Aside from his physical advantages, the serum also greatly enhanced Norman's already highly above average intellect, making him capable of making progress in advanced areas of genetics, robotics, engineering, and applied chemistry that most professional scientists can scarcely comprehend.
Since becoming the Goblin King, he was able to gain 52% of the New York underground without anybody noticing. He was even able to implement the "Goblin Protocol" which blocked out the presence of anyone with a Goblin mask or symbol into Spider-Man's systems meaning he is an expert hacker because those systems were created by both Otto and and child prodigy Uatu Jackson. Goblin also re-powered an abandoned subway line while having it avoid other trains.
Expert Marksman: As the Green Goblin, Norman uses various hand-held throwing weapons such as explosives and razor projectiles which he will throw with great aim rarely ever missing his target. He is also a skilled sharpshooter with various firearms.
Skilled Combatant: He is a skilled unarmed combatant that is capable of using most weapons proficiently.
Norman is able to lift 9 tons under his own Goblin powers. While in the Iron Patriot armor, Norman's strength is augmented to the point where he can lift up to a hundred tons.
Dissociative Identity Disorder: after being exposed to the Goblin Formula, he developed an entirely separate personality -- the "Green Goblin." While always mentally unstable, the formula had greatly diminished his already fragile grip on reality. His increased mental instability caused him to sometimes be extremely impulsive, not thinking before plunging into a potentially dangerous situation, making it relatively easy to lure him into a trap. Osborn also suffered from the delusion that he is invincible, claiming that "not even death could defeat him." This has caused him to fight when at a severe disadvantage, resulting in his defeat.
Goblin Armor: The Green Goblin's costume incorporated chain mail in the tunic, giving him further protection from high impacts, such as the punches or kicks inflicted during his battles with Spider-Man.
Goblin Glider: He soon re-designed this device into an improved version that he called his "goblin glider", capable of great maneuverability and speeds of up to 90 miles per hour. It was capable of supporting about 400 pounds including Norman's weight (and far more for very brief periods of time). Top speed and a full normal load would exhaust the fuel supply in about one hour. The main microprocessor assisted manual controls were behind the head of the glider, and later modifications added voice-activated radio-linked controls integrated into the Green Goblin's mask. The goblin glider was steered primarily, however, by the weight and attitude of its rider. The Goblin's boots locked into the stirrups of the glider electromagnetically.
Pumpkin Bomb: The Green Goblin created and utilized various concussive, incendiary, and other specialized explosives in his career, most in the form of miniature jack-o'lantern-shaped grenades. The Goblin usually carried these in a shoulder bag, nicknamed his "bag of tricks".
- Concussive: The original variant of the pumpkin bomb was little more than a flashbang designed to disorient opponents.
- Incendiary: The incendiary grenades ignited almost soundlessly and released enough heat to melt through a three-inch thick sheet of steel.
- Smoke/Gas: He also carried a variety of smoke and gas-emitting bombs, which were surrounded by a light plastic mantle that fluttered like a wraith when the bomb was thrown. Other gas bombs emitted hallucinogenic gases, and others released a specially concocted gas that could neutralize Spider-Man's spider sense for a limited period of time.
Razor Bat: The Green Goblin sometimes threw razor sharp bat shaped projectiles which could slice into or ram and impale themselves into opponents.
Electrical Discharges: The Green Goblin's gloves were interwoven with microcircuit-conducting filaments capable of high-frequency electrical discharges - variously referred to as Goblin Sparks, Goblin Blast, and Sparkle Beams - from rechargeable power packs in both his glove cuffs and costume tunics. They had the capacity to discharge for up to five minutes of sustained fire before depleting their power supplies.
Bag of Tricks: In addition to the common Goblin weapons, there are many others in the bag of tricks like a crescent moon boomerang, a ghost that is stronger than steel, a toad that can emit sonic blasts, and can carry many other weapons in it most of which are unrevealed.
- The Green Goblin was #47 in Series A of the Marvel Value Stamps, published in 1974.
- While being H.A.M.M.E.R. Commander, he was granted Security Level Ten and Code Clearance White.
- Since One More Day, Norman didn't know that the man behind the Spider-Man mask is Peter Parker until J. Jonah Jameson accidentally revealed his identity to him after mentioning him throwing Gwen Stacy off a bridge. He's seemingly lost this knowledge again after his stint as the Red Goblin.
- Dan Slott had denied Norman being the Goblin King. However, there were already hints that Norman was the Goblin like explicitly calling himself Norman Osborn, the Glider scar, and reacting to Hobgoblin talking about Harry. It was eventually revealed at the end that Norman was both the Goblin King and Mason Banks.
- Norman's email was email@example.com.
- His murder of Gwen Stacy was one of Norman's proudest achievements.
- In Amazing Spider-Man #122, when Norman dies, Peter mentioned that: " So do the Proud Men Die: Crucified, not on a cross of gold----but on a stake of humble tin.", Jesus Christ died crucified, so this is a possible reference to Norman's god Complex.
- The Green Goblin was the first Marvel Super-villain to appear in a video game, The Amazing Spider-Man, in 1981.
- 635 Appearances of Norman Osborn (Earth-616)
- 117 Minor Appearances of Norman Osborn (Earth-616)
- Media Norman Osborn (Earth-616) was Mentioned in
- 443 Images featuring Norman Osborn (Earth-616)
- 84 Quotations by or about Norman Osborn (Earth-616)
- Character Gallery: Norman Osborn (Earth-616)
- Amazing Spider-Man #14 - First Appearance; Teamed with The Enforcers to battle Spider-Man.
- Amazing Spider-Man #17 - Battled Spider-Man and the Human Torch at a meeting of the Forest Hills Spider-Man Fan Club.
- Amazing Spider-Man #23
- Amazing Spider-Man #26
- Amazing Spider-Man #27
- Amazing Spider-Man #37 - First Appearance as Norman Osborn.
- Amazing Spider-Man #39 - Discovers Spider-Man's secret identity.
- Amazing Spider-Man #40 - Origin
- Amazing Spider-Man #121 - Kills Gwen Stacy
- Amazing Spider-Man #122 - Apparent death.
Discover and Discuss
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- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Amazing Spider-Man #795
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Amazing Spider-Man #800
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Update #1
- ↑ Superior Spider-Man #10
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Superior Spider-Man #14
- ↑ Wolverine: Origins #34
- ↑ Superior Spider-Man #18
- ↑ New Avengers Vol 2 #21
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Dark Avengers #1
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Superior Spider-Man #31
- ↑ Superior Spider-Man Team-Up #12
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 Amazing Spider-Man #798
- ↑ Avengers Vol 4 #24
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 4 #2
- ↑ Corrections Spider-Man 2004 corrections
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Avengers: The Initiative #26
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Civil War Files #1
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Master Edition #27
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #122
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #14
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #7
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #23
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #26
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #27
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man Annual #9
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #121-122
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 Spider-Man: The Osborn Journal #1
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #418
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #441
- ↑ The Pulse #2
- ↑ The Pulse #4
- ↑ The Pulse #5
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 Marvel Knights: Spider-Man #1-4
- ↑ Marvel Knights: Spider-Man #9-12
- ↑ Civil War: Front Line #2
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 Civil War: Front Line #4-5
- ↑ Civil War: Front Line #7
- ↑ Civil War: Front Line #11
- ↑ Civil War: Front Line #7-11
- ↑ Thunderbolts #110-112
- ↑ Thunderbolts #113
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 Amazing Spider-Man #545
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #568-573
- ↑ Thunderbolts #122-125
- ↑ Secret Invasion #3-7
- ↑ Secret Invasion #8
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 Secret Invasion: Dark Reign #1
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 Siege: The Cabal #1
- ↑ Invincible Iron Man Vol 2 #8-9
- ↑ Thunderbolts #128-129
- ↑ Dark Avengers #4
- ↑ Dark Avengers #5
- ↑ Dark Avengers #10
- ↑ Dark Avengers #14
- ↑ Dark Avengers #12
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #598
- ↑ Uncanny X-Men #513
- ↑ Dark Avengers #7
- ↑ Dark Avengers #8
- ↑ Dark Avengers / Uncanny X-Men: Exodus #1
- ↑ Dark Reign: The List (limited series).
- ↑ New Avengers #59-60
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 63.2 Siege #1
- ↑ Siege #3
- ↑ Siege #4
- ↑ New Avengers Vol 2 #16.1
- ↑ New Avengers Vol 2 #18
- ↑ Superior Spider-Man #26
- ↑ Superior Spider-Man #27.NOW
- ↑ Superior Spider-Man #28
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man Vol 4 #27
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man Vol 4 #3
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 Amazing Spider-Man Vol 4 #25
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man Vol 4 #26
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man Vol 4 #27-28
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man Vol 4 #32
- ↑ Marvel Legacy #1
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #794
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #796
- ↑ 80.0 80.1 Amazing Spider-Man #797
- ↑ 81.0 81.1 81.2 Amazing Spider-Man #799
- ↑ Free Comic Book Day Vol 2018 #Avengers
- ↑ Spider-Man #75
- ↑ New Avengers Vol 2 #20
- ↑ Dark Reign: The Goblin Legacy #1
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #40
- ↑ 87.0 87.1 Amazing Spider-Man #17
- ↑ Superior Spider-Man #23
- ↑ Secret Wars #1
- ↑ Superior Spider-Man #31
- ↑ All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Update #1
- ↑ All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Update #1
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