- I am not a god. I have never created life... but I have lived. That is enough. So I will fight to preserve that same opportunity -- to love, to dream, to soar among the stars -- for all those yet to come. Many lives will be lost in the battle ahead -- but their efforts will ensure that some remain to remember their deeds. And, like the gods, they will truly live forever... even after they are gone.
- -- Silver Surfer src
One of the noblest and most tormented cosmic entities in the universe, the Silver Surfer treasures freedom above all else, but has often sacrificed his liberty for the greater good. He was born Norrin Radd on the planet Zenn-La, part of an extremely long-lived and technologically advanced humanoid race which had created a worldwide utopia devoid of crime, disease, hunger, poverty, and want of any kind. His father named him after revered scientist Norrin Konn, the man responsible for raising Zenn-La from barbarism to utopia. Norrin Radd's mother Elmar, ill-suited to this stifling environment, eventually killed herself. Urged on by his atypically ambitious father Jartran, Norrin was raised as a grimly intellectual youth, encouraged to seek knowledge, advancement and achievement rather than the aimless hedonism which had come to dominate Zenn-Lavian society; however, a disgraced Jartran would later commit suicide himself after he was accused of idea theft (though not before he had taken a new lover and fathered another son, Fennan, unknown to Norrin). Despite his lifelong lover Shalla-Bal, Norrin grew into a restless soul who longed for challenge and struggle, immersing himself in histories of Zenn-La's adventurous ancient past.
Norrin's life changed forever when a menacing alien spacecraft pierced Zenn-La's long-neglected defense systems. Convincing a Council of Scientists member to provide him with a spaceship, Radd soon confronted the invader, Galactus, who intended to consume Zenn-La; Radd offered to become his herald and seek out new worlds for him to sate his hunger in exchange for Galactus sparing Zenn-La. Galactus agreed, transforming Radd into a silver-skinned, cosmic-powered super-being patterned after an adolescent fantasy plucked from Norrin's memories. Known thereafter as the Silver Surfer because of the silvery flying board he rode, Radd departed Zenn-La with Galactus.
Herald of Galactus
The Surfer served Galactus well for several decades (likely almost 100 years), enjoying exploring the wonders of the universe; however, it became increasingly difficult for Radd to find energy-rich worlds devoid of sentient life. The destruction of the first inhabited planet he offered to Galactus almost drove Norrin insane, forcing Galactus to alter the mind of his herald, submerging Radd's emotions and repressing past memories. As a result, the Surfer became much more willing to lead Galactus to inhabited worlds, such as Massikron, Elynore-143, Draven-Barr, and eventually Earth.
At some point during his servitude to the Devourer of Worlds, the Silver Surfer encountered the artificial planet Klyntar and was attacked by its constituent symbiotes, which attempted to imprison him at its core; though he managed to break free and escape. At some point after this he sacrificed Joot - one of the worlds conquered by the Symbiote Imperium - to Galactus, further exacerbating the symbiotes' instinctual hatred for him.
Locating Earth despite Uatu the Watcher's covert attempts to ward him off, the Surfer caused widespread panic and fought the Fantastic Four. During this conflict, the Surfer met blind sculptress Alicia Masters, who sensed his inner nobility and pleaded with him to spare humanity. His long-dormant emotions stirred by Alicia's beauty and spirit, the Surfer turned on Galactus and helped fight him off long enough for Uatu and the Fantastic Four to secure the Ultimate Nullifier, a cosmic doomsday weapon which forced Galactus to withdraw; however, Galactus punished the Surfer by trapping him on Earth, erecting a cosmic energy barrier around the planet that was uniquely attuned to the Surfer.
The Surfer became a melancholy global wanderer, trying to adjust to his new home and understand its people. After a pointless skirmish with Alicia's jealous boyfriend the Thing, the Surfer was befriended and betrayed by Latverian tyrant Doctor Doom, who imprisoned Radd and stole the Surfer's power for himself, but Doom lost his new might when he collided with Galactus's barrier, and the Surfer's powers were restored.
Increasingly pessimistic about humanity, the Surfer tried to befriend fellow outcast the Hulk, but the man-monster's violent temper drove him away. Next, the Surfer took pity on the Mad Thinker's abandoned sentient computer Quasimodo and gave it humanoid form, but he was forced to petrify his new creation after it proved to be criminally insane. Convinced by now that humanity was a savage race that could only survive and evolve if the planet were united against a common foe, the Surfer decided to become that foe; he terrorized the world with his cosmic powers until the U.S. military struck him down with an experimental power-draining "Sonic Shark" missile based on technology developed by the Fantastic Four's Reed Richards. Humbled by the incident and shown the error of his ways by the FF, the Surfer resumed his peaceful wanderings. His abilities were diminished, though they gradually returned to their original power-levels.Aided by the Fantastic Four, the Surfer resisted attempts by Galactus to regain his services; he also faced foes such as the alien Badoon, the demonic Mephisto (who became obsessed with breaking the Surfer's spirit), Asgardian trickster god Loki (who manipulated the Surfer into battling his brother Thor), the alternate-future Overlord, mad scientist Ludwig von Frankenstein, the ghostly Flying Dutchman, rogue Zenn-Lavian scientist Yarro Gort (who coveted Shalla-Bal for himself and died trying to destroy the Surfer), the occultist Warlock Prime, the monstrous Abomination, and the robotic Doomsday Man. One of the Surfer's few true friends during these early adventures was physicist Al B. Harper, who sacrificed his life to help the Surfer save the world from the enigmatic Stranger; the Surfer lit an eternal flame at Harper's grave in memory of his heroism. Several times during this period, the Surfer was briefly reunited with Shalla-Bal, who was used as an unwilling pawn against the Surfer by foes such as Mephisto and Yarro Gort; but circumstances always forced the lovers apart, sending Shalla-Bal home each time. Increasingly frustrated by his situation and disgusted by man's inhumanity to man, the Surfer - secretly influenced by Psycho-Man - became more hostile, battling Spider-Man, Human Torch, S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Inhumans in a series of misunderstandings and misadventures; but when Doctor Doom temporarily usurped the power of Galactus, the Surfer helped defeat the villain.
The Surfer formed a temporary alliance with the Hulk and Namor the Sub-Mariner to oppose a new weather technology that threatened to destroy the world; these "Titans Three" completed their mission despite the misguided interference of the Avengers, and even toppled a minor hostile dictator along the way. Namor, Hulk and Doctor Strange soon formed a more enduring heroic alliance as the Defenders, saving the world from Yandroth; they tried to recruit the Surfer for their first mission, but he was recovering from a collision with Galactus's barrier at the time. After aiding Thor against Loki's minion Durok the Demolisher, the Surfer helped the FF defeat Galactus's latest herald, the Air-Walker android, and the FF in turn protected the Surfer by trapping Galactus in the Negative Zone. The Surfer soon fell under the mental sway of Calizuma and his Warrior Wizards, agents of the demonic Undying Ones; freed from their influence by the Defenders, the Surfer helped defeat the wizards and became one of the Defenders' earliest recruits, aiding the team against foes such as the Nameless One, Attuma and the Red Ghost. At one point, a quest to restore the petrified Black Knight (Dane Whitman) led the Defenders into a conflict with the Avengers orchestrated by Loki and Dormammu. In the end, the villains were defeated and the two super-teams parted as friends, though the restless Surfer soon left the active Defenders ranks.Tricked into helping Doctor Doom create the deadly Doomsman android, the Surfer helped the FF neutralize this menace, then clashed with the vampire lord Dracula. Later, the Surfer was present at an Avengers-Defenders gathering, and was ineffectually attacked by mind-controlled heroine Jewel (Jessica Jones). After another clash with the Hulk, the Surfer aided the Defenders against the demonic Six-Fingered Hand and their hellish masters, including Mephisto. After aiding the Avengers against the Molecule Man, declining an offer of Avengers membership, attending the funeral of seemingly deceased Defenders teammates Nighthawk and Valkyrie, and participating in another Avengers-Defenders clash orchestrated by alien menaces Nebulon and Supernalia, the Surfer finally pierced Galactus's barrier with the aid of Reed Richards and escaped Earth; but he discovered Zenn-La had been devastated by a vengeful Galactus, barely capable of supporting life. Worse yet, Shalla-Bal had been abducted back to Earth by Mephisto. Though it meant trapping himself on Earth again (since Reed's escape method would work only once), the Surfer returned to Earth and defeated Mephisto, who sent Shalla-Bal back to Zenn-La, though not before the Surfer endowed her with a portion of his cosmic power which she used to revitalize their ravaged home-world.
The Surfer helped the Defenders liberate the Squadron Supreme's alternate Earth (Earth-S) from the control of the demonic Null the Living Darkness, then celebrated the Hulk's brief public acceptance after gaining Bruce Banner's intellect; but the Surfer and his fellow senior Defenders Hulk, Namor and Strange were hoaxed into disbanding after the alien Tribunal convinced them their continued teamwork was fated to cause Earth's doom. The Surfer, meanwhile, helped the Fantastic Four defeat the cosmic-powered Tyros (formerly Galactus's herald Terrax) and locate a missing Reed Richards, helped Earth's heroes neutralize the threat of the near-omnipotent Beyonder, and teamed with the Molecule Man to undo much of the damage done to Earth by the Beyonder.
End Of Exile
Piercing Galactus's barrier again (this time by using the Thing's simple suggestion of trying to pass through it without his surfboard), the Surfer made peace with Galactus by rescuing his current herald Nova (Frankie Raye) from the Skrulls, after which Galactus finally ended the Surfer's long exile after almost ten years. Radd revisited his home-world, but Shalla-Bal had become empress of the rejuvenated Zenn-La and was not free to renew their romance. The Surfer became embroiled in fresh hostilities between the interstellar Kree and Skrull empires, and intervened in a series of plots by the Elders of the Universe, who planned to destroy Galactus - and the universe with him - in order to become the supreme powers of a new universe. The Surfer thwarted the Elders with the aid of his new love interest Mantis, the Earth-born cosmic heroine also known as the Celestial Madonna, but she seemingly died in the process; though she would later return, she never fully renewed her romance with the Surfer. Romantic sparks developed between Nova and the Surfer, whose influence gradually led Nova to question the morality of her role as a herald. Galactus finally replaced her with the far more ruthless Morg, who killed Nova during a conflict with the Surfer and most of the other ex-heralds.
The Surfer has repeatedly battled space-born menaces such as Reptyl, Ego the Living Planet, Super-Skrull, Midnight Sun, Nebula, Galactus's dark counterpart Tyrant-and, perhaps most notably, Thanos, a death-worshiping rogue Eternal who wiped out half the life in the universe using the omnipotent Infinity Gauntlet before the Surfer teamed with a reborn Adam Warlock and many other heroes to seize and dismantle the gauntlet after undoing its effects. The Surfer has been allied with cosmic adventurers such as Jack of Hearts, Ganymede, Genis-Vell and Warlock's Infinity Watch, who helped the Surfer restore Shalla-Bal to life after she sacrificed herself to save Zenn-La from the supremely powerful Great One. The Surfer also partnered with Quasar, Beta Ray Bill, Morfex and Xenith to form the short-lived Star Masters team, and began participating in occasional Defenders reunions, the Tribunal's hoax having been exposed.
During his travels, the Surfer also met his long-lost brother Fennan. However, Zenn-La and its people later seemingly vanished, and the Surfer came to discover that his home-world had been destroyed in the 1940s by the mysterious, all powerful entity known as the Other. The Zenn-Lavian world and people he had encountered since his leaving the service of Galactus were "re-creations" of the originals. Galactus, after finding Zenn-La utterly decimated by the Other, recreated the planet and its inhabitants in every detail so when the Surfer left his service (as he knew he one day would) he would have a home to return to. So accurate was this new Zenn-La that it convinced not only the Surfer over the years but also convinced the Skrulls, Kree, the demonic Mephisto and even the Celestials. Why the "new" Zenn-La dissolved was never made entirely clear but it was likely the result of Galactus' temporary absence from the universe due to being caught in the Ultimate Nullifier's blast.
Shortly before his encounter with the Other the Surfer lost his capacity for emotion once again when discovering the truth about the false Zenn-La placed emotional blocks in his mind to protect him from his grief. The Surfer then returned to Earth, eventually regaining his full range of emotions during the time travel adventure in which he learned the full truth about Zenn-La and encountered the Other, after which he began a romance with Alicia Masters. They ultimately parted as friends after many adventures together, one of which pitted them against Galactus's new herald Red Shift and led to the temporary destruction of Galactus himself.
When a Gaea-powered curse from a dying Yandroth mystically forced Surfer, Namor, Hulk and Strange to assemble in response to any and all threats to the Earth, the ongoing stress of this situation coupled with the subtle emotional influence of the curse itself gradually drove the four senior Defenders mad, and they attempted to rule the world as the Order in the belief that this was the most efficient way to protect the planet. Their fellow Defenders Hellcat, Nighthawk, Valkyrie and Clea teamed with other heroes - including Ardina, a cosmic-powered woman whom they mystically created from a portion of the Surfer's own energy - to oppose the Order and return them to their senses, just in time to prevent the curse from rendering a resurrected Yandroth all-powerful and almighty.
Communion & Revelation
The Surfer believed he was recruited by a being named Ayaman on behalf of a council of alien species who carried on the work of the Annunaki and was given command over a shipped called the Great Ark which was designed to hold all of the remaining life on Earth after a supposedly inevitable apocalypse. The surfer began to gather young children from across the planet who were intelligent and gifted with special and precocious talents such as music and art. An alien named Amnel helped the Surfer to care for and 'evolve' the children so they would develop special powers as well as becoming more connected and aware of the universe. Not all of the children were easily pacified to their new circumstances and two, Gabe Acheron and Ellie Waters wanted to return home so the Surfer communed with the Singularity and learned that as Ellie was 'protected' she could be returned home to her mother Denise Waters
The Surfer revealed he had been set on this course of action because a destructive machine, Marduk was on its way to Earth to destroy civilization so humanity did not destroy themselves or their planet. Marduk was programmed to preserve life at all costs even if that meant drowning the planet and sending civilization crashing down to start all over again. As Marduk could not be reasoned with or stopped the children had been gathered so that they could be placed back on Earth after Marduk was finished and lead humanity to rise back up without endangering themselves or their world so Marduk would never have to come again.
The Surfer would then come to learn that it was Marduk he had been truly serving, although Ayaman and Singularity had chosen the Surfer for this task hoping he would be able to prevent Marduk from destroying the Earth. The Surfer also learned that Marduk was a thought form, having been brought into reality by the imaginations of man and not by the Annunaki (Aliens). As a thought form, Marduk was created by the imaginations of mankind. Marduk attempted to use the Surfer's ship to destroy the Earth by crashing it into the planet at its weakest point, the Surfer attempted to heal the planet by merging himself with its core but was unable. Marduk was not defeated until Ellie Waters awakened to her true potential and willed it out of existence when she remade the Earth. It is unclear whether the Surfer remembered these events occuring after they were reset.
The Surfer came across a wormhole in space which called to him. He went through it in order to investigate but found himself on the savage world of Sakaar. His journey through the wormhole weakened him to the point that the denizens of Sakaar were able to enslave him using their obedience disks. Despite many of the Sakaarian's believing him to be the Sakaarson, a messianic figure in Sakaaran culture, the Surfer was forced to fight in the Sakaarian gladiatorial arena. After the arrival of the Hulk on Sakaar, the Surfer was pitted against him in the gladiatorial arena. Hulk initially tried to help the Surfer but due to the obedience disk, the Surfer had no choice but to fight him. The Hulk and his companions managed to defeat the Surfer and in the course of the battle, his obedience disk was destroyed. The Surfer used his Power Cosmic to destroy the obedience disks of all the slaves of Sakaar, freeing them to start a rebellion. He offered the Hulk passage back to Earth or another planet of his choice but Hulk declined, saying he had finally found a home. The Surfer then returned to the stars.
Fearing a prophesied apocalypse, the Surfer worked with the alien Annunaki race to gather and protect some of Earth's most extraordinarily gifted children; in the end, one of those children-Ellie Waters-saved Earth from the godlike Marduk entity, preventing the apocalypse and reordering reality as if the Marduk crisis had never happened, though Ellie apparently retains her memories of these events. The Surfer has resumed his interstellar wanderings, but remains ready to aid his adopted home-world should Earth ever need him.
Following the Annihilation Wave's entrance into this universe, Silver Surfer again became the herald of Galactus, in order to fight the now-freed Tenebrous and Aegis. He succeeded in destroying them by channeling the energy of the primordial crunch. Galactus rescued him from his mortal wounds and returned him to his original purpose - seeker of worlds for the Devourer.
Galactus' Herald Once More
Shortly after the superhuman Civil War on his formerly adopted planet Earth, the Fantastic Four (then T'Challa, Storm, Human Torch, and Thing), encountered Galactus, Stardust, and Radd in outer space. The Surfer didn't want to fight the Fantastic Four, but he had to deliver Epoch for sustenance. Epoch didn't want to be eaten, but she had to pass on what she knew to Gravity, who lacked desire to be the Protector of the Universe, yet grudgingly accepted the role.
Galactus sought energy resources within the planet Orbucen. Nova, the only Centurion remaining after the Annihilation War, pled for Galactus to desist, at least temporarily to give the ships of Orbucen’s population time to evacuate. The Silver Surfer fiercely attacked Nova, and flew both away to another world beyond Galactus’s immediate perceptive range. Nova convinced the Surfer to give the people time to leave.
Shortly afterward the Silver Surfer returned to Sakaar, in a plan to feed Galactus with the unique "old power" which he claimed would sate the his master's hunger for thousands of years, and spare many other inhabited worlds in the meantime. He was opposed by the Hulk's son Skaar, and was enslaved by an obedience disc. The conflict ended when Skaar's mother Caiera sacrificed her soul and old power as sustenance for Galactus.
Defenders vs. Offenders
Simultaneously the Grandmaster enlisted a much earlier version of the Surfer to reunite with the other three original Defenders, Doctor Strange, Namor and the Hulk, in a contest against the combined forces of Terrax, Baron Mordo, Tiger Shark and the Red Hulk, named the "Offenders". As a prize the Grandmaster offered his champions to restore their dead or otherwise lost love interests. The Surfer and Terrax were teleported by the Grandmaster to the Microverse to battle. Radd was slain by the Red Hulk and his Power Cosmic was absorbed, but was eventually revived alongside the other Offenders and Defenders by the dying Grandmaster.
Beta Ray Bill: Godhunter
Beta Ray Bill decided that Galactus was indeed a force of destruction threatening all of existence, and set out a dangerous yet shockingly fearful plan to stop the World-Eater. As Galactus reached an idyllic planet to consume, he sent the Silver Surfer to stop Bill and prevent him from interfering, though he was less than successful.
Battle Against the High Evolutionary
After the Chaos War, Galactus was weakened to the point that the Surfer was forced to feed him a star. While Galactus recovered, the Surfer returned to Earth in order to pass the time until his master's return. His relaxation was interrupted by the High Evolutionary who used his advanced technology to steal the Surfer's power cosmic, returning him to his original form. The Evolutionary plans to use the power cosmic in order to bring life to barren worlds and places, starting with the Moon. Together with Suzi Endo he attempts to recover his power cosmic and put a stop to the High Evolutionary's plans. The Evolutionary converts Endo into a herald of his own, forcing Norrin to ask the Fantastic Four for help.
They assist him and trick Endo into releasing a burst of power cosmic. This burst is enough to trigger a transformation that once again turns Norrin into the Silver Surfer. While he fights Endo and the Evolutionary, Galactus awakens from his slumber and drives the Evolutionary off. Galactus gives the Surfer his freedom and with the cosmic balance now altered due to the terraforming of the Moon, Galactus prepares to consume the Moon. Doing so however would result in an asteroid storm that would wipe out the Earth. The Surfer tries to dissuade Galactus from consuming the Moon, telling him that it couldn't sate his hunger. Galactus retorts that the cosmic balance has been altered and that it is imperative that he consumes. The Surfer agrees to once again become his Herald and to find him another place to eat. He uses his power cosmic to once again make the Moon barren and Galactus removes Endo's power cosmic, returning it to the Surfer.
In the wake of the war between the Shi'ar and the Kree/Inhuman Empire, a massive tear in reality lead to horrifying abominations from a universe without death began to flow into the universe. Surfer joined Quasar, Nova, Beta Ray Bill, Gladiator and Ronan the Accuser in an invasion force to stop the twisted versions of themselves from this cancer universe from carrying out their invasion. While in the Cancerverse, Surfer aided in fighting its version of the Avengers, effortlessly taking down the versions of Thor and Iron Man after Nova warned about them being the enemy's heavy hitters. After the invasion was repelled, the surviving members of this team were invited by Cosmo to form a proactive peacekeeping force of the universe's heaviest hitters, known as the Annihilators.
Galactus searched for the “Galactus Seed”, a cosmic heart that will give birth to the next universe to come. Created by Eternity before the recording of time and discovered by Bor, First King of the Asgardians. The seed birthing the World Tree over which the nine realms hang. Surfer arrived on behalf of Galactus for the seed, which according to the Silver Surfer will sate Galactus’ hunger forever. Prompting Odin to rebuff the Surfer who warns the Asgardians Galactus will come for them. Odin refused, believing that Galactus was in search for godhood making Galactus attack Asgard in search for the seed. Galactus was not able to get the seed as Odin was in his way stopping him from getting it. Galactus and Odin fought by using their telekinetic and telepathic powers. Odin was able to render Galactus unconscious by headbutting him before falling into the Odinsleep. After regaining consciousness Galactus proceeded to attack Asgard in search for the seed despite the fact the Silver Surfer was trying to stop Galactus and telling him that “They are Gods. They are power and fury and an act of war against a race of Gods is beyond even you..." nonetheless, Galactus proceeded until Odin summoned the Destroyer, which was powered with the seed’s energy. And at the same time Loki successfully hid the seed, when Surfer detected the seed was gone and informed Galactus. Knowing that his main objective was not under Asgardian possession any more, Galactus retreated, thus canceling the invasion, and later learned that the seed was lost somewhere within Odin's World Tree, and that searching for it would be like searching for a needle in a pile of space-time. After the event Surfer proposes truce between Galactus and Asgardians, one of the conditions is if the Surfer senses the seed disturbed then the war continues anew. Needing to stay on Earth to observe the Asgardians and ensure they never retrieved the Seed, the Surfer approached a preacher in Broxton, Oklahoma, Mike, about taking up his role as Herald, having observed Mike's courage in standing up to Galactus for the good of his people. Mike reluctantly accepted the task, becoming Praeter, the latest Herald of Galactus.
At some point, the Surfer left his vigil on Earth and parted ways with Galactus again. When the Builders began their war against the universe, the Surfer encountered their armies at the Skrull world of Hy'lt Minor. The Surfer tried in vain to stop the Builder army, but began to question his futile struggle when even at the end, the Skrulls still fought each other, worshiping war itself. The Surfer abandoned the struggle, saving only a single Skrull, K'eel R'kt. Despite this, as the Builders continued their war, the Surfer continued his struggle, saving what few he could on other worlds from the Builder onslaught.
Girl on Board
As he was exploring the universe, the Surfer was approached by the Incredulous Zed, who chose him to be the Impericon's champion to fight the Queen of Nevers. For the Surfer to comply with his request, Zed kidnapped the person who was supposed to be the most important one in the universe for him as determined by a machine who looked into the Surfer's true self: Dawn Greenwood. However, the Surfer didn't even know at all who she was.
Still, the Surfer decided to help Zed on behalf of the innocent Dawn. When he met the Queen, she revealed to the Surfer that the Impericon was being powered by her heart, which was stolen from her by Zed, and its absence was slowly killing her. The Surfer agreed to help the Queen retrieve her heart. With the help of Dawn, the Surfer retrieved the heart and gave it back to the Queen as he defeated Zed. After the Queen faded away, the Surfer and Dawn set out to explore the universe.
After lending Dawn control of his surfboard, the Surfer and his companion accidentally landed on a cloaked planet called Newhaven. The 666 billion inhabitants of this world were soon revealed to be the sole survivors of their respective species after their planets had been devoured by Galactus. They identified the Surfer, and his past came to light for Dawn Greenwood, who immediately rejected Norrin. The Surfer left Newhaven and Dawn on it at her request, however, the returned Galactus would follow the trail left by Norrin's surfboard in order to find his former herald, and in the middle of said trail was Newhaven.
As soon as the Surfer returned to Newhaven in order to give Dawn the opportunity to return to Earth if he wished, Galactus arrived as well. The billions of inhabitants from Newhaven were inspired by the Surfer's origin to propose Galactus to become his herald, but he rejected them, as their respective planets had already been destroyed and they were nothing to him. As Galactus had never destroyed the Earth, Dawn proposed to become his herald. The Surfer tried to prevent Galactus from transforming Dawn at the same time he muttered his motive: his love for Dawn. The Earthgirl's sacrifice inspired the inhabitants of Newhaven to evacuate their planet and give it to Galactus in exchange for the girl. Newhaven was destroyed, but the Surfer swore to become the herald of its survivors in order to find them a new planet to live in.
After weeks of searching, the Surfer finally discovered a suitable planet, with a special adaptive atmosphere which allowed the inhabitation of different specimens from different races. As Dawn decided whether to return to Earth or not, months were spent by the Surfer at this "New Newhaven," and Dawn started getting close to the Surfer once more. Norrin subsequently sensed something was wrong, used his powers to reveal the planet's true nature, and "New Newhaven" revealed itself as Euphoria, a living creature who had used its adaptive atmosphere to protect itself from the survivors' grief by inducing them happiness and controlling their actions to ensure their well-being. A group of the survivors decided to leave the planet as they didn't want to be Euphoria's puppets, but the vast majority remained on it. Now the Surfer and Dawn were free of its influence and decided to return to Earth. Dawn confessed her true feelings to Norrin without being influenced by Euphoria any longer, and kissed him as they departed.
During their continuing journey to explore the universe, the Surfer and Dawn found themselves attempting to outrun the collapse of the Multiverse caused by the final incursion. They managed to escape to a plane of non-existence, a Land of Couldn't-Be Shouldn't-Be, with the help of Glorian.
When Norrin encountered Eternity, all that remained within him was the newly created Battleworld and its satellite Knowhere, fashioned by the sheer force of will of God Emperor Doom. With the remains of the Multiverse under Doom's control, Glorian offered the Silver Surfer a chance at recreating the old universe with the power of his master, the Shaper of Worlds. At the behest of the Shaper of Worlds, Dawn and the Silver Surfer then began recreating the known universe, with Glorian and the Surfer focusing on the cosmic, while Dawn and Zee concentrated on Earth. But the pair soon began to alter things to their own desires. The Surfer resurrected then killed Galactus; meanwhile, Dawn quickly realized that her crafting was merely two-dimensional, so she accidentally created another Silver Surfer to help her, but all the changes upset the Shaper of Worlds.
Once most of these anomalies were dealt with, only the duplicate Silver Surfer remained. The Shaper made Dawn choose between one of the Surfers, however, Glorian was impatient for the universe to be finished and killed the Shaper, whose power had been depleted during the creation of the universe. Glorian revealed that his ultimate goal was to break free from the Shaper's commands, for which he had waited until his master was weak enough to kill him. The Surfer and Dawn managed to escape from Glorian and bring back the Queen of Nevers, whose heart had been recreated in this new universe. The Surfer was forced to choose between Glorian's universe and what remained of the rest of the Multiverse. However, at that very same time, the old universe was brought back. The Silver Surfer managed to resist the temptation of Glorian's perfect universe, which was in the end a simply hollow day-dream. The Surfer chose his old universe, and returned with Dawn to it to continue their journey of exploration.
While visiting Dawn's family on Earth, the Silver Surfer fended off a Zenn-Lavian invasion led by none other than Shalla-Bal, who had become the successor of the mantle of the Keeper of the Great Truth. Using a powerful reality-warping device called the Illuminatrix, the invading aliens attempted to replace all of Earth's culture with Zenn-La's. Norrin stopped the Zenn-Lavians and reversed the damage caused by the Illuminatrix, though at the cost of all traces of Zenn-Lavian culture in the universe and his status as a member of his people. Before returning to space, Norrin reunited Dawn with her estranged mother, Libby Windham, though the reunion did more harm than good.
One of Norrin and Dawn's adventures took them to the planet of Inkandessa 4, where all of its inhabitants had had their consciousness copied into holographic forms of solid light to avoid leaving any impact in the ecosystem, using devices called Holo-Pods to scan their essence. Due to Dawn's nature as an organic being, she was unsuspectedly scanned against her will and replaced with a holographic Dawn Greenwood. Though Dawn's duplicate rescued the real Dawn from being killed, she had to stay behind in Inkandessa 4, as all Light-Forms needed to remain in the planet to continue existing.
Dawn and Norrin returned to Earth briefly afterwards to meet Dawn's newborn niece, Regina. When they arrived, they also learned that Dawn's father Reg had died of heart issues shortly after the baby's birth. Dawn requested the Surfer to return to Euphoria to help her cope with her father's death. They remained there for sixty-seven days until Dawn came to terms with her loss. However, Dawn felt the need to say goodbye to Reg, and asked Norrin to travel back in time to see him for one last time. Norrin conceded, but accidentally overshot, and they ended up in the time before the Big Bang, in the iteration of the universe from where Galactus hailed, with no way to return home. Together, they explored the universe for decades, and married in the process. Norrin used his Power Cosmic to alter his appearance and age together with Dawn. As Dawn reached her golden years, she and Norrin settled in Taa. To make up for their inability to continue exploring, Norrin spent the rest of Dawn's days sharing his adventures from before he had met her. On her deathbed, Norrin and Dawn recalled their first meeting.
When the universe was coming to an end, Norrin transformed Dawn's buried remains into energy and took it with him inside Galan's Incubator, where he could survive the death of the universe and emerge in the next one. The Surfer fired Dawn's bolt of energy at the start of creation, which became the very first light in the universe, forever echoing throughout all of time. In this moment Norrin additionally crafted the energy signature of the Power Cosmic, red with black dots, and dedicated it to Dawn so the love and memory of her would flow forever through him. The Surfer proceeded to spend eons alone until Eternity manifested himself. In order to prevent his presence in the past to alter history, Norrin both disguised and concealed himself, taking a different appearance and the name of "Nor-Vill" and shifting out of phase with existence itself. While waiting to reach his original point in time, Norrin became a ghostly observer for the history of the universe, particularly of Galactus' feats of destruction.
Norrin eventually decided to travel to Earth, and became a regular fleeting visitor of the Greenwood Inn under the disguise of Norville Rapaport, watching Dawn grow up and spending time with her with each visit he paid. When Dawn was abducted by the Incredulous Zed and rescued by the Surfer's past-self, "Nor-Vill" silently followed them through their many adventures until the point they traveled back in time. With the past Dawn and Norrin out of the picture, Nor-Vill ditched his eons-old disguise and returned to his true self, the Silver Surfer. Norrin returned to Earth and delivered the news of Dawn's fate to her family. He also convinced Eve and Costas to copy their essence and that of their baby into Holo-Pods so they could reunite with the Holo Dawn in Inkandessa 4. Norrin additionally created holographic copies of Reg, taken from a time before he died, and himself, so a part of him could live out his days with Dawn. Norrin bid his friends farewell and returned to exploring the universe, accompanied by Dawn's love and memory.
Sometime later, Norrin was captured by Ultron and taken to the planet Saiph, where Ultron had infected him with his Ultron Virus using the power of his newly acquired Soul Gem. To encourage Norrin's compliance, Ultron used the Soul Gem to make him listen to the screams of the countless lives taken by Galactus. Adam Warlock was able to free Norrin from Ultron's control by wrapping him in a healing cocoon. After emerging from the cocoon, Norrin fled Saiph and asked Galactus to consume Saiph in order to save the galaxy from Ultron. Though reluctant at first, Galactus agreed to destroy Saiph, on the condition that the Silver Surfer returned to serving as his herald, since the consumption of the planet caused Galactus' hunger to return.
Thanos' Death and Stranded in the Past
Norrin was among the cosmic superheroes called to bear witness to the will of Thanos following the Mad Titan's death. When the Black Order created a black hole in order to steal Thanos' body, Norrin entered it to rescue those who had been pulled inside. Trapped inside the black hole, Norrin found himself pulled through space and time, winding up billions of years in the past. Sensing a dark presence attempting to extinguish the nascent universe, the Silver Surfer traced it to a dark world encased in living abyss. Attacked by three symbiote-possessed goddesses guarding a large Gigeresque door, Norrin was nearly engulfed by the abyss but conjured a miniature sun - his hand turning black in the process. Approaching the door, Norrin was grabbed and pulled through - finding himself on the throneworld of the Symbiote Imperium and in the presence of the abyssal god Knull. The Silver Surger attempted to fight against Knull, but was easily overpowered and bonded to a symbiote, turning him into the Void Knight. Ego the Living Planet interceded and freed Radd from Knull's control, helping him escape and offering to help him vanquish the abyssal god.
|Power Grid |
Currently, the Silver Surfer is one of the most powerful beings in the universe, and the most powerful of the Heralds of Galactus. He was deemed to be an Alpha Plus by the Galadorian Spaceknight Ikon., and a potentially be an universal-level threat by the Nova Corps. Thanks to Galactus, he possesses the following abilities:
- The Power Cosmic: The Silver Surfer possesses the Power Cosmic, which is the core from which his other abilities manifest from. This power was granted to him by Galactus, and amplified during the Annihilation event. Based on cumulative evidence from beings with similar power magnitude and his own feats, the Silver Surfer's maximum power output ranges from casual planetoid/planet and planet, to star level, and plausibly, by drawing energy from an outside source, to solar system level without overloading.
- Energy Absorption and Manipulation: The absorption of electromagnetic energy is the base of the Surfer's life and power. The Silver Surfer has complete control of the four fundamental forces of the universe, reaching nearly any effect he desires. As a result, the Surfer can absorb, manipulate and discharge tremendous amounts of energy of the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The Surfer's incredible powers surpasss Nova with the Nova Force and Quasar, with sufficient force to casually destroy planets. Currently, at maximum, his beams are capable of almost killing Ravenous, equaling Thanos, and hurting Thor in Asgardian armor. Additional abilities include:
- Erecting force fields, phasing through solid matter, creating stable black holes, creating a star while extremely weakened, creating solid energy often in the forms of a cocoon or barrier, restabilizing and recharging a micro-star, accelerating the evolution of lifeforms on a planet-wide scale, seeing the past by peeling back the layers of time, time travel, trans dimensional travel, bestowing limited cosmic powers to others, telepathically reading minds, casting illusions,, temporarily animating the inanimate and sharing a portion of his power and consciousness with it and emphatically influencing human emotion and sensation. The Surfer also possesses the ability to suppress or absorb the powers of other beings, making them temporarily or permanently unable to use them, as he did once with the Hulk. He can heal living beings, even if they are near-death. He cannot, however, raise the dead.
- Matter Manipulation: The Silver Surfer can rearrange matter to create other objects of importance by rearranging molecules. He can also change the state of matter, such as changing solids into gas. Transmutation helps the Surfer escape traps and prisons, and can also be used to make an enemy's weapons inactive. He is able to bend his own molecular structure so as to transform himself to appear human.
- Superhuman Physical Abilities:
- Superhuman Strength: The Surfer possesses enormous superhuman strength. Though the exact magnitude remains vague, he has often been shown to fight evenly with people who can lift far in excess of 100 tons. He can also use the Power Cosmic to increase his strength to incalculable levels.
- Invulnerability: The Silver Surfer's silvery "skin" was designed to easily withstand the rigors of deep-space travel, and thus far, it has proven to be virtually indestructible. Among things that include simple blunt force, like withstanding a punch from She-Hulk without flinching back when the She-Hulk's power level was still just class 75, and not far above class 100 as it is today. The Silver Surfer can withstand even the most extreme conditions, like the crushing pressures of a black hole. He is not bothered by the friction associated with atmospheric re-entry, and has withstood plunges into stars and supernovas unharmed. He also routinely weathers the stresses associated with high-speed travel through space and hyperspace.
- Godlike Stamina: The Surfer's highly enhanced musculature generates no fatigue toxins, body stress, or even sweat, granting him inexhaustible physical stamina, which allows him to fight other beings for prolonged periods of time before tiring, if he even gets tired.
- Flight Speed: Prior to his upgrade, the Silver Surfer was one of the fastest beings in the universe, but he was greatly outmatched by the Runner of the Elders of the Universe. Currently, he is faster than Beta Ray Bill and Nova. The Silver Surfer can travel at speeds faster than light. He can enter the Hyperspace when he exceeds the speed of light, although he is also able to accelerate and achieve faster than light speeds without accessing hyperspace (since he was deprived from his space-time travelling powers, and to enter hyperspace does not automatically cause time travel). Finally, his mind and body can be used at these speeds as well, making the Surfer extremely reactive and agile. The Silver Surfer has several times reacted in the space of a microsecond and even in the range of a nanosecond. The Surfer even analysed every planet in numerous galaxies in a matter of hours.
- Cosmic Senses: The Silver Surfer has certain cosmic-energy enhanced perceptions which enable him, through concentration, to become aware of the patterns of energy anywhere in the world. These abilities allow him far-ranging vision (in space he can see people clearly over a light year away), the ability to see sub-atomic particles, superhuman hearing, the ability to detect fields, traces, and concentrations of pure forms of energy and discern their natures. Currently the abilities of the Surfer surpass even those of Stardust.
- Cosmic Self-Sustenance: The Silver Surfer does not need to eat or breathe since he absorbs life-maintaining cosmic energy directly through his skin.
- Immortality: Due to his ability to sustain himself, the Silver Surfer is virtually immortal. He is approximately 13.7 billion years old due to having travelled back in time to a previous incarnation of the universe and simply waiting out until the present caught up with him.
As Norrin Radd, the Surfer was a scientist, a dreamer, and something of a philosopher, skills which he sometimes finds quite useful. The Surfer, however, is only an average hand-to-hand combatant, depending almost entirely upon his cosmic powers in battle. After his time on Sakaar, Surfer gained some combat experience, making him a more dangerous combatant than ever.
Cosmic Surfboard: When flying, the Silver Surfer uses a construct which resembles an earthly surfboard. This "board" is made with the same silvery material (The Galactic Glaze) that composes the Surfer's body, thus making the board indestructible. Few forces aside from the power cosmic itself can affect it, and if it is somehow damaged, the Surfer can easily repair it in an instant. The board is psionically linked with the Surfer's mind in some unknown fashion, and it follows his commands instantly. It apparently taps cosmic energy in much the same fashion as the Surfer himself, and although the Surfer could theoretically use the power cosmic to fly without his board, the construct enables him to do so without expending any of his own energy. The Surfer generally limits his speed to Mach 10 (ten times the speed of sound) within the outer layers of a planet's atmosphere, can attain 99.99% the speed of light in regular space, and can exceed light-speed within hyperspace. The Silver Surfer is also able to trap living matter into his Surfboard for extended periods of time, or even destroy living matter within the board itself.
- The Silver Surfer was one of the characters featured in Series A of the Marvel Value Stamps issued in the 1970's.
- The Silver Surfer does not participate in the events of Civil War due to the fact it takes place roughly the same time as the Annihilation Wave, and the Surfer was occupied with battling the forces of Annihilus during the time the war takes place.
- The Silver Surfer has stated that it has been 'millenia' since he was first transformed by Galactus.
- After saving the Earth from having all of its culture replaced by Zenn-La's, several UN representatives were empowered to give him as a gift the nationality of their countries. The known countries Silver Surfer became a citizen of include Wakanda, China, France, Russia, Japan, Egypt and India. Captain America also expressed that the Surfer was to become a citizen of the United States of America, but the Surfer mentioned that he most likely didn't have the authority to do so. The Surfer was later given the citizenship of the other remaining 189 countries.
- In the movie Crimson Tide, Denzel Washington's character breaks up a fight between two crewmen. The fight was over a disagreement about which Silver Surfer was better, the Jack Kirby Silver Surfer or the Moebius Silver Surfer. This scene was written by Quentin Tarantino in an uncredited rewrite of the script.
- In the Quentin Tarantino film Reservoir Dogs, a scene taking place in Mr. Orange's apartment features a poster of the Silver Surfer on the wall.
- In the movie Breathless, Richard Gere's character reads, and comments on, an issue of a Silver Surfer comic. In a stirring moment, he compares his own alienation with the Surfer's profound cosmic loneliness.
- In his song Darkside of Aquarius, Bruce Dickinson gets help from the lonely Silver Surfer in keeping the Wheel of Dharma moving.
- Guitarist Joe Satriani has made multiple allusions to the Silver Surfer, including:
- Classic art of the Surfer was featured on the cover of the artist's album Surfing With the Alien.
- The song "Back To Shalla-Bal" from his album Flying in a Blue Dream is a Silver Surfer reference.
- On his 1998 album Engines of Creation, Satriani reprized Surfer references with the tracks "The Power Cosmic 2000" parts one and two.
- The character of Norrin Radd is also used by Bal-Sagoth in "The Scourge of the Fourth Celestial Host", a song from their album The Power Cosmic.
- In an episode of the Nickelodeon animated series, Doug, Doug and his friend, Skeeter, pretend to be superheroes. Doug's character, Quail Man, is accompanied by Skeeter's character, The Silver Skeeter, a clear reference to The Silver Surfer. The criticisms of the Surfer's invincibility are noted here, as Skeeter gives his character powers bordering on omnipotence.
- In book #20 of the Animorphs series, Marco complains about having to morph in a dirty Burger King bathroom, asking why he has to and stating that the Silver Surfer never has to do things like this.
- Clothing company Bathing Ape, or Bape, have a very rare and expensive shoe called the Bathing Ape Limited Edition Silver Surfers, modeled after the Nike Air Force Ones.
- In Kringlan, a mall in Reykjavík, Iceland, an entire wall is covered with The Silver Surfer. The wall was painted by the Icelandic pop artist Erró.
- In the "Web" story arc of the television show ReBoot, the surfer character is loosely based on The Silver Surfer (i.e. appears to be telekinetically connected with his surfboard; only feels pain when his board is damaged).
- In the cartoon Dexter's Laboratory, there was a side-story cartoon entitled "Dial M for Monkey", featuring a monkey superhero. In the episode, "Dial M for Monkey: Barbequor", it featured a parody of both Galactus and Silver Surfer as Barbequor, a powerful alien and master of cooking that eats planets, and his partner, the Silver Spooner (who rides a giant spoon). This episode was removed from broadcast syndication after complaints were made about the "effeminate" parody of Silver Spooner.
- In the episode of The Fairly Odd Parents called "Mighty Mom and Dyno Dad", Timmy wishes he can be a Galactus type being to remove his mom and dad's superpowers. His fairy godparents turn into gold versions of the Silver Surfer, but they use skateboards and their crowns are still visible. Cosmo makes a reference to how he's naked. Timmy even calls them "heralds" at one point.
- In an episode of the television series Andromeda, Seamus Harper makes a comment about the Silver Surfer, only to be held aghast when no-one knows who he is talking about. On a side note Al B. Harper, one of the Silver Surfer's friends, has the same last name as Seamus.
- A parody of the Silver Surfer was briefly seen in Futurama Comics #2, when the Planet Express crew was soaring through space.
- In the song "Things You Can Do", by the underground hip hip supergroup Deltron 3030, Silver Surfer is mentioned.
- The Silver Surfer appears on the first page of Futurama Comics #23. The Planet Express knocks him off his board.
- In the DC Comics one-shot The Lobo Convention Special, the Silver Surfer is seen getting knocked off his board.
- Fantastic Four #48
- Tomb of Dracula #50, November 1976
- Thor #443 Late January 1992; Featuring: Mephisto, Doctor Strange
- Amazing Spider-Man #430-431 (1998) - becomes Carnage Cosmic for 2 Issues
- 743 Appearances of Norrin Radd (Earth-616)
- 63 Minor Appearances of Norrin Radd (Earth-616)
- Media Norrin Radd (Earth-616) was Mentioned in
- 627 Images featuring Norrin Radd (Earth-616)
- 88 Quotations by or about Norrin Radd (Earth-616)
- Character Gallery: Norrin Radd (Earth-616)
- Complete Silver Surfer Appearance List
- Official Marvel Picture site
- Tv.com Silver Surfer episode guide
- DRG4's Silver Surfer the Animated Series Page
- Knightmare6.com; Silver Surfer FAQ
- Silver Surfer website
- Silver Surfer Message Board
Discover and Discuss
- Search this site for:
- ↑ Planet Hulk Gladiator Guidebook #1
- ↑ Thanos Sourcebook #1
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol 4 #14
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Amazing Spider-Man #430
- ↑ Captain Universe: Silver Surfer #1
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Silver Surfer Vol 3 #132
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #128
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Defenders: Strange Heroes #1
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Silver Surfer Vol 8 #13
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Silver Surfer Vol 8 #14
- ↑ Defenders Vol 2 #5
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Silver Surfer Vol 3 #130
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #134
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #141
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 5 #10
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 Silver Surfer: Black #2
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #91
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #50
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #101
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Silver Surfer Vol 3 #49
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Silver Surfer: Homecoming #1
- ↑ Silver Surfer Annual Vol 2 #1
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Silver Surfer: Black #1
- ↑ Amazing Spider-Man #430-431
- ↑ Fantastic Four #48
- ↑ Fantastic Four #49
- ↑ Fantastic Four #50
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Fantastic Four #55
- ↑ Fantastic Four #57
- ↑ Fantastic Four #60
- ↑ Silver Surfer #12
- ↑ Silver Surfer #13
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 Silver Surfer #16-17
- ↑ Silver Surfer #14
- ↑ Silver Surfer #15
- ↑ Silver Surfer #18
- ↑ Fantastic Four #155-157
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 Silver Surfer Vol 3 #1
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #100
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #130-136
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #122
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #123-146
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 Galactus the Devourer #1-6
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 5 #7
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Silver Surfer Vol 5 #8-14
- ↑ Incredible Hulk Vol 2 #94-95
- ↑ Fantastic Four #545
- ↑ Fantastic Four #546
- ↑ Skaar: Son of Hulk #7
- ↑ Skaar: Son of Hulk #7-#10
- ↑ Hulk Vol 2 #10
- ↑ Hulk Vol 2 #11
- ↑ Beta Ray Bill: Godhunter #2
- ↑ Infinity: Against the Tide: Infinite Comic #1
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 Silver Surfer Vol 7 #1
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #2
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #3
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #8
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #9
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #10
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #11
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #12
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #13
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #14
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 7 #15
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 8 #2
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 8 #3
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 8 #4
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 8 #5
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 8 #6
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 8 #9
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 8 #11
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 8 #12
- ↑ Infinity Countdown #2
- ↑ Infinity Countdown #3
- ↑ Infinity Countdown #4
- ↑ Guardians of the Galaxy Vol 5 #1
- ↑ Annihilators #1
- ↑ 79.0 79.1 79.2 79.3 Annihilation: The Nova Corps Files #1
- ↑ 80.0 80.1 Annihilation: Silver Surfer #4
- ↑ Silver Surfer Annual #7
- ↑ Marvel Graphic Novel #58
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #121
- ↑ 84.0 84.1 Silver Surfer Vol 3 #37
- ↑ 85.0 85.1 85.2 Silver Surfer #6
- ↑ Tales to Astonish #93
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #33
- ↑ 88.0 88.1 Silver Surfer Vol 3 #127
- ↑ []
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #96
- ↑ []
- ↑ Silver Surfer Annual #2
- ↑ Silver Surfer / Thor Annual #1998
- ↑ Silver Surfer #2
- ↑ Silver Surfer #9
- ↑ Marvel Comics Presents #1
- ↑ Marvel Encyclopedia Vol 1
- ↑ Fantastic Four #260
- ↑ Nova Vol 4 #2
- ↑ Annihilation #4
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 3 #125
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 5 #4
- ↑ Silver Surfer Vol 5 #5
- ↑ Defenders: Strange Heroes #1
- ↑ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z hardcover Vol. 10
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