Marvel Database
Captain America Vol 7 16.NOW Bermejo Variant Textless.jpg


A number the incidents recounted of Steve Rogers' life are cited to have occurred in specific decades relative to the era of publication. However, it should be noted that the so-called Modern Age of the Earth-616 universe operates on a Sliding Timescale. As such these events could not have occurred in the times they appeared due to the fact that it would drastically age the character. Fury is unique in that he has operated in two distinct time frames, the 20th Century and the "Modern Era" which is measured on the Sliding Timescale.

Steve's history from his date of birth in 1922 until his disappearance in 1945 are considered to have happened in "real time". As such the length of time between his disappearance at the end of World War II and when he was revived should be considered relative to the sliding time scale and the actual year the reader is in.

Early Life

Steve Rogers as a child[1]

Steve Rogers was born July 4,[2] 1922,[3] to poor Irish Catholic immigrant parents, Sarah and Joseph Rogers. He grew up as a frail youth during the Great Depression in New York City, New York, America.[4] His tonsils were removed at the age of seven, being the only important surgery in his life; and he suffered from chicken pox, measles and mumps.[5] Rogers' father died when he was a child and his mother died from pneumonia a number of years later, when he was in his late teens. Moving into a rooming house and taking a job as a delivery boy, Steve struggled to survive.[4] Growing up as a child, Steve was constantly picked on by other children due to his frail and sickly body.[6] Not giving up his love of drawing, he once won the gold medal in the Creative Arts annual "Art of the Future" contest.[7]

World War II

Steve Rogers before Operation: Rebirth[8]

Seeking an escape from his ever day life, Steve enjoyed going to the movies. One day in the fall of 1940, he was horrified by newsreels about the Nazi's invasion of Europe and became determined to join the army in order to do his part to protect America from the potential Nazi threat.[9][4][10][11][8][12][13][6]

In the Fall of 1940 Sam Fogler convinced Steve to travel to Los Angeles in order to find his brother who had moved out west and then lost contact with him. On November 15, 1940 Sam found his brother, Harold, and attempted to convince him to leave his life of crime. They were caught by the members of Harold's gang who were revealed to be Nazis. After Steve called the gang "Nazi scum" and "hateful monsters" the leader didn't shoot him as he was a "weakling" but instead killed "the strong one," Sam. After the police apprehended the Nazis Steve was told that his actions from that night were proof he had the heart to fight in the war.[14]

Operation: Rebirth

Steve then began volunteering to join the United States military, but due to his frail body he was was rejected under class 4-F, making him ineligible to become a soldier.[9][11][8][13] During one such occasion, Steve was forced to evade Nazi spies.[15] After his last rejection for military service, Steve's devotion to serving his country attracted the attention of General Chester Phillips who offered Steve an opportunity to help.[16][9][17][8]

This opportunity was Project Rebirth, a secret military project to create a breed of super soldiers. Following his acceptance into the project, Steve met with the creator of the experiment scientist Abraham Erskine.[16][9][4] Steve then underwent initial tests and met project member Cynthia Glass who was, unknown to him, a Nazi spy.[16][4][18][8][13][19] When Nazi's attempted to attack the secret base, Steve was protected by Dominic Fortune, a soldier of fortune who was originally a candidate for the project but was turned down due to his questionable lifestyle.[10]

Steve Roger's transformation into Captain America[20]

In the winter of 1940 the final preparations were made and Steve Rogers underwent the final test. He was injected and made to ingest Erskine's formula and then was bathed in Vita Rays which caused his body to transform into the peak of human perfection. By this time, the project was infiltrated by Nazi agent Heinz Kruger who fatally shot Erskine, and he himself was slain by the newly empowered Steve Rogers. Without any complete copies of the super-soldier formula available in writing, Steve Rogers was the only man to receive the complete treatment at that time, but there would be others eventually.[20][21][16][4][22][12][6] Right after the project, an attempt by Nazi spies to steal a urine sample from Steve Rogers was foiled.[23]

After saying goodbye to his childhood friend Arnie Roth,[24] Steve began a battery of training to hone his fighting skills and military strategy.[4][25] During this time, General Phillips located a journal belonging to Steve's ancestor who lived during the American Revolution. This ancestor was a hero who wore an American themed costume and operated under the name Captain America. The military decided to model Steve after his ancestors other identity.[26] By March of 1941, Steve Roger's learned of his polar opposite the Nazi Red Skull. It was shortly after this that Steve was given his American flag themed uniform.[4][27][25]

Captain America's first operations included saving Colonel Hansen from assassination,[4] and stopping Nazi saboteurs,[10] smashing an operation to sabotage an aircraft plant.[4] Also during this time he meet scientist Emil Stein,[28] fell in love with Cynthia Glass,[29] and witnessed death on the battlefield for the first time.[30] After requesting modifications to his uniform and shield,[4] Steve was sent to Wakanda to collect a sample of Vibranium that was then be used in the creation of a brand new disc shaped shield to replace his original triangular shield.[31] Also during this period he stopped Nazi saboteurs from destroying the Liberty Ship yards. During this mission he was the assisted by the costumed hero known as the Angel,[4][25][13] and lastly he put a stop to Nazi spies attempting to detonate Bolder Dam.[4]

Captain America (with original shield) and Bucky circa 1941[20]

During the Spring of that year, Captain America with his new uniform met with President Roosevelt and was presented his new shield, he was then displayed to the public for the first time.[4][11][32] Cap was then then given a cover identity as a military Private and stationed at Camp Lehigh under the command of Sgt. Mike Duffy. In order to protect his double identity Rogers acted like a bumbling soldier. At Camp Leigh he meet and became fast friends with company mascot James "Bucky" Barnes. When James discovered Steve's double identity the military authorized James to be Captain America's costumed sidekick Bucky as an opposite to the Hitler Youth in Nazi Germany.[20][21][16][33][34][35] While on an early mission, Captain America -- in his inexperience -- failed to save an Allied recon mission which almost costs the life of an orphan caught in the battlefield.[36] Shortly thereafter, Captain America learned that Cynthia Glass was a Nazi spy while he and Bucky stopped the axis operatives on the Maryland coast.[37][21] Not long after this the Atlantean prince known as the Sub-Mariner kidnapped President Roosevelt, Captain America went after him and convinced Namor that the Nazis were the real threat to his undersea kingdom, securing Captain America's earliest ally during the war.[38]


Captain America and Bucky's first public mission was to investigate supposed fortune tellers Sando and Omar, which they expose as Axis spies. During this mission they first met FBI agent Betty Ross, another early ally. Also during this period they had an encounter with Nazi assassin Rathcone and clashed with Red Skull imitator George Maxon who seemingly died in combat.[20] During these early days, Steve took an interest in Private Bobby "Shrimie" Shaw, whose weakly stature reminded Steve of himself before Operation Rebirth.[39]

Captain America and Bucky's many early adventures included battling an embezzler named Benson and his Oriental Giants, freeing millionaire Henry Baldwin from Nazi Germany. During this mission they clashed with Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring in the process. They also faced the Nazi assassin known as the Wax Man in the United States.[40] Having survived his initial encounter with Captain America, George Maxon (still posing as the Red Skull) attempted once more to eliminate his foe with stolen plans for a massive drill tank leading to Maxon's death. During this time, Captain America also foiled actor and Nazi sympathizer Craig Talbot from ruining a film shoot, and captured the museum thief known as the Butterfly.[41] Subsequent clashes included battles against Nazi operatives the Unholy Legion, money counterfeiters, and the mad scientist Dr. Grimm.[42]

While in New York City Captain America broke up a Nazi attempt to prevent a lend-lease shipment from reaching England. During this operation Captain America was assisted by reporter Jeff Mace. The encounter would inspire Mace to take on the costumed identity of his own, calling himself the Patriot.[43] Around this time, Cap's sidekick Bucky had formed a team of young adventurers known as the Young Allies. When Bucky and the Allies were trying to dismantle a Nazi operation at Brooklyn Navy Yard, Captain America and the Human Torch arrived just in time to defeat the Red Skull.[44] Learning that George Maxon was only posing as the Red Skull, Captain America and Bucky went to Nazi Germany to confront the real Skull. During their mission both were captured and Cap was brought before the real Red Skull. Injected with a serum to bend Cap's will, Captain America was told a version of the Red Skull's origins before the serum took effect.[45] The Red Skull then sent Captain America to London with a Nazi raiding party to eliminate the head of American intelligence in the region. Bucky (having freed himself and was posing as a Nazi soldier) attempted to snap Captain America out of the Nazi's control.[46] Bucky succeeded, and Captain America foiled the plot at the last minute. They were then dispatched to a Prisoner of War camp and prevented an escaped Nazi prisoner named Wolfgang from using a new prototype "Vanishing Ray" on the military.[47] Put on guard duty along the Bowery docks, Captain America and Bucky protected the area from the Lord of Death and his army of homeless zombies he called Hollow Men.[48]

Captain America in Madripoor circa 1941[49]

Cap was next sent on a solo mission to the nation of Madripoor to investigate sightings of Nazi operative Baron Strucker in the area, Captain America stumbled upon a deal being made between Strucker and the Japanese ninjas known as the Hand. Cap worked together with Canadian adventurer Logan and Russian mercenary Ivan Petrovitch to rescue the young assassin in training Natasha Romanov who was being offered to the Hand. Succeeding in this mission, Captain America offered Logan a chance to be his partner, an offer that Logan refused.[49] Unknown to Captain America, his involvement in this mission attracted the attention of Logan's secret employer Romulus.[50]

Returning to the United States and working with Bucky again, Captain America took down the original Ringmaster and his Circus of Crime in Virginia, then destroyed Captain Okada's Dragon of Death in Hawaii, and then smashed a nation wide German Bund with the aid of the Sentinels of Liberty fan-club. Steve and James next travelled to the French territory known as Devil's Island to visit their friend Tom Jason a pilot who was being held prisoner there. Seeing that Nazi jailer Pepo Laroc was torturing Jason, Captain America and Bucky went into action to free their friend.[51] Also during this time, Captain America captured the Nazi saboteur known as the Creeper.[52] Next Captain America and Bucky foiled the Camera Fiend's attempt to steal the British royal jewels when they were put on display in New York, in San Francisco they rescued Chinese dignitaries from the Fang, and uncovered the secret identity of the killer known as the Hangman, bringing him to justice.[53] Later, the Red Skull returned and attacked Camp Lehigh directly, once more being stopped by Captain America and Bucky. The pair also foiled the Black Toad's attempt to blackmail the Brooklyn Badgers baseball team, and then stopped the Fiddler a Nazi assassin who used his musical instrument to kill his targets.[54] Assigned to escort sensitive documents to Singapore, Steve Rogers and Bucky's plane crashed in the Malay Archipelago. There as Captain America and Bucky they foiled Nazi spy Kurt Mueller's attempt to steal the plans, narrowly escaping execution at the hands of the Dhaka Tribe under Mueller's command.[55]

Returning to the United States, Captain America was one of many heroes on the scene to stop the Sub-Mariner's latest attack on New York City, assisting the flood stricken citizens. Captain America helped the Human Torch in the capture of the Sub-Mariner[56] and they turned him over to officials in Washington D.C.[57] Resuming his independent activities, Captain America and Bucky then protected the Ruby of the Nile from Ra the Avenger, exposed the Nazi spy Pierre Dumort during war games at Camp Leigh. Later they rescued Karen Lee from the Black Witch,[58] captured the murdering White Ghost, put a stop to the death cheating criminal Nick Pinto. They also foiled two similar cases of murdering painters, the first calling himself the Black Talon[59] and the other the Mad Painter.[60] Later, Captain America and Bucky prevented Countess Mara from stealing a rapid fire grenade launcher, they also saved Gotham City from Net-Man, and solved the mystery of the Hound of Cardiff Moore.[61]

In November of 1941, Captain America was sent on a mission to the Djbera, Africa, in order to see to the surrender of Nazi defector Major Hans Guetterez. Unknown to Cap, Bucky was given orders to investigate sightings of Baron Strucker in the area and assassinate him. Their plane was shot down and crashed in the desert, leaving them open to enemy attack. They were rescued by a squad of British S.A.S. led by Nick Fury and joined by Logan.[62] Captain America learned from Fury about Bucky's additional mission, and all parties were unaware that Logan had come to learn what he could about Captain America for Romulus, who attempted to take Cap up on his earlier offer of partnership earning him the ire of Bucky. Attacking the Nazi base in Djbera and accepting Guetterez's surrender Captain America then went after Bucky after he slipped away in the battle followed by Logan.[63] Working with Logan, Cap located Strucker who had just founded the first incarnation of the terrorist organization known a Hydra. When Bucky was brought out to be executed, he eliminated who he thought was Strucker, leading to the Hydra agents to attack. Cap and Logan came to Bucky's rescue and were assisted by Nick Fury and the S.A.S. In the aftermath of the battle they learned that the man whom Bucky had killed was a Strucker imitator and they all set out to find the real Baron Strucker.[64] Logan and Bucky later found Strucker and took him prisoner. Cap was unaware that Logan's orders changed and he was to insure that Strucker remain free. When Bucky attempted to warn Cap of this as they flew away, they were shot out of the sky by Nazi agents led by Baron Zemo and with the assistance of Logan, helped free Strucker. Furious at this betrayal, Captain America battled Logan until Bucky was able to force the Nazis into retreat with cover fire. During the firefight, Logan took a rife blast to the chest and was left for dead, however he would ultimately survive and cross paths with Captain America many times in the future.[65]

Returning to the United States, Captain America and Bucky worked to stop Nazi impostors replacing American soldiers to commit acts of violence to shake American morale, ended a family feud between the Rand and Codger families instigated by George Brinner, stopped jealous murderer Jacques Laval,[66] and Nazi rabble rouser the Reaper.[67] Also during this period Captain America narrowly avoided having his double identity exposed by Sgt. Duffy.[68] Put on guard duty of a defence factory, Captain America and Bucky failed to stop Nazi agent the Teutonic Knight from stealing plans for a flying airship called the "Flying Arsenal".[69] Following that incident, Captain America and Bucky clashed with Dr. Crime a criminal who utilized a shrinking formula, defend Oroccan president Alvarez from his rival Rozzo,[70] and stopped an Imperial Japanese spy named Mysto the Magician.[71]

As the month of December approached, Captain America and Bucky used intelligence gathered by American operative John Steele about a meeting on American shores between Nazi spies and Atlantean traitor U-Man. Attacking the meeting with the assistance of the Angel, Captain America and Bucky failed to stop U-Man from escaping but managed to capture one of his minions.[57] This minion was brought back to Washington D.C. and brought to the still imprisoned Sub-Mariner. Namor forced his subject to reveal plans of a two pronged attack on American soil. On December 7th, 1941, Captain America met with the Human Torch and his partner Toro and ordered them to assist on pushing back a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. While they were doing so, Captain America, Bucky and Sub-Mariner opposed an Atlantean rebel attack on America's Eastern shores. While the highly publicized attack on Pearl Harbor caused massive losses, Captain America and his allies on the East coast managed to crush the invasion there and prevent it from becoming public knowledge. The attacks eventually led to the United States official entry into World War II.[72]

On December 22nd, 1941, Captain America and Bucky prevented an act of sabotage on the Liberty Shipyard. They were then sent to a nearby hospital by the FBI to learn how Project: Rebirth scientist Doctor Anderson was seriously wounded. Learning that Nazi scientists forced him to create a Super Soldier Serum derivative to empower Nazi agent Master Man, Captain America and Bucky joined the Human Torch, Toro, and the Sub-Mariner in preventing Master Man from assassinating British Prime Minister Winston Churchill who was arriving in America for a state visit. The plot was foiled when the serum within Master Man's body wore off restoring him to his normal strength and making him an easy defeat. Churchill commended the heroes on their teamwork, and suggested that they work together under the name the Invaders.[73] On Christmas Eve of that year, Captain America was ordered to undergo false memory implants in the event that he was captured and interrogated by Nazi agents. Going though with the operation on December 27th, 1941 Captain America was implanted with false memories of his parents (a father named "Walter" who was a diplomat, a mother named "Elizabeth" and a younger brother "Mike" who was killed during the Pearl Harbor attacks) Cap would not remember these memories to be false until many years later.[74] Shortly after the memory implants, President Roosevelt gave his authorization for the Invaders to operate as an official Allied force.[72] Soon Captain America and Bucky became aware of comic books that were being published about their adventures for propaganda purposes. Although they did not like the comics, they tolerated them due to the moral boost they provided to those who read them.[6]

Captain America and the original Invaders circa 1941-42[73]

On their first official mission, the Invaders travelled to Britain to investigate who the mysterious Nazi operative known only as Brain Drain -- the mastermind behind the Master Man project -- was. Finding a strange woman named Hildy in the ruins of an air raid carrying a strange ring, Cap and the Invaders soon learned that she was associated with Brain Drain. She led the heroes into German territory where they were attacked by three beings who claimed to be Teutonic Gods Donar, Froh, and Loga.[75] While the other Invaders were busy fighting these foes, Captain America and Hildy were captured by Brain Drain's men and brought before their leader. Captain America soon learned that Hildy and the other men outside were not gods at all, but aliens of the Tekeli-Li race manipulated by Brain Drain. Regaining her memories and using the strange ring (really their nuclear energy source), Hildy and her comrades sacrificed their lives to destroy Brain Drain's hideout and all their alien technology. Captain America and the Invaders fled the scene while the base exploded in a massive nuclear explosion.[76]


Returning to the United States with the Invaders, Captain America and his teammates learned that U-Man was plotting another attack on Winston Churchill as it made its return trip to the United Kingdom by boat. This prompted the Sub-Mariner to race off with Bucky to stop him alone.[77] Cap and the other Invaders followed after him, stopping U-Man and rescuing both Winston Churchill and Namor's reporter friend Betty Dean.[78][79] After this, the Human Torch and Toro went missing on a mission in the Swiss Alps, Cap and the other Invaders went searching for them. This led to a clash with Basil Frankenstein who used his ancestor's science to create a monster for the Nazis.[80]

Going solo again, Captain America led troops on a landing in Tunisia, and noted that his friend Bobby Shaw, although stuck in the motor pool while others went into combat, attempted to look his best during post-battle commendations.[39] With Bucky, Cap rescued visiting Chinese Prince Tsaihoon from the League of Unicorns, and later saved Betty Ross from the Looter, a modern day pirate.[81] Reuniting with the Invaders, Captain America participated in a war bond parade when he and his fellow Invaders were captured by the Red Skull and brainwashed to attack American defence plants.[82] When the Skull learned that Bucky had formed a new group of heroes known as the Liberty Legion he sent the enslaved Invaders to destroy American landmarks. Captain America was sent to Liberty Hall in Philadelphia, and was forced to flee from the Patriot and Miss America who came to stop him.[83] Furious at this failure, the Skull sent Cap and the others to destroy Yankee Stadium, challenging the Liberty Legion to stop them. During the battle, the ship carrying the equipment that kept the Invaders under the Skull's control was destroyed by Toro freeing Cap and the others.[84]

Returning to England with the Invaders, Captain America and the others investigated the appearance of Baron Blood, a Nazi vampire, and met the Falsworth clan: Jacqueline, Lord Montgomery, and his brother John. Montgomery was the World War I hero known as Union Jack and John was secretly Baron Blood.[85] During their subsequent hunt for Baron Blood, they invited Montgomery to join the Invaders as Union Jack, despite Jacqueline's protests.[86] Ultimately, the Invaders revealed Baron Blood's true identity and impaled him through the chest in a cave killing him. However in the course of the battle Jacqueline was severely drained of her blood, prompting the Invaders to rush her to the hospital. During the course of this crisis, Jacqueline began developing feelings for Captain America, unaware of the Human Torch's unrequited feelings toward her.[87] Taking Jacquelyn to a war hospital,[88] Captain America held off an attack from Professor John Gold in his Blue Bullet armor. Cap helped incapacitate Gold's armor while the Torch saved Jacquelyn's life with a transfusion that gave her super-speed powers. She later joined the team as Spitfire.[89]

Learning that the attack was prompted due to the fact that Gold's brother Jacob a Jewish scholar, was imprisoned in a Jewish ghetto in Warsaw, Poland was being used as leverage to force John to do their bidding. Cap and the Invaders agreed to rescue Jacob. They travelled to Poland where they were turned away by Jacob as did not wish to abandon his work and studies into the Golem of Jewish myth. Soon afterword the Invaders were captured by Nazi forces.[90] Cap and the others found themselves in the clutches of the Nazi agent known as the Face who attempted to learn the secrets of Captain America's indestructible shield. Cap and the others were then rescued by Goldstein, who had transformed himself into a living embodiment of the Golem. With the Face's operation destroyed the Invaders left Jacob in Poland to fight for his people.[91]

Upon the Invaders return to England, they were surprised to find a new group of local superheroes calling themselves the Crusaders had formed in their absence. While the Crusaders unintentionally upstaged the Invaders, neither team was aware that the Crusaders were formed by a Nazi named Alfie seeking to assassinate the King of England.[92] When the Crusaders were chosen to guard the King during the christening of a new battleship, Crusader member Dyna-Mite learned of the truth and with the help of Cap and the Invaders saved the King and exposed Alfie's plot.[93] Following this battle, the Invaders were gathered by the British military and given a base within Big Ben. There Captain America, the Human Torch and Sub-Mariner were put on a mission to stop the Hyena, the Shark, and Agent Axis in the United States. Captain America went to capture Agent Axis, leading him to Liberty Island on the shores of New York City. There he clashed with Agent Axis who had stolen Cap's original triangular shield. During the fight, Captain America's disc-shaped shield was stolen by Agent Axis. Left with his original shield, Captain America attempted to stop Agent Axis when he was suddenly plucked out of time.[94]

Captain America, the Human Torch and Namor were all taken as pawns in a cosmic game between Kang a 40th century warlord from Earth-6311 and the cosmic entity known as the Grandmaster pitting them against Yellowjacket, the Vision, and Black Panther, heroes from the future and part of a team of heroes known as the Avengers. They then fought in Nazi occupied France but the battle was eventually won by the Avengers, who felled the three Invaders thanks to the Visions phasing powers.[95] When the Avengers attempted to explain the situation to Captain America and the others they were then pulled back forward in time, leaving Cap and the others to fight Nazi forces alone. They were then pulled out of the area by the Grandmaster who transported them to where Agent Axis, Hyena, and Shark had gathered together. With their memories of the experience fading, the three heroes defeated their foes and recovered what was stolen from them. Cap eventually forgot his encounter with the Avengers, a group he would join many decades later.[94]

Captain America, Bucky and Namor were then dispatched to the German countryside to investigate sightings of the Red Skull and Baron Strucker in the area. What they found was the remains of a strange ritual conducted by the Thule Society using Atlanteans as sacrifices to summon an object of great power. Tracking the Skull to Antarctica, the three heroes clashed with a massive creature that was summoned by the sacrifice. They killed the creature but not before the Skull and Baron Strucker could escape. The heroes were unaware that the Red Skull had summoned the powerful Hammer of Skadi, a weapon that would be used against Captain America and his allies decades later.[96] Returning to his unit at Camp Lehigh, Captain America and Bucky stopped Japanese agent the Vulture who attacked their convoy on the way to Camp Mohave, and later exposed Nazi spy Yellow Claw who was killing soldiers at Camp Lehigh.[97] Also during this time, Captain America clashed with Baron Zemo shattering a vat of Adhesive X and causing Zemo's mask to be glued to his head. This incident would earn Captain America the constant ire of Zemo who became determined to kill the star-spangled hero from that moment on.[98]

Reunited with his fellow Invaders in England, Captain America investigated the kidnapping of Private Biljo White by Nazi agents. Biljo was the creator of the popular "Major Victory" comic book whose title hero had origins that were similar to Captain America's. Suspecting he might know the secret of Operation: Rebirth, Cap led the Invaders to Hitler's stronghold the Berchtesgarden where they were captured by the newly repowered Master Man.[99] Through information gained from Private White, Nazi spy Julia Koenig was empowered and was given the name Warrior Woman. When the Invaders broke free and attempted to escape they were easily overpowered by the two Nazi super-soldiers and Captain America was thrown off the roof of the Berchtesgarden and left for dead.[100] Cap was saved by the Destroyer who explained his origins and assisted Captain America in storming Hitler's castle. Freeing Private White the learned that the rest of the Invaders were being brought to Berlin where they were to be executed following the wedding of Master Man and Warrior Woman.[101] Rushing to Berlin, Captain America and Spitfire were both captured by the Nazis. The Destroyer (now taking over his father's identity of the Union Jack) then came to the heroes rescue.[102] Freed, Captain America and the Invaders clashed with Master Man and Warrior Woman while Hitler attempted to escape with Captain America's shield.[103] However, Hitler and his crew was ejected from the bomber by Dyna-Mite as they were escaping and the Invaders commandeered the vessel and Cap recovered his shield. Using the bomber to escape Germany, the Invaders were forced to splash down in the Channel River.[104] Recovered by a navy ship, Captain America and the Invaders rushed Toro, who was wounded in the battle, to a hospital there Cap and the others learned of Toro's origins.[105]

Cap and the Invaders were next dispatched to Egypt to prevent it from falling under Nazi control. There they clashed with the super-powered Scarlet Scarab who wished to remove the British from his homeland.[106] It was not until the Scarab realized that Nazis would take over in the British's place did he assist the Invaders in turning back a Nazi invasion force.[107] Returning to England, Captain America and the other Invaders found that Dyna-Mite had abandoned his previous identity to take on the guise of the Destroyer. Cap and the Invaders next went to California to follow up on Bucky's quest to find Dr. Hijiri Sabuki to heal Toro.[108] Arriving there, Cap and the others learned that Bucky, Toro, Dr. Sabuki, his daughter Gwendolyne and a hospital intern named Davey Mitchell were all captured by Agent Axis. Finding Agent Axis' hideout, the Invaders found that Gwen and Davey were empowered by his equipment.[109] With the assistance of the newly formed Kid Commandos, Cap, and the Invaders captured Agent Axis and proved to Captain Simmons that the youths were useful to the war effort.[110]

Going solo again, Captain America and Bucky joined Sgt. Nick Fury and his Howling Commandos to prevent an invasion of England through Nazi occupied France in which the Nazis were forcing slave labourers to dig the tunnel.[111][112] Briefly during this mission, Captain America's body was possessed by the spirit of his future self who was seeking a slice of a mystical apple in order to save all existence.[113] Returning to the United States, Captain America and Bucky thwarted two similar plots to unnerve the American people by Nazi spies. The first was orchestrated by Fritz Krone using an army of "Earthmen" (really Nazis in armored suits) to invade New York. The other was inspired by actor Orson Wells' reading of War of the Worlds, in which Nazi agents disguised as Martians invaded Gotham City.[114] Later, the pair also stopped Japanese agent the Vampire.[115]

Returning to England, Captain America and the Invaders clashed with the Teutonic Knight who used previously stolen plans to create a Nazi warship.[69] After destroying the airship, Cap and the Invaders prevented Baron Strucker from assassinating Winston Churchill at his home.[116] The Invaders next were charged with delivering tanks directly to Joseph Stalin. During this mission they were attacked by Thor who was pulled forward in time by Hitler and a time travelling Dr. Doom and duped into working with the Nazis.[117] The Invaders prevented Thor from assassinating Stalin and convinced him of the Nazi's evil ways, prompting the hero to return to his own time.[118] Returning to England, Captain America and the Invaders investigated why the Destroyer had turned against the Allies, revealing that Master Man had been posing as the hero.[119] Captain America, the Human Torch and Sub-Mariner were then ordered to return to the United States to stop attacked on American defence plants by the Nazi agent Iron Cross. They soon learned that Iron Cross had captured Professor Schneider and most of the Liberty Legion.[120] With the aid of the Whizzer, the Invaders clashed with Iron Cross,[121] and rescued Schneider and the Liberty Legion while incapacitating Iron Cross' armor.[122]

Captain America, Human Torch and the Young Allies Circa 1942[123]

Returning to camp, Captain America and Bucky expose the Legion of the Devil operating out of Valley Point. Later, Captain America was captured by a recently escaped Red Skull who learned Captain America's secret identity and masqueraded as the hero committing crimes to discredit his friend. Cap was later freed by Bucky and in the ensuing clash, the Red Skull ended up falling off an air plane to his seeming death.[124] However, the Red Skull survived and began another plot. Captain America, Torch and Betty Ross later assisted the Young Allies in stopped the Skull from releasing a poison gas on Washington D.C. The Skull once more seemingly perished when the heroes pushed the Skull off a cliff,[125] however the Skull survived. Asking the Whizzer and Miss America to join their ranks, Cap and the Invaders headed to San Diego to investigate spy activities there.[126] There they stumbled upon a plot by Lady Lotus to capture the Kid Commando's Golden Girl. The group also clash with U-Man once more,[127] then they prevented a revived Baron Blood from causing plane crashes at Idlewild Airfield.[128] Cap and the Invaders then save a hypnotized Human Torch from the clutches of Lady Lotus' team of superhumans called Super-Axis.[129] After watching newsreel footage of some of his wartime battles,[130] Captain America and Bucky clash with ape-man Killer Kole, prevent the Spook from manipulating the stranded Sub-Earth Men from starting a war with the United States, and prevent the destruction of the universe by the mad Professor Clement Mott and his Cosmic Depressor device.[131] Cap and Bucky also exposed the Holy Ring cult's conspiracy to disrupt the United States government. The pair were deployed to Egypt where they spent some time exploring the pyramids there.[132]

Later, Captain America was selected to lead the Specialized Unit, Enhanced Soldiers (dubbed the Crazy S.U.E.S.) a unit of super-human and gifted soldiers who in turn had comics published by Timely Comics written about them as wartime propaganda to encourage support in the war. During their first meeting, Captain America told the mixed unit that they should learn to work as a team. However, tempers flared when the racist Captain Strong and Slow Motion Jones got into a fight, witnessed by Cap and Bucky and broken up by the Sue's second in command Sargent Byrd.[133] On June 19th, 1942 Captain America and the Invaders are put on security detail during a meeting between Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. During this meeting, Cap and the other heroes prevent two Nazi operatives using a size changing formula from killing the two world leaders.[134] On June 22nd of that year, Captain America led the Invaders in preventing a U-Boat attack on New York by the members of Battle-Axis.[135] Following Battle-Axis to California, Captain America and the Invaders attempted to stop them from capturing the Golem, and an oscillotron while taking on Blazing Skull and Silver Scorpion onto their team.[136] Tracking down Battle-Axis to their secret hideout, Cap and the Invaders learned that the groups leader Dr. Death intended to cause a massive earthquake to decimate the west coast. When attempting to stop the villains, Cap and the others were felled by the Vision who was manipulated by Dr. Death to assist in his operative in exchange for a way back to his home dimension.[137] Captain America managed to break himself and his fellow Invaders free and foil the plans of Battle-Axis, but the villains managed to escape. In the aftermath of the battle, the heroes helped the Vision return to his home dimension.[137] Later, Captain America and Bucky were a part of a squad of heroes descending on a German fortress as part of an unspecified military mission.[138]

Returning to the United States, Captain America and the Invaders defended the Brooklyn shipyards from what they believed to be an attack by the briefly time displaced Thor Corps.[19] Dispatched to the California coast, Captain America and Bucky thwarted a Japanese invasion of the west coast led by the so-called Mock Mikado.[139] Captain America and Bucky were then sent to Japan to rescue Betty Ross and destroy the Paw's massive rocket launcher that could fire rockets across the Pacific ocean.[132] Captain America and Bucky next clashed with the Crocodile in the southern swampland before being deployed to Berlin to rescue General Spence from Herr Demon.[140] Returning to London, Captain America and Bucky clashed with Dr. Destiny and his army of "Clammy Things", battled the Cult of Black Magic in Egypt, and the Fakir in India.[141] They next returned to the United States to smash an alliance between Dr. Crime and the Nazis.[142] The duo also exposed the supposed return of the mythical Medusa as a hoax perpetrated by Nazi spy Anton Harvey.[143]

On August 7, 1942, Captain America led the Crazy Sues in an airdrop on Guadalcanal where they clashed with Japanese forces. They were initially penned in due to bad intel landing them in a heavy combat zone, however thanks to Captain Flame, Japanese forces were driven back with minimal casualties.[133] While the Crazy Sues continued to push through the Pacific Theater, Cap was called back to focus on other efforts.[144] Deployed to Europe once more, Captain America and Bucky led a group of troops to investigate the creation of Sleeper robots in the Swiss Alps,[15] and later teamed up with costumed adventurer Citizen V to prevent Baron Zemo from unleashing his Particle X weapon.[145] Returning to the United States, Captain America and Bucky foiled an attempt by the Creeper to sour relations between the United States and the nation of Alslavia and later clashed with the wizard known as Balthar a pawn of a demon calling himself Satan.[52] Captain America and Bucky next exposed fortune teller Dr. Eternity as a Nazi spy.[67] Following this adventure, Captain America and Bucky soon travelled into the Microverse to help the kingdom of Mita defend itself from the tyrant named Togaro.[146] While Captain America put an end to Togaro, he was unable to prevent Mita's destruction and the death of most of its people.[147] Captain America however, was more successful in stopping Nazi operative Hans Stryker,[148] and the Nazi assassin known as the Ring.[67]

While defending a British shipyard Captain America, Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner were attacked by Nazi forces and the Torch was captured during the attack. Unknown to the heroes at the time, the Nazis had convinced Namor's mother Princess Fen that the United States posed a threat to Atlantis, and in exchange for being able to conduct their ghastly experiments in Atlantis they would defend her from the supposed American "threat". Examining the Torch's body, they brainwashed him and boosted his powers to extreme levels and set him to attack just as Captain America and Namor had arrived to convince the Atlanteans to turn against the Nazis, "confirming" the Nazis claims. Captain America was then taken prisoner.[149] After three days, Captain America managed to break free from his cell and learned what the Nazis had done to the Torch. Searching for him, he found that the Nazis were using Atlantis to conduct horrific experiments on human test subject. Going to warn Namor and Fen of this, Captain America was attacked by the Torch. When it was realized that the Nazis had controlled the Torch all along, Fen forced the Nazis to surrender and Captain America revealed the Nazis plan to them. However, before they could stop the Nazis, they unleashed their Firebrand Squadron, androids they built by reverse engineering the Torch's technology. The Squadron went to the surface to destroy American ships approaching Atlantis.[150] Luring the Firebrand Squad into a ship that Cap ordered the American troops to attack, the Torch made an attempt to convince the rogue creations to fight their programming and think for themselves. However, as the ship sank and the Firebrands refused to listen to reason, the Torch used his powers to destroy them. With the Nazis in Atlantis having surrendered, Captain America and Namor force the scientists who experimented on the Torch to restore his normal powers and repair the damage done to him.[151]

By October of that year, Captain America, Bucky, the Human Torch and Toro to Shanghai, China, to help liberate young Chinese genius Zhang Chin.[152] Finding the boy, Cap and the others managed to evade Japanese forces and get to the extraction point where the Sub-Mariner was waiting for them.[153] In early November, Cap accompanied the Invaders onto the Russian front where they joined Russian forces led by Vasily Karpov. Participating in an attack on Nazi forces in the town of Kalach, they uncovered Master Man and the Red Skull hiding there with a new ray weapon. Outgunned, the Skull set the weapon to explode and fled with Master Man leaving Cap and the others to save as many villagers as possible while the town burned to the ground.[154] Later when Bucky was captured while he and Cap where behind enemy lines, Captain America rescued his sidekick from Hitler and the Red Skull.[155]


At the start of 1943, Captain America, Bucky, the Torch and Toro were in Poland assisting with the resistance movement there. They briefly clash with Master Man when Toro accidentally compromised their cover when attempting to prepare a surprise for Bucky's 18th birthday.[156]

Back in the States, Captain America and Bucky foiled Izan's attempt to replace Air Raid wardens with spies, battled the Turtle Man and his army of escaped convicts in Louisiana, and exposed phony mystic Prince Ba'rahm.[157] Later they clashed with Nazi commander the Eraser,[158] the Vampire known as Count Varnis on Vampire Mountain, and Nazi saboteur the Eel.[159] On the trail of Baron Blood once more, Captain America was bitten by the vampire and was briefly transformed into a vampire himself, until he is cured by the Invaders who administered an antidote devised by enslaved Jewish scientist Dr. Leo Jacobson.[160] Dispatched to New Guinea, Captain America and Bucky prevent Japanese agent Kuhomai from assassinating General Douglas MacArthur.[161]

Ordered back to the United States on January 7, 1943, Captain America and Bucky fail to stop Master Man from murdering scientist Nikola Tesla and steal the plans for his Teleray technology. With the aid of Baron Zemo's wife Hilda, Captain America and Bucky foil Zemo's attempt to combine the Teleray with his own Deathray to destroy bombers heading toward Berlin. Although they succeed in destroying the weapon and the plans, it was at the cost of Hilda's life. The death of Hilda earned Captain America the hatred of her and Heinrich's son Helmut.[162] Returning to the States, Captain America and Bucky clashed with Karr the Mummy an agent of the demonic Modebl.[146] After, Captain America posed for painter Kerwin Stockwell and got involved in the life of his assistant Jenny Grimaldi. When Jenny's supposedly deceased husband suddenly returned alive and well after being declared killed in action, Captain America and Jenny soon learned that the man was really a Nazi spy, prompting Captain America to stop him before he could steal secret government plans.[160]

Shipped off to Russia, Captain America and Bucky uncovered a Nazi plot to storm the battlements at Murmansk.[147] While back in the States, they defend Camp Lehigh from Nazi invaders and their biologically engineered Killer Beasts,[163] then on vacation in Quebec City, Canada, Cap and Bucky rescued General Bedoin from Nazi spies. Returning to the United States Cap and Bucky were captured by Nazi spies and smuggled into Nazi Germany, where they broke free and destroyed a Nazi aircraft factory with the help of French Resistance fighters who were being held prisoner there.[164] Later in Panama, the pair prevented Baron von Widemouth from blowing up military installations there.[165] Later, Captain America and Bucky accepted a challenge to face the Torso a mad scientist hired by the Axis leaders to eliminate the hero. The Torso fared no better than other villains who faced Captain America and perished as a result. Back out on the Pacific, Captain America and Bucky clashed with the Japanese controlled Birdmen of Pa-Pi-Ru-Gua.[166] Captain America was later seen freeing prisoners in a Nazi concentration camp, and later clashing against Nazi forces with the Invaders.[167]

Back in the United States once more, Captain America stumbled upon the "assassinations" of Nazi puppet master the Great Varda and faked his own death to stop the agent.[168] Back on the battlefront, Captain America clashed with the Red Skull when the villain was testing out a new death ray. During the battle he saved the life of future filmmaker Leonard Spellman.[169] Captain America and Bucky then clashed with Nazi sympathizer Professor Schultz who implanted the brain of his colleague Olaf Olsen into the body of a well preserved Dinosaur, battled the Phantom Engineer and the Headless Monster.[170] Later deployed to the Italian front, Captain America lead the troops of Camp Lehigh in combat, but was forced to leave Bobby Shaw behind when he couldn't muster the bravery to cross through enemy fire.[39] Stateside once more, Captain America and Bucky faced the Laughing Death before travelling to the Pacific and expose a Japanese spy posing as local witch doctor Tu-Ra-Bi-Ka and thwarting Von Broot from inciting tensions between the United States and Barabia.[171] Returning to the Pacific, Captain America and Bucky next saved American troops that had been captured and tortured by Japanese commander Kioto.[172]

Going solo again, Captain America clashed with Agent Axis,[173] battled Japanese forces on the pacific,[174] and assisted Peggy Carter and the First Thirteen French resistance movement obtain the plans for a Japanese built heat detecting device. This was Cap's first encounter with Peggy Carter, a woman whom he eventually fell in love with, even though he did not know her name.[175] Returning to the United States, Cap and Bucky defeated the Vulture and his Batmen[176] and prevented General Nikki's attempt to smuggle the so-called "Cylinder of Doom" into the United States.[177] Cap later recommended Bobby Shaw to become a member of the Fighting First.[39] After he stopped a U-Boat attack on an American ship.[174] Reuniting with Bucky, the pair then clashed with Fungi a Nazi biological agent, destroyed a hidden U-Boat base in Europe, battled the Coughing Killer,[178] and clashed with Nazi forces aboard a U-boat,[179] prevented the Mole-Man from blowing up 10 Downing Street in London.[180]

Captain America infrequently wore this variant of his uniform on the battlefield during the war[181]

In March they went from London to Suffolk, Cap and Bucky were given orders to stop a Nazi dig along the French countryside under the supervision of the German's new "wunderkind" named Atticus Trask, who was working on a new type of Sleeper robot for the Nazis for an operation called "Contingency X". Unknown to Cap and Bucky at the time was that Atticus was a time traveller from the future who had went back in time to use his family's Sentinel technology to build a new breed of Sentinels to eliminate Mutants, a race of super-humans that would become predominant in his future time, and in particular the heroic X-Men. Before Cap and Bucky could launch their sneak attack, their surprise was ruined by the sudden arrival of another time traveller, the mutant mercenary known as Cable, who had come to this era to stop Atticus. Convinced of Cable's purpose, Cap and Bucky assisted him as Atticus activated his Sleeper Sentinels. However, the robots were no match for the trio of heroes. The Sentinel Sleepers were destroyed, and their records on the future X-Men burned. Cable thanked Cap for his help but kept tight lip about what the future had in store. However Captain America correctly deduced that the Allies won the war since Cable was not speaking with a German accent. Cable attempted to sow confusion, Cable said goodbye to Cap in German before returning to his future time. Despite the ambiguity of their departure, Cap was more determined than ever to help win the war.[182] Cap and Bucky were next dispatched to Turkey where they stopped a Nazi agent calling himself the Ali Baba, and helped French freedom fighters defeat yet another Axis operative calling himself the Vulture.[180]

After clashing with the Red Skull again,[39] Captain America and Bucky travel to China where they learn that supposed Chinese traitor Mother Wong was really an allied informant, capture the Mongoose Master in North Africa with the aid of his old friend Betty Ross who was now a member of the Women's Axillary Army, and stopped the Japanese suicide bombers calling themselves the Symbols of Doom.[183] After stopping the Red Skull's latest campaign of sabotage,[184] Captain America and Bucky next clashed with Japanese agent Nogatmi[185] in New York, a Japanese spy posing as the goddess Kali in India, stopped the Great Rosso's murder spree, followed by assisting in the liberation of southern Italy from Nazi occupation.[186][Info Gap 1] Later, Captain America and Bucky clashed with the Gargoyle in Florida, stopped a Nazi spy posing as the Man in the Steel Mask from taking over Mexico with a giant Aztec idol, and stopped counterfeiter Peter Stromboli from flooding the American market with phony bills.[187]

During this time, Captain America and Bucky were given orders to investigate suspected spy activities at Democracy Pictures, a film company that was working on a Captain America serial to play in theaters. When Glenn Reeper, the actor playing Captain America in the serial, was injured the real Captain America took his place. During the course of the production, Captain America exposed special effects artist Lyle Dekker as a Nazi agent working for the Red Skull.[188] Following the Dekker incident, Captain America and Bucky travelled to Australia and stopped Dr. Necrosis from tainting the blood supply at the Red Cross with the deadly "White Gangrene" disease, stopped Nazi operative the Leopard Woman from poisoning the New York City water supply, and clashed with General von Savage in France.[189][Info Gap 2] Back in the United States, Captain America and Bucky captured Prince Suli a wanted jewel thief,[190] stopped the Red Skull's attempt to convert the United States into a fascist country one small town at a time,[191] and joined the Invaders on a mission in Nazi occupied France clashing with the Red Skull and Master Man once more.[192]

In December 1943, Captain America and the Invaders travelled into Italy to investigate the Nazi's latest project in Monte Cassino dubbed "Operation: Time Ghost" with a group of military soldiers. During a clash with Nazi forces, Captain America, the Human Torch, Toro, Bucky, the Sub-Mariner, and an American Private Paul Anselm found themselves transported to the modern era by the Cosmic Cube. Materializing in the middle of New York City, the Invaders interrupted an attempt by the Thunderbolts to apprehend Spider-Man for his continued violation of the Superhuman Registration Act that was being enforced at the time in that era. Thinking that the Thunderbolts were Nazi agents, Captain America and the Invaders easily trounced them before fleeing into the night to figure out what happened to them.[193] Learning that they were somehow transported to the future, Captain America and the Invaders were soon confronted by Iron Man and the Mighty Avengers who had come to contain the Invaders before they could learn too much about the future and risk altering history. Believing that the Might Avengers were Nazi agents as well, Captain America and the Invaders fought back however all but the Sub-Mariner were captured and taken aboard the SHIELD helicarrier for containment.[194] Eventually, Captain America was broken out of his cell by Bucky and they attempt to escape clashing with the helicarrier's Life Model Decoys, soon learning that they were miles above Washington D.C.[195]

As the battle raged on, Captain America's shield was recovered by Bucky, who accidentally tosses it off the helicarrier on a miss-throw. After freeing the Torch and Toro, Captain America and the other Invaders were assisted by the arrival of Dr. Strange's New Avengers who had come to return the time displaced heroes to their own time to prevent a reality altering time wave from changing history, as well as the arrival of that eras Captain America (unknown to them all, Bucky's future self).[196] When the New Avengers attempt to extract the Invaders from the battle, they failed to rescue Captain America and the returned Sub-Mariner who were once more subdued by Iron Man and the Might Avengers. Detained once again, Captain America was told by Iron Man that they were being contained in order to prevent more damage to the timeline, telling Cap that even if there was a possible benefit to altering history it may have unforeseen results, convincing Captain America to being trusting Iron Man.[197] In order to help clear their memories of the future, Captain America and Namor were placed in a virtual reality simulator. However, when the Human Torch returned to free the LMD's he believed to be enslaved and his friends, but was unaware that he was being manipulated by the intelligent robot Ultron who was seeking full sentience through feeding on the Torch's body. They trick the Torch to interrupt the virtual reality simulation that his friends were in under the pretence that they were trapped within.[198] While the Ultron controlled LMD's feast on the Human Torch's blood, the trapped Captain America was freed by his future counterpart. Seeing the future Captain America's mechanical arm, Captain America believed him to be another robot and attacked him.[199]

When the fight was interrupted by Ms. Marvel, Wonder Man, and Sentry, and the risk to Namor's life in the VR simulation was understood, Captain America stood down and accepted the truth of the situation. After Ultron was stopped by the Human Torch, the New Avengers returned to the helicarrier with Paul Anselm and the Cosmic Cube to return the time displaced Invaders home. Before leaving they said goodbye to Paul's future self whose feelings of regret where what prompted the Cosmic Cube to transport the Invaders to the future. Upon learning that the heroes intend to wipe out their memories before being returned to the past, the younger Paul snatched the Cube in order to save his friends who were gunned down in battle prior to their trip into the future. This caused the temporal wave to sweep across the present erasing everything in its path. Dr. Strange managed to use his magical powers to send Captain America, Sub-Mariner, the Human Torch, Toro, Bucky, Iron Man, Ms. Marvel, the Wasp, Spider-Woman, Luke Cage, Spider-Man, and Wolverine back in time to the year 1943 to restore the proper order of history.[200] Arriving in New York circa 1943, Cap and the others soon found that the Red Skull had somehow gained control of the Cosmic Cube and used it to take over the world. With the heroes from the future disguised as heroes from the 1940s, they fled Nazi occupied New York in an Atlantean submarine, they travelled to Europe where they found that the Red Skull had used the Cube to create a defence perimeter around the country dubbed the "Aryian Wall".[201] They all travel to Wakanda where they met with the Black Panther, Nick Fury and his Howling Commandos. Using a Wakandan drill device, they tunnelled into Nazi Germany to find their allies Union Jack and Spitfire to find that they had just been slain by the Red Skull's newly created Dogs of War.[202]

Unable to stop the Dogs of War from warning the Red Skull of the heroes arrival, Captain America led them into battle against a gathering of Nazi agents including U-Man, Baron Blood, Master Man, Warrior Woman, Iron Cross, and Thor.[203] When the heroes gained the upper-hand, the Red Skull struck most of the them dead. When he attempts to slay Captain America with the Cosmic Cube failed, the Skull found that its growing sentience was preventing him from doing so. After slaying the Wasp and Bucky for attempting to wrest the Cube from his control, the Red Skull fought over the device with Captain America. The struggle ended with the Cube being knocked into the hands of Paul Anselm who used it to resurrect all the heroes that the Red Skull had slain and restore history to its proper order. All present from the 1940s were left with no memories of the entire battle including Captain America.[204] President Roosevelt told Captain America, Bucky and Nick Fury that Santa Claus was captured by Hitler in order to destroy the morale of the United States of America. They eventually located Hitler, who was holding a Mauser to Santa's head.[205]


With history restored to normal, Captain America and Bucky resumed their solo adventures. While in Europe, they saved an America liaison from the clutches of torture expert Dr. Agony, stopped the Japanese agents called the Seven Sons of Satan in India, and the Red Skull's attempt to use a device that utilized the northern lights to wipe out allied machines.[206] Reuniting with the Invaders, Captain America clashed with a Nazi robot that was unleashed upon Bunbrook Bomber Station in England. When the heroes were knocked out they were secretly saved by Walter Destine who was stationed at the base.[207] Next, Captain America and Bucky foiled Japanese agents from exploiting land owned by Death Valley Pete, destroyed a secret paradise hidden in the Northern ice where a Japanese scientist was creating an army of Cellmen to invade America, and clashed with the insane Dr. Emil Natas who claimed to have clashed with the two heroes in past lives, via reincarnation. Natas was slain in the encounter, and his claims that he, Captain America and Bucky have been reincarnated in multiple lives are likely fabrications.[208] Travelling to Massachusetts, Captain America and Bucky stopped the Ghost Harpooner from murdering the crew of the Moby Dick, defended the Crawford Bomber plant from Japanese agents the Death Riders, and stopped Nazi agent Carl von Brummel from bombing American ships departing from New York.[209] When Nazi agents kidnapped French national and radio personality Jules Durrain, Captain America and Bucky rescued him so he could continue to inspire the French people to revolt against their Nazi oppressors.[210]

Cap was next sent with the Invaders to investigate Nazi activities in Wakanda,[211] clashing with the Black Panther.[212] Later, Captain America was deployed to Nazi occupied France to assist Allied Forces there.[213] After, Captain America and Bucky were called back to Castle Frankenstein by Anna Frankenstein who was attempting to lead them into a trap with her Nazi benefactor so that they could slay the heroes with their own monster. Cap and Bucky survived the encounter, however Anna, her lover and their monster did not fare so well.[214] Cap and Bucky then defended General Haywood and guests from the Jester of Death, prevented an ambitious lighthouse keepers assistant from selling a powerful meteor fragment to the Axis powers. Later they rescued a secret civilization on a floating island from Nazi subjugation.[215]

In April 1944, Captain America and Bucky were sent to Nazi Germany to assist Nick Fury and the Howling Commandos on a secret mission. Infiltrating the Red Skull's castle, they rescued Howard and Maria Stark from the Skull, who was trying to force Howard to build atomic weapons for the Nazis.[216] Travelling with Bucky to Vichy, France, Cap rescued the people there from the Nazis and their murderous Gargoyles. Back home, Cap and Bucky stopped death row inmate Tiger Duncan from escaping prison, and later stopped his still living brain when it took possession of the prison doctor and forced him to murder the men responsible for his execution. In New York, Cap and Bucky helped uncover the so-called Schoolmaster's murder class hidden in a secret room of the Greystone building.[217] With the Invaders, Captain America assisted in capturing the German battleship called the Deutschland, turning it over to the British authorities. Cap then returned to the United States and exposed a Nazi Bundt in Baltimore. Stopping them from burning their notes, he also learned that some of their members were secretly part of Baron Strucker's fledgling Hydra organization. Cap, Namor and the Torch were then tapped by the FBI and the Whizzer to help stop Strucker from building an atom bomb ahead of the Manhattan Project.[218] When thugs hired by Hydra attacked a Texas munitions plant to steal weapons casing, they soon found it was a ruse to throw them off Hydra's trail. Realizing that they will next try to steal the shipment of plutonium headed to the Manhattan Project, Captain America had the Whizzer pose as the soldier transporting the "plutonium" (really just a harmless radium sample). Sure enough, Hydra managed to capture the Whizzer and whisk him away to their secret base aboard the commandeered Dragon of Death.[219] When the Whizzer broke free, he signalled the Invaders with the location of the Dragon of Death and they smashed into the vessel causing structural damage. While Cap went after Baron Strucker, Strucker set the vessel to sink. Cap reached Strucker's office to find that the Nazi had left leaving a mocking message that he would change the future. Cap was rescued from drowning by the Sub-Mariner who dragged Cap to safety before the Dragon of Death exploded.[220] As the spring continued, Captain America returned to England during a lull in the fighting and checked up on Bobbie Shaw, learning that he had taken to bragging to make himself look braver than he was to his fellow soldiers.[39]

In June of 1944, Captain America and Bucky infiltrated a Nazi base along the beaches of Normandy and took out their automatic cannons before the beginning of the D-Day invasion.[16] He then joined Nick Fury and the Howling Commandos on one of the first waves of attacks[221] and later led his own ship of troops to attack.[181] He later fought through the region with the Invaders,[222] and Bucky[223] scoring many major victories for the allies.[160] Following those battles, Captain America and the Invaders celebrated their victories with the Crazy Sues.[224]

Cap then returned to England where in his civilian guise he joined Sgt. Duffy's unit on an attack on Nazi occupied France. During the battle there, he discovered communications stating that Bucky was captured by Nazis in Britain who took him to Greymore Castle. Changing into Captain America and stealing a Nazi plane, Cap flew back to England.[225] Arriving at Greymore Castle, Cap fought Nazi forces until Major Uberhart held Celia Rawlings hostage forcing Cap to stand down and was gassed.[226] With the assistance of Cecilia's brother Cedric, Uberhart had constructed a V2 rocket in the castle and intended to launch it at 10 Downing Street with Captain America inside. Cap however revived and fought off the Nazis attempting to place him in the ship. After Cecilia sacrificed her life trying to stop Uberhart, Cap and Bucky defeated him and with the help of a repentant Cedric launched the V2 at Nazi forces in France. Cap and Bucky fled Greymore Castle just moments before it exploded.[227]

Returning to France, Captain America continued to fight against Nazi forces with Bucky and Peggy Carter,[12] and saved a troop of American soldiers from Nazis.[228] While fighting Nazis with Bucky, Captain America was briefly separated by his partner. Bucky was unaware of this as he was joined by Cap's time displaced future self who had lost his present day memories due to exposure to Gamma rays. The modern day Cap was reunited with Bucky just moments after the Hulk and She-Hulk pulled the future Cap out of that time period, leaving Bucky to wonder who he was fighting with.[229] Briefly returning to the United States, Cap and Bucky fought the evil Dr. Botan and his plant/human hybrids.[230] Back in France, Captain America and Union Jack were sent to the French town of Chanson to assist the 82nd Airborne Division in securing the area. Pinned in by Nazi forces, the two heroes drew inspiration from the locals who returned to their home feeling safe that the two national heroes had come to deliver them from the Nazis. Cap and Union Jack found the hope to fight off the Nazis and have the perimeter cleared before Allied Forces could relieve them.[160]

In July, Captain America led another beach side attack on Nazi forces, this time along with Bobby Shaw. When Bobby admitted he could not swim, Cap pulled Bobby to shore but was forced to leave him behind when he had to lead the other troops into battle. Shaw finally showed some bravery when Cap got him to help lead some troops into an access tunnel of a Nazi dugout. While Cap fought off Nazi forces they learned the place had been rigged to explode and prepared to escape. During the battle Bobby took the brunt of a grenade blast and was mortally wounded. With time running out, Bobby convinced Cap that there was no helping him prompting Cap to flee, never looking back as the explosion killed Bobby. Cap did not think about Bobby again until many decades later.[39] On the 14th, Captain America was called back to Wendower Airfield in Utah along with Crazy Sues member Taxi Taylor and his android T-Mech for new instructions on the Sue's battle in Nazi occupied France. Captain America suspected that something more was going on and was informed by Colonel Ledford that the Crazy Sues were being primed for a larger plan called Project: Alberta. Cap accepted new mission directives to observe, and report on Captain Flame, and push him to his limits.[231] The full extend of Project: Alberta, and the plans for the Crazy Sues has not been recorded.[note 1][Info Gap 3]

Cap and Bucky were ordered by General MacArthur to learn what they could about a planned Japanese attack on US soil. Smuggling into Tokyo, they discovered General Yokima's tunnel that would bring an invasion force to the US and destroyed it. Stateside, Cap and Bucky failed to stop the murder of millionaire J.T. Flemming but caught his killer, and in Europe saved General Haywood and Sgt. Duffy from the Baron of Horror Castle.[232] Captain America was next put on a mission to Prussia with John Steele by Nick Fury to investigate strange reports coming out of the area. There they learned that the Nazis were working together with the Shadow Council transforming locals into horrifying human/animal hybrids.[233] Splitting up to learn more, Cap was attacked by a giant worm creature but the Prince of Orphans came to Cap's aid. Their fight took them outside the fortress. When they finally slew the beast and came back they found that the castle had been destroyed and there was no trace of John to be found anywhere. Cap did not learn what happened to John Steele until many decades later.[234] Later, Captain America led American troops in attacking one of the Red Skull's strong holds where he was attempting an occult ritual, clashing with Master Man.[235]

While fighting Japanese forces in the pacific with the Invaders, Captain America got in the way of the Red Skull and Warrior Woman's attempt to capture the Sub-Mariner in order to learn the location of Atlantis. Taking Cap prisoner instead, the Red Skull tortured Cap in an attempt to get the secret out of him. Cap refused to talk and was locked in a cell. With the aid of Russian spy Karinna Rose, Captain America broke out of his cell and clashed with the Skull and Warrior Woman and was ultimately saved by the Invaders who sent the Skull and his minions fleeing.[236] During a lull in the fighting, Cap met with Peggy Carter in France, who promised to wait for him no matter what.[237] Cap then continued to fight alongside Peggy Carter and the Free French resistance.[12] During the final battles that led to the liberation of France, Captain America fought side-by-side with Peggy seemingly for the last time. Cap asked Peggy to quit the fight as it was "no place for a woman" but Peggy refused to shirk her duty. When Peggy was captured and faced a firing squad, Captain America came to her aid fighting through Nazi forces and taking down their primary base. Hailed as a hero, Captain America was carried away, his protests to find Peggy ignored as he was being carried away. Peggy, stricken with amnesia wandered away unaware that Cap was searching for her. The entire battle was recorded, an was remarked as one of the most iconic scenes of the war captured on film, comparable to the flag raising at Iwo Jima.[238]

In August of that year Captain America and the Invaders continued to assist the Allied Forces, taking part in Operation Dragoon to liberate France from Nazi occupation. The battle took him to Buchenwald where Cap saw the remains of the 600 men and women of the Maquis freedom movement who were slaughtered for resisting the Nazi oppression.[239] Cap continued to fight Nazis in France,[240] also assisting the Crazy Sues in battling Nazi forces,[224] leading to eventual victory. During the victory parade, Captain America was celebrated as a hero, unaware that his old foe the Red Skull watched him in secret and began plotting anew.[241] Although France was liberated, there were still Nazi elements still active in the region. When Nick Fury learned that Baron Zemo was meeting with an early incarnation of Hydra, he gathered Captain America, Peggy Carter and another super-soldier known as Codename: Bravo on a mission to infiltrate the Hydra base. To this end, they enlisted the aid of a young boy named Jimmy Jupiter who could access an other dimensional realm called Nowhere, allowing Codename: Bravo and Allied troops to sneak into the Hydra base through the Hydra agent's dreams.[242] However while Cap and Peggy were dealing with enemy forces, a spy bludgeoned Jimmy over the head with a typewriter, landing him in a coma and trapping Codename: Bravo, his troops, and the Hydra agents in Nowhere.[243]

Cap also briefly joined the Crazy Sues in travelling the European countryside battling Nazi forces in Belgium. They were rescued from deep enemy fire once more by Captain Flame,[224] Cap's subsequent travels with the Crazy Sues during this period is mostly unrecorded.[note 2] During further conflict in the region, Cap was pushed out of the way of German bombs by Bucky.[181] Cap's assistance in the liberation of France inspired many, including a man that insured that successive generations of his family all participated in the military.[244] Later, Captain America and Bucky were returned home to make a guest appearance at a North American Aviation defence factory. There he met with female factory workers who were devoted to their job, not out of any sense of patriotism, but to insure their husbands returned from war faster.[245]

While in the United States, Captain America and Bucky exposed the so-called Shadow Monster as a Nazi spy. They were then shipped off to the South Pacific where they stopped Baron Histo and his Kamikaze piloted missiles, and in the Pacific destroyed Doctor Tokotio's submarine the Sea Dragon, before it could sink a convoy of troop ships headed for the Pacific Theater.[246] Returning to the United States, Captain America and Bucky began investigating the strange disappearance of Paul Malone who went missing while on a South American exploration and learned that his uncle had become obsessed with the local tribes people and sought to eliminate all whites in favour of this tribe.[247] Later, Captain America and Bucky foiled a sabotage plot by the Japanese spy known as Monstro.[248] In September of '44, Captain America and Bucky led American troops through Arnheim, in the Netherlands to try and capture the Red Skull. There they had to fight through Allied troops who were turned into mindless zombies loaded with explosives by the Skull.[34] Clashing with the Skull, Captain America protected Bucky and his troops from a grenade tossed by the Red Skull, allowing the Skull to escape.[249] Later that fall, while acting in his civilian guise, Steve was injured in battle providing cover for his retreating troop while fighting in Vernville. He was taken prisoner and taken to Dritten Castle in West Germany. He was treated by a nurse named Emilia Becker, a German who returned to her homeland from the United States to care for her ill father. A prisoner of war, Steve rallied with other captured Allied soldiers and staged a jail break. Caught in the act of escape, Steve promised Emilia that he would come back for her before fleeing into the night. Many days later they were rescued by Allied Forces. Sometime after that, Steve returned to Dritten as Captain America finding the town a bombed out husk following Allied air strikes. He found no trace of Emilia and her family, learning a very harsh lesson: Never make any promises during a war.[250]

Later that year, Captain America was sent on a secret mission with in Nazi occupied Poland. He was to assist Dr. Ernst Fleischer in defecting from the Nazis and destroy anti-gravity vehicles that Fleischer created with the assistance of Polish rebel fighter Lior Eschel. Cap did not believe the story about the anti-gravity devices until his plane was destroyed by just such a ship. Bailing out in time, Cap managed to find Lior and saw that the area was under the command of a enhanced Nazi soldier named Der Metzger (The Butcher). It turned out that Lior had sold Cap out to the Nazis, and he was captured at the cost of Lior's life. After being examined, Cap was tossed in a cell where he met with Fleischer. Breaking himself and Fleischer out of their cells, Cap proceeded to destroy the hover crafts. Fleischer was killed in the crossfire and Cap beat Der Metzger within an inch of his life. Cap then helped the Polish slaves escape before the base exploded destroying all the technology and killing Der Metzger.[251] Returning to India, Captain America and Bucky had to rescue of Sgt. Duffy who went after the Prophet of Hate in order to be a hero in the eyes of his girlfriend back home. The Prophet of Hate claimed to be a resurrected religious leader who tried to unite the people of India against Allied Forces. However, Cap and Bucky exposed him as a Japanese spy and rescued Duffy. Returning to the United States, Cap and Bucky investigated a series of strange ship sinkings supposedly by giant octopus creatures. With the aid of Betty Dean, Cap and Bucky exposed the entire incident as an elaborate hoax perpetrated by the owners of the East Shipping Company in order to cash in on the insurance. Also during this time, Captain America and Bucky prevent the terrorist-for-hire known as Black Hand from destroying the plans for the P-31 Bomber.[252]

In October of that year, Captain America and Bucky came across some intel that the Red Skull was in the process of obtaining an occult artifact. Travelling into Nazi Germany, they found that Nick Fury and his Howling Commandos were attempting to prevent the Skull from using the object as well. They attempted to stop the Skull from obtaining the stolen Eye of Agamotto but the villain inadvertently transported himself and his minions into the demonic Dark Dimension. With the help of the Ancient One, the Sorcerer Supreme of Earth and the Eye's owner; Cap, Bucky and the Howlers were sent into the Dark Dimension to retrieve the Eye. In the Dark Dimension, the Skull had made a pact with it's ruler the powerful demon Dormammu to have the opportunity to destroy his enemies in exchange for the Eye and some power when Dormammu eventually took over the Earth. However, the heroes bested the Skull and the Nazi was banished from the Dark Dimension. They then bargained with Dormammu to let them return to their own dimension lest any battle incidentally unleash the nearby Mindless Ones against Dormammu's people.[253] Later, Cap rejoined the Sub-Mariner and the Human Torch and invaded a Nazi concentration camp in Europe where, unknown to them, Jews were being experimented on by the mutant geneticist Mr. Sinister. Sinister unleashed his creation N2 (created from Namor's DNA) and while the creature defeated Namor and the Torch, Captain America was able to slay it. While the heroes freed the survivors, Sinister escaped undetected.[254]

As winter began that year, Captain America and Bucky joined the Howling Commandos in an operation that took them into Nazi Germany to try and recover an all Africa-American squad that had been captured and were being used by the Red Skull in his biological experiments. The mission was a failure, and all the captured soldiers were presumed to be killed in action.[255] Returning to the US, Captain America and Bucky clashed with the thieves known as the Skeletons of the Glowing Death, defended an bomber factory from Nazi Major von Kaulus and his Swamp Creature, and put an end to the career of the so-called Cat Woman.[256] Later, Captain America and Bucky apprehend Lupo and his three killer apes,[257] and shut down Japanese saboteur Yellow Claw and his Mole Men.[258] Joining Allied Forces in Bastogne, Belgium, Captain America and Bucky came across the lone survivor of a troop of soldiers that were slaughtered by the Fenris Wolf of Asgardian myth. When the creature attacked Cap and Bucky, they put up a good fight but it was not until the timely arrival of the thunder god Thor that the creature stopped and returned it to Asgard.[259] Back in the States, Captain America and Bucky went after "Terrible Tom" Garett. However they soon found that Garett had allied himself with a mystic named Terdu who cast a spell to bring Captain Kidd, Jack the Ripper, as well as Jesse and Frank James to the present help with his crimes. Clashing with these time displaced criminals, Cap and Bucky forced them back to their own time, leading to Terdu's death and Garett's surrender.[260][Info Gap 4]

On December 6, 1944 Cap and Bucky rejoined the Crazy Sues battling Nazi forces in Saarlautern, Germany. During the clash the Victory Boys were killed in combat, and the group once more relied on Captain Flame to save them from trouble.[261] Any further operations with the Crazy Sues and Cap's involvement with this group remain unrecorded.[note 3] Cap then reunited with the Howling Commandos to participate in the Battle of the Bulge. They fought off a squad of Nazis, rescuing the life of Private Stan Klein who was one of the sole survivors of his unit, and was holding off Nazi forces while keeping an injured soldier alive. Cap was able to return to Stan a picture of his girlfriend back home that was lost in the battle field. Captain America then expressed to Stan that his bravery was an inspiration.[262] On Christmas Eve of 1944, the Invaders returned to England to celebrate the holidays during a lull in the fighting. Bucky and Toro decided to go to a Christmas dance, and invited Cap to join them. Cap initially refused, having committed to learning new codes and plans. However, Bucky's words that the "war can wait until tomorrow" convinced Cap to be Steve Rogers for the night and have some fun and go to the dance.[263]


Briefly returning to the United States in the New Year, Captain America and Bucky exposed Laird Carson of killing his niece in a complex inheritance plot on January 2nd.[264] Captain America and Bucky then rejoined the Invaders in battling Nazi forces in the Netherlands.[265] Searching for Nazi scientist Arnim Zola they tracked him down to a small Nazi village and clashed with Nazi operatives Iron Cross, U-Man, Master Man, and Warrior Woman. They soon learned that Zola had infected the villagers with a virus that caused them to mutate into highly contagious creatures driven by rage. Those attacked would then become infected with the virus. Worse, Zola had developed a missile that would carry the virus to enemy targets threatening to infect all of Europe. The Invaders fought off the Nazi super agents and seemingly slew Zola and destroyed his weapon. However, when they attempted to force a surviving Nazi scientist to administer a cure, he informed the heroes that Zola purposely did not create one. With no other choice, the Invaders then wiped out those infected in order to prevent the contagion from spreading across Europe.[266] Unknown to the Invaders at the time, one of the partially infected villagers managed to escape and plotted revenge against the Invaders, a plan that would not see fruition until many decades later. Zola did not perish either, transferring his mind to a new body, and would continue to clash with Captain America many times in later years.[267]

Back in the United States, Captain America and Bucky exposed yet another inheritance scheme, this one by the widow of Silas Matison who attempted to kill off her other surviving family members and stall in order to collect her husband's entire fortune. Cap was later famed for crimes committed by Butch Cantwell who wore a bulletproof Captain America costume. Cap managed to convince the authorities to stand down long enough to capture his impostor and clear his name. Cap and Bucky later took down the Snake Skulls, a group that used Puff Adder venom to kill wealthy men and claim their fortunes.[268] In early February, Captain America and Bucky went to Bastogne, Belgium to investigate reports of Vampirism that that was plaguing the villagers and American troops alike. Fearing that Baron Blood may have returned from the dead, Cap and Bucky clash with American actress Mary Arnett who was in the area for a USO show, who seemed to be the vampire active in the area. After slaying Arnett, Cap and Bucky learn that the vampire was really a little girl who was transformed into a vampire by a Nazi operative before they were pushed out of the region. Cap and Bucky were forced to slay the creature in order to protect the people of the area.[269]

In March of that year, on the eve of Bucky's 20th birthday, Captain America interrogated a Nazi operative in England to learn what Baron Zemo's activities in Europe were. After gaining the information needed, he took Bucky out to a nearby bar to celebrate his sidekick's birthday.[156] Later, while on a solo mission Captain America rescued a number of captured WAAC's, including Adriana Soria, the future Spider-Queen.[270] Back in the United States, Captain America and Bucky clashed with the crime lord known as Crimorto and smashed his national crime wave. Later, in New York, when a Nazi bomb claimed the lives of a number of American troops, Steve and Bucky went to identify the bodies to see if the missing Sgt. Duffy was among their numbers. They discover a plot by Nazi spy Professor Todt to use dead bodies as bombs to blow up American ships as they leave port and dismantled it as Captain America and Bucky. They also found Duffy alive and well.[271] Deployed to China, Steve and Bucky were put on guard duty along the Great Wall of China. There, with the aid of Lao-Chung, Cap and Bucky fight back a Japanese invasion force. After the learn that Lao-Chung was a defender of the Great Wall centuries ago from the Mongols, and the man that helped them that day was a ghost.[272] Returning to the United States, Captain America and Bucky travelled to Seattle and solved the "Totem Pole Murders" perpetrated by an insane Native American tribe.[273]

Learning that Arnim Zola had somehow survived, Captain America and Bucky returned to Europe to look for him. While clashing with Nazi forces they encountered the time displaced Deadpool and Hydra Bob who were attempting to get back to their own time. While Deadpool convinced Cap that he was a Canadian super-soldier, Bucky was not so convinced. However, time-blips protected Deadpool and Bob from altering history, and altered with Cap and Bucky's memories, confusing them and preventing them from being deviated from their mission. Finding Zola's secret hideout the quartet battle one of Zola's creation while Zola fled. Defeating the creature, a time-blip restored its memories before Zola experimented on it. Before Deadpool could put the man-monster out of its misery, Bucky shot Wilson in the head. Moments later Deadpool and Bob were pulled forward in time leaving Captain America and Bucky to wonder who they really were.[274] Back in France in his civilian guise, Steve Rogers crossed paths with Peggy Carter (who was also in disguise). They passed as strangers, neither one recognizing the other.[275]

On March 25, 1945 Captain America and a group of 23 soldiers were air dropped over Rhein, Germany in order to capture a strategically vital dam and keep it covered until reinforcements arrived. The attack did not go as planned and some of the American troops were killed before the area was secured. One lone Nazi soldier was captured, and despite some of the troops desire to kill the Nazi, Captain America ordered them to follow the Code of War outlined in the Geneva Convention and keep him as a prisoner of war. Clashing with Nazi forces, Captain America stood down on a flag of truce to communicate with the Nazi Lieutenant in command. When Captain America attempted to negotiate a prisoner exchange, the Nazi lieutenant was not interested and a battle erupted that saw some of the American troops injured. Returning back to where their prisoner was kept, Cap convinced the Nazi to provide medical attention, earning the Nazi the grudging respect of Cap's unit. When a commanding officer who followed the rules of war arrived to take the prisoner, a fair exchange was made. However, the lieutenant ordered his men to gun down his commanding officer and the freed prisoner leading to an intense battle. Eventually reinforcements arrived and the area was won to the Allies.[276] Back in the United States with Bucky, Captain America exposed the Satyr's plot to drive people out of the town of Hamilton in order to claim the oil hidden there, and later stopped the robberies of the super strong Dr. Colosso.[264]

Returning to Europe, Bucky confides in Cap that he is afraid of heights ever since his father died in a parachute accident. Cap told Bucky there is no shame in that and the pair drop into Nazi territory to free a Nazi defector. They are initially captured, but they managed to break out with the prisoner they sought to free.[37] Working with the Howling Commandos again, Cap and the Howlers are surrounded by Nazi agents. Pretending that he doesn't understand German,[note 4] he and the Howlers fought back and decimated their attackers.[277] Going solo again, Captain America and a unit of soldiers were pinned by Nazi forces. With no air strikes to help the out, Cap borrowed a motorcycle owned by courier Ray Coulson and used it to storm the Nazi dug-in.[278] By the Spring of 1945, Cap saw more Nazi atrocities when he led a battalion on a mission to liberate the Jewish prisoners of the Diebenwald concentration camp. When the commanding officer in charge of the camp tried to hold young Anna Kapplebaum hostage, Captain America saved her life.[279] On April 12, 1945, Captain America learned about the death of President Roosevelt. He told Bucky that they must fighting the war and only mourn the Presidents loss after the fighting is over.[280] They then went to investigate reports of Zemo attempting to steal a new prototype drone plane. Later when Bucky was injured in battle and was recuperating in hospital, they talked about their futures. While Bucky had dreams of living the American Dream, Cap decided that he will continue fighting as Captain America so long as he is allowed to do so.[37] Back in action, Captain America was put under the command of a literal army of super-humans in Europe to plan an attack on the Kohnstein rocket factory where the Red Skull is also storing occult artefacts. When planning the operation, Cap's meeting was interrupted by the Phantom Reporter, who -- fed up of being referred to as a "tourist" by the super-powered heroes due to his lack of powers -- demanded that he come along. Seeing the Reporter's bravery Captain America agreed to let him tag along on the mission. During the attack on the rocket base, the Red Skull escaped and an explosion buried Cap in debris. Cap was then rescued by the Phantom Reporter. In the aftermath, while the Skull escaped the Allies managed to obtain the Spear of Destiny, the object that the Red Skull had stored there.[281] Later that month, as Allied Forces began bombing Berlin, Captain America was airdropped in the area along with the Spirit of '76, the Patriot, and the Russian agent known as the Red Guardian to stop the Red Skull from hiding Hitler's greatest secret. While the Spirit of 76, Patriot and Red Guardian fought Nazi soldiers, Captain America went after the Red Skull.[282] Their fight led to an underground bunker which was compromised by Allied Bombs burying the Red Skull in debris while Cap fled.[283] The Red Skull was exposed to a gas that put him in suspended animation, to be revived many decades later,[284] while the briefcase containing Hitler's secret was not found until sometime after that.[282]

Suspended Animation

Moments before the drone plane exploded[285]

In April that year, Steve and James were deployed to Leipzig, Germany, where during some downtime they began to contemplate what they would do after the war ended. Steve was resigned to do whatever his country asked of him, when they were assigned their last mission during the war. A mission that would radically change the life of Captain America forever. They were assigned to guard a secret allied drone plane.[286] When Nazi agents broke into the hanger, Cap and Bucky were present to stop them.[287][37] However, this was a distraction that allowed Baron Zemo to enter the facility.[288] Activating his Humanoid creation to assist him, and both were attacked by Captain America and Bucky. Despite the two heroes efforts they were both bested in combat.[37][288] Zemo then dressed the heroes in standard military uniforms.[288] The two heroes came to and found themselves captive on a secret Nazi island base on the Channel River, and were tortured by Baron Zemo.[289] Waking up sometime later, Cap managed to free himself. Unknown to him he was assisted by his future self, and the Avenger Hawkeye who found themselves briefly transported back to this time.[288] He and Bucky and then stole a motorcycle as Zemo launched the drone plane with a bomb on board on a course to bomb Allied Forces.[37][290][285] Bucky jumps onto the drone plane in an attempt to disarm the bomb, and Cap joined him, and tried to convince Bucky to let go. Bucky's arm got caught in the plane and it then exploded.[286][291][290][37][285] Both men fell into the English Channel.[290][292][285][130] while Baron Zemo escaped.[293]

Zemo then broadcast news of his defeat of Captain America and Bucky, which was overheard by Colonel Vasily Karpov who recovered Bucky's mangled body,[294] while Cap was recovered by General Lyle Dekker. Cap was taken to Dekker's secret base off the coast of Newfoundland. There, Cap broke free and attempted to escape by plane but was shot down. Exposed to a special nerve gas as he crashed, Cap landed in the Atlantic and floated north[292] where his body was frozen in ice and entered a state of suspended animation.[295] While the Daily Bugle reported the supposed deaths of Captain America and Bucky,[296] the public was soon convinced that their national hero and his sidekick lived on. This was due to President Harry Truman appointing the William Nasland and Yankees Batboy Fred Davis Jr. to take up the identities of Captain America and Bucky.[295] Nasland acted as Captain America until 1946 when he was killed battling the android Adam II. Nasland was replaced by Jeff Mace, the Patriot, as the next Captain America.[297] Mace had a long run as Captain America with Davis as his sidekick until he retired in 1950.[298] In 1954, the role of Captain America was taken up by college professor William Burnside and his student Jack Monroe taking up the part of Bucky.[299] However, improper use of the Super Soldier formula in both men led to them being driven insane and placed in suspended animation.[296]

Meanwhile, Steve Roger's frozen body was discovered by a tribe of Inuit that lived near Fairbanks, Alaska. Thinking that the man frozen in ice was a god, it was brought back to its village where it was worshiped as a god for many years.[300]

Modern Age


Namor uncovers Captain America.[301]

Many years later, Captain America's old ally the Sub-Mariner was once again an enemy of humanity and was fleeing from the Avengers a group of super-heroes that had just recently formed at that time.[302][303] Namor had fled to Alaska where he came across the Inuit tribe that was still worshiping the frozen body of Captain America. Not recognizing his old wartime ally, Namor terrorized the natives and then tossed the frozen body into the ocean.[285][304][303][22][305] As the frozen form began to float south it began to thaw out and Cap's body was recovered by the Avengers who were shocked when they removed the tattered ruins of a soldier's uniform to find the costume of Captain America underneath.

Captain America' identity being discovered. Avengers #4

When Cap revived it was screaming Bucky's name and he fought against the Avengers until he realized that his situation had drastically changed. The group exchanged information, learning what happened to Captain America in 1945, the Avengers told him that the war had long since ended and the Allies had won and that he had been frozen for decades, and offered to bring him back to the United States.[285] Initially, Captain America found this story hard to believe and the Avengers also had their doubts to the validity of the claims made by their new passenger.[286]

Pulling Captain America from the ice[305]

When the group initially arrived at shore in New York City, they asked Captain America to wait below deck of their ship while they addressed the media. However after some time down below, Cap grew impatient and went up, finding no sign of the Avengers anywhere, only an apparent statue of the heroes instead.[285][286] Cap then began exploring this strange new future world. It was not long on this exploration that Captain America heard someone crying for help and interrupted a mugging in process. While he stopped the muggers, their frightened victim pulled a gun and shot him in a panic and left Cap bleeding in the streets.[286] Steve managed to pull himself up and get to a hospital, at which point he decided that everything he was experiencing was some kind of crazy dream. However he was impressed to see the cultural diversity among the patients there. Thanks to his remarkable healing abilities, Cap soon left the hospital where he was found by Rick Jones, the Avengers sidekick who sought Cap's help in locating the team -- although Jones had a hard time believing that Rogers was the real Captain America.[285][note 5] However Cap managed to convince Rick that he was the genuine article by displaying his athletic prowess and shield tossing skills. Using the internet the pair managed to track down a strange photographer who was recorded using a strange device on the Avengers before they were turned into a statue. Left alone with the computer, Captain America looked up the fate of President Roosevelt, learning that he had died before the war ended, convincing him that he was experiencing reality and not a dream because he could not dream something so tragic. With the help of Rick's Teen Brigade they managed to track down the strange man to his hotel room.[285] [note 6] The man they sought soon turned out to be an alien of the D'bari race named Vuk who was working for the Sub-Mariner to get revenge against the Avengers.[285][306][note 7] Captain America agreed to help Vuk free his ship in exchange for restoring the Avengers to normal. Vuk agreed and in the process of freeing his ship they were attacked by the Sub-Mariner once more. As Captain America and Namor battled each other, neither man recognized the other due to recent memory problems. Ultimately Namor fled when Vuk managed to free his ship and escape. In the aftermath of the battle, Iron Man offered Captain America a spot among the Avengers.[285][note 8][22]

Man Out of Time

Captain America joins the Avengers[285]

Shortly after Captain America's admission into the Avengers, he was approached by Gabriel Jones of military intelligence whom Cap fought alongside with in the war. After Jones confirmed Captain America's identity with military records, he was given military back pay as well as his belongings that were in military possession.[307] As Iron Man showed Captain America around the Bronx, he had his doubts that Cap could hack it in this era. This was compounded by the fact that public was also not ready to accept that Steve was the original Captain America either. They soon found themselves attacked by robots sent by an alien race bent on invading the Earth.[308][note 9] Captain America proved Iron Man wrong when he not only destroyed both robots, but also stopped Iron Man himself when he was hypnotized and forced to fight his comrade.[309] Captain America later joined the Avengers in assisting the Sentry against his foe the Void.[310][note 10] Cap was also pulled into the Avenger's hunt for their former teammate the Hulk who was on the rampage.[311] They traced the Hulk back to Avengers Mansion but were trounced by their foe. Following after the Hulk, Cap and the Avengers briefly clashed with another group of heroes the Fantastic Four. However, the two groups put aside their differences and pooled their resources to stop the Hulk, but the gamma spawned brute managed to escape capture.[312]

Despite his identity being confirmed by the military the Avengers still had their doubts about the true identity of Captain America and both Iron Man and Giant-Man conducted a series of tests to confirm his identity.[313][314] Cap, not sure he fit in this era, had also learned that the Fantastic Four's Mister Fantastic had also been experimenting with time travel. After expressing an interest to return to his own era and saving Bucky's life, Iron Man refused to let Cap go back in time due to the risk of knowing too much about the future. Instead, Iron Man -- in his identity of millionaire Tony Stark -- took Steve out for the evening to show him all the benefits of the modern age as well as proud moments in American history. After seeing a display of Captain America successors, Steve decided that he could quit his job with a clear conscious and went to see the President of the United States to resign. However the President merely reiterated what has been told to Cap before: sending him back into the past was just too dangerous. However this time, it was an order from the Commander-in-Chief of the United States, someone that Rogers would obey without question.[313][note 11]

Captain America next went to Arlington Cemetery where he noticed that Bucky did not have his own tombstone and mourned for the loss of his former partner. He was visited by Thor who told him that mourning Bucky's death does his memory a great disservice. Still convinced that Bucky was possibly still alive he began trying to get access to government records only to find none existed.[315] Returning to Avengers Mansion, Captain America reconnected and started became acquainted with Rick Jones,[314] and soon began focusing his time on training Rick Jones how to fight.[316][317] He also tried to piece his life back together but found it difficult re-establishing himself due to his credentials being years out of date. However after stopping muggers in Brooklyn he found that there were some people who not only supported him, but believed he was needed now more than ever.[318] Soon the Avengers were called in to investigate a rock formation growing out of the ground in Nevada and Cap joined them in their investigation.[316] This led to a battle with the subterranean creatures known as the Lava Men.[316][314][315] The invasion of the Lava Men was eventually turned back thanks to some unforeseen help from the Hulk who escaped capture once again.[316][259] Following this mission, Captain America still struggled to try and recover his lost memories. However he had a tombstone for Bucky placed in Arlington and paid his respects before the same thing at the Vietnam War Memorial.[319] Sometime after this, he revisited Bucky's tombstone for the first time, and later reunited with Namor.[320]

Letting Go of the Past

Tony Stark briefly added technological enhancements in Captain America's shield[98]

About this time Captain America allowed Tony Stark to add technological upgrades to his shield, including a magnetic clasp. It was also during this period that Cap's old wartime foe Baron Zemo -- having survived the years hiding out in South America -- learned of his return. Seeking revenge against his old foe, Zemo formed the Masters of Evil a group of super-villains consisting of the Black Knight, Radioactive Man, and the Melter. The group terrorized New York City incapacitating all those they passed with Zemo's Adhesive X. However Captain America and the Avengers, with assistance form the Teen Brigade battled the Masters.[98][321][315] Facing Zemo for the first time in years caused memories of Bucky's death to come flooding back to Cap and he attacked mercilessly, but Zemo managed to evade capture.[319][98] The incident with Zemo left left fresh wounds leaving Steve with a thirst for vengeance against his old foe.[322] With is memories slowly returning Cap attempted to find other links to his past. His first attempts to locate Peggy Carter came to a dead end. He did however reconnect with General Jacob Simon. Cap and Simon spent time together and the elderly veteran educated Steve on the darker side of history that Stark glossed over. When Jacob later died, he left Cap a signed portrait which Captain America gave him during the war. Shortly after this Cap was given an Avengers communicard and was instructed on its operation.[315] Cap later joined the Avengers in apprehending novice super-villain the Weather-Maker.[323]

Captain America Jr.[324]

Captain America and the Avengers were later pulled forward in time a few years in the future by the dimensional hopping hero known as Access. They were pulled forward along with members of the Justice League of America heroes from a distant cosmos to stop an alliance between Magneto and his Brotherhood of Evil Mutants and Darkseid and his Apokoliptians beings from that other dimension. However upon their arrival, Cap and the Avengers were coerced by the hypnotic Amazing Grace to battle the Justice League.[325] However thanks to the intervention from the modern era Kal-El (New Earth)|Superman the heroes shook off this influence and worked together to stop the invasion of New York with the aid of the Teen Titans and the original X-Men.[326] In the final battle, Access used his powers to merge two heroes from each universe into a new gestalt. Captain America was merged with Captain Marvel Jr. to become Captain America Jr.. These amalgamated heroes defeated Magneto and Darkseid and their forces. With the crisis over the heroes were restored to normal and returned to their own times where their memories of the experience faded away.[324] After an Avengers meeting,[327] Captain America came to the aid of the novice hero Spider-Man, helping him stop the Hulk who was once again rampaging through New York City.[328] He also took time to get to know his other teammates, paying a visit to the home of Giant-Man and his partner the Wasp.[329]

This reprieve soon came to a quick end when Baron Zemo returned with a new Masters of Evil consisting of the Asgardian exiles the Enchantress and the Executioner. Rick was also attempting to be Captain America's sidekick, even going so far as getting a Bucky costume, a move that deeply upset Captain America. Cap then decided to face up against Zemo again, tracking him down to South America. Cap followed Zemo all the way back to New York where the other Avengers defeated the Enchantress and Execution but their foes managed to escape once again.[330] After further training with the Avengers,[331] Cap engaged in a brief search for Spider-Man when the hero was temporarily in hiding.[332] Shortly thereafter two of Spider-Man's foes, Kraven the Hunter and the Chameleon attempted to break into the Stark Industries facility only for Kraven to be captured by Iron Man. In order to avenge this defeat the Chameleon disguised himself as Captain America, and convinced Iron Man that he had infiltrated the Avengers. this led to a battle across the city between the real Captain America and Iron Man. Ultimately, the Chameleon was captured and exposed by Giant-Man and the Wasp and the two heroes ended hostilities toward each other.[333][334]

Captain America on V-Day circa 1945[315]

Not long after this the 30th century time traveler known as Kang the Conqueror arrived in the modern age and ordered the surrender of the world. The United States government responded by deploying the Avengers, with Captain America accompanying.[335][322][315] During the initial attack by the Avengers, Kang was able to overpower the heroes with his advanced weaponry and then attempted to take them prisoner.[335][322] Captain America however fought free and tried to attack Kang one-on-one. Sensing that Captain America was displaced from time Kang decided to banish him back to the year 1945 on V-Day, unknowingly granting Steve what he sought after all along: a way to return home.[315] As Steve began trying to acclimatize himself to the 1940s he soon found that he could not fit into his old way of life and came to realize that he was letting the Avengers down by staying behind. Using his Avengers Identicard, Cap programmed a warning alarm for the moment after he was sent back in time and then hid it and a note to Rick Jones in the framed Captain America photo of General Jacob Simon. This went off at that moment in the future and Rick found the note, and got into contact with the Fantastic Four's Reed Richards who used his Time-Platform to bring Cap back to the present.[336] By this time, Rick and the Teen Brigade had pretended to side with Kang to gain access to his ship and they began freeing the Avengers.[335][322] He was joined by Captain America,[336] and the reunited Avengers attacked Kang once again, easily disarming him and forcing him to return to his own era.[335][322][336] In the aftermath of the battle, Iron Man made Captain America the official leader of the Avengers, and Cap soon learned to let go of his desire to return to the past.[336] However this acceptance soon turned to other darker desires, as after a parade thrown in the Avengers' honor, Captain America became determined to avenge the death of Bucky by taking down Baron Zemo, even contemplating killing his long time foe in order to do so.[322]

Seeking Vengeance

Captain America in action[337]

After reacting to the latest news about Spider-Man,[338] Captain America was left alone on monitoring duty at Avengers Mansion. The Mansion was later attacked by a mobster named Bull and his men who thought they could steal the Avengers secrets, seeing Captain America as the weakest link in their group. They were unprepared for Cap's superior fighting skills and acrobatics and were easily trounced and turned over to the police.[339] Shortly thereafter Baron Zemo and his Masters of Evil struck at the Avengers again. This time ionically empowering financially ruined industrialist Simon Williams into the superhuman known as Wonder Man. Wonder Man was then sent to infiltrate the Avengers and have them seek a cure for the ionic powers that were actually killing him. Wonder Man later led Cap and the Avengers into a ambush by the Masters of Evil. But during the course of the battle Wonder Man realized where his true allegiances were and appeared to sacrifice his life to save the Avengers, although Zemo and his cohorts escaped once again.[340][note 12] When the Mole Man threatened to destroy New York City, Cap and the Avengers tried to go into battle against him but were convinced to step aside by the Fantastic Four who defeated their oldest foe.[341] When the villain known as Sundown was threatening New York City, Captain America joined the Avengers, the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, Daredevil, Spider-Man, and Doctor Strange in forcing Sundown to stand down and turn himself over to the authorities.[342] Later, Cap allowed Rick Jones to go to the aid of his old friend the Hulk who was captured by the military after being framed by the Chameleon.[343]

The Avengers next traveled to Europe to stop the being known as Lucifer from setting off a massive bomb. Unknown to then the X-Men's leader Charles Xavier was already attempting to stop Lucifer. Detecting that the bomb was linked to Lucifer's heart, Xavier had his X-Men hold the Avengers at bay until the circumstances could be explained. Cap and the Avengers then conceded to the X-Men, allowing the young mutants to deal with the crisis in their own way.[344] Later when Captain America was putting on a self-defense demonstration, Baron Zemo had the fighters replaced with his Army of Assassins to try and capture his foe. Cap soon realized the danger and easily trounced the army of foes, vowing to take down Zemo once and for all.[345]

Captain America and the Avengers next continued their hunt for the Hulk, hoping to convince him to rejoin the Avengers. Zemo and his Masters got to the Hulk first, convincing the brute to join them in attacking the Avengers. The battle ended abruptly when the Hulk turned on the Masters after Rick's life was put at risk and Zemo and his minions once again fled and the Hulk evaded capture as well.[346] Cap and the Avengers were then targeted by Kang the Conqueror once again. Kang constructed an android duplicate of Spider-Man who lured the heroes into a trap within an Aztec temple in Mexico. However the group was saved by the real Spider-Man who learned of his impostor and defeated him in battle.[347] Wanting to thank Spider-Man for his help upon returning to New York, Captain America assisted the wall-crawler in stopping the Sandman from robbing a bank. The pair soon had to fight together to save the Sandman's life when he was targeted by the Enclave of Rogue Scholars, time travelers who believed that the Sandman was destined to kill two thirds of the Earth's population. As it turned out the Enclave were the ones responsible for hyper-evolving the Sandman to a power level where such a genocide was possible. However Spider-Man and Captain America assisted the Enclave in restoring Sandman to normal. With the threat over the Enclave returned to their own era and Spider-Man and Captain America parted company.[348][note 13] After having done some research on Spider-Man, Captain America tracked him down again and assisted the web-slinger in taking down his foe Electro. In the aftermath of the battle he reiterated his trust in Spider-Man before rejoining the Avengers to battle the Masters of Evil once again.[349]

Captain America next went on a solo mission to a conflict zone somewhere in Southeast Asia to rescue Jim Baker, the relative of a man who saved Cap's life during World War II. Cap battled General Wo -- Aka Sumo -- to free Jim and returned him to the United States.[350][note 14] Captain America and the Avengers soon had another crisis on their hands when the Mole Man and the Red Ghost teamed up to destroy the surface world.[351] After Cap and the Avengers fended off an invasion of the Mole Man's Moloids,[352] the heroes foiled the two villains plot and rescued Giant-Man, whom their foes had captured.[351] Cap was tricked into putting on a demonstration of his skill but whom he thought were the wardens of Ryker's Island prison. It actually turned out to be the prisoners who escaped from their cells. Their leader Deacon believed that the magnetic components in Captain America's shield could release the locking mechanisms that would allow them to escape. The crooks were all easily bested by Captain America, who revealed that he recently removed all the Stark enhancements from his shield due to the fact that they threw off his aim.[353][note 15]

Cap and the Avengers next started focusing on shutting down operations of the Maggia crime family. This garnered the attention of their leader Count Nefaria who at the time was posing as a legitimate business man. Inviting the Avengers to his castle, he captured them and then had duplicates commit acts of treason to make the heroes wanted criminals.[354] Cap himself was held prisoner and tortured and mocked by Count Nefaria directly.[355] The Avengers were eventually freed thanks to Rick Jones and his Teen Brigade. Although the Avengers helped topple Nefaria's criminal operations and clear their names, the Wasp was shot and required immediate medical attention.[354][355] When the Avengers learned that the only man who could cure the Wasp was Dr. Svenson of Norway, they soon learned that Svenson was a prisoner of the Kallusians, aliens hiding below the Earth's North Pole from their mortal enemies the Yirbek. Cap and the Avengers rescued Svenson and exposed the Kallusians to the Yirbek, forcing both races to flee the Earth. Svenson was then brought back to the United States where he performed the life saving surgery on the Wasp.[356] After the entire episode, Captain America came to the conclusion that because of his hatred toward Baron Zemo he was getting sloppy in the field and confided in Iron Man that unless he stopped Zemo once and for all, then he was not fit to lead the Avengers. Iron Man then cautioned Captain America that he was needed among the Avengers in order for them to maintain their government security clearance with the National Security Agency.[355] Shortly thereafter Captain America and the other Avengers were invited to the engagement party of the Fantastic Four's Mr. Fantastic and the Invisible Girl.[357]

Bucky Avenged

Baron Zemo is dead[358]

Soon Baron Zemo made his final salvo against Captain America and the Avengers. Freeing the Black Knight, and the Melter he increased the ranks of the Masters of Evil and launched an all out attack. During the initial assault he kidnapped Rick Jones and brought him back to his secret hideout in Bolivia.[359][355][note 16] Captain America decided to go after Rick alone, despite Iron Man's protests for him to stay for the sake of the team.[360] Captain America flew to Bolivia where he rescued Rick from Zemo's men who were torturing him. During the final battle against Zemo, Zemo's Death-Ray struck the side of a cliff, burying him in an avalanche, finally ending his tyranny once and for all.[359][360][note 17] Captain America and Rick then left the ruins of Zemo's fortress and started working their way through the jungle to get back home.[361][358][note 18] After weeks on the trail fighting through many jungle dangers,[361][362] Cap and Rick ended up in the town of Turriabla, where Cap got ahold of an American newspaper that reported that the Avengers had admitted the reformed criminal archer known as Hawkeye into their ranks.[358]

By the time Captain America and Rick returned to New York City they found that there was a throng of reporters waiting outside Avengers Mansion. Sneaking in, Captain America learned that Iron Man, the Wap, Giant-Man and Thor were planning on taking leaves of absence in order to deal with their personal affairs and that they had gathered three new replacements: Hawkeye, and the mutant twins the Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver, former members of the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants.[361][363][362][364] With the new recruits criminal pasts, Iron Man stressed the need for Captain America to remain on the team to appease the government. After some consideration, Captain America agreed to lead the Avengers onward into a new era.[364]

Cap's Kooky Quartet

Cap's Kooky Quartet[361]

However there were initial signs that this new line up of Avengers was off to a rough start, namely the rebellious Hawkeye and the hot-headed Quicksilver. Both of whom sought to replace Captain America as leader of the Avengers. When long time Avengers butler Edwin Jarvis expressed his doubts over this new team, Cap reassured him that they had potential to be as great as the original team.[365] Soon the original Avengers paid their leave, Captain America brought his new charges before the press gathered outside and introduced the first new line up of the Avengers.[361][362][364][366][367] While the press conference started off with much fanfare, the crowd soon turned on them when thanks to protesters for the nation of Santo Marco. When the crowd got ugly, Cap rushed his new charges inside. It was here that Cap decided that the team would begin searching for the Hulk in the hopes of convincing him to rejoin the team, asking Rick to assist them unaware that he was slowly drifting away due to the fact that he was not made a full-fledged Avenger over the newcomers. Learning that the Avengers were looking for the Hulk, the Radioactive Man lured Captain America into a trap, capturing him. When the others learned that Cap was captured, they came to his rescue, freeing the Star-Spangled Avenger and defeating Radioactive Man. The resulting victory won over the public, at least for the time being.[368] It was around this point where Captain America briefly reconnected with his old wartime ally, Nick Fury, and accessed government documents in an effort to learn everything he could about those who took his place after the war.[6]

Continuing his hunt for the Hulk alongside the Avengers, Cap was tricked into searching the deserts of the southwest by the Mole Man who sought revenge against the Avengers for his past defeat. Cap led his new charges against the so-called Minotaur. Although they defeated the Minotaur and the Mole Man and escaped his lair, their search for the Hulk was a complete bust, and the plan abandoned.[369] However, Steve began to feel that he had no life outside of the Avengers and soon began longing for other pursuits. These considerations were cut short when Cap and the Avenger were tricked into travelling to the communist controlled nation of Sin-Cong. There they battled the Commissar who appeared to be a high ranking officer of a communist nation. Cap and his comrades defeated the Commissar, revealing that he was nothing more than a robot, leading the people of Sin-Cong to revolt and drive the communist militia out of their land.[370][note 19] Cap later accompanied his fellow Avengers to the wedding of the Fantastic Four's Mister Fantastic and the Invisible Girl, which led to a reunion of sorts between Cap and the original Avengers. The wedding festivities were marred when Latverian dictator Dr. Doom used an Emotion Changer device to force an army of super-villains to attack the wedding.[371] Captain America battled Plantman,[372] the Cobra, Executioner, and Enchantress before falling into a massive brawl between the gathered heroes in attendance and Doom's army of super-villains. The battle was quickly ended when the Watcher gave Reed Richards a Time Displacer device which he used to banish the villains away, allowing the wedding to go on without further interruption.[371][372][321]

Fighting side-by-side with Nick Fury[373]

By this time Cap's old ally Nick Fury was the director for the anti-espionage organization known as SHIELD. When Fury learned that an army was seeking to attack the United States from Bedloe Island, he contacted Captain America to assist him on the mission. Facing the invaders, Fury quickly learned that they were all mentally linked and sent Cap to obtain the help of Mr. Fantastic of the Fantastic Four to exploit this weakness.[374] Going to the Fantastic Four's Baxter Building headquarters, Cap was provided with a Electro-Amplifier Rifle and returned to Fury's aid. The pair then defeated the invaders and destroyed their mind-paralyzer device. However their foes minds were wiped clean, leaving the identity of their leader a mystery to them at that time.[373][note 20] After this mission with Fury, Captain America wrote a letter to Nick asking to join up with SHIELD, hoping this would fill the void that was missing in his life. Around this time the soldier-of-fortune known as the Swordsman attempted to gain membership with the Avengers by a show of force, but Cap and his teammates were able to send him fleeing. But, thanks to unforeseen interference by the terrorist organization known as Hydra, Cap's letter ended up in the hands of the Swordsman who used it to lure Captain America into a trap with a phony response. Holding Cap hostage on the top of a construction site, the Swordsman ordered the other Avengers to surrender to him. Not willing to let his teammates surrender, Cap jumped off the building instead.[375] Cap was saved by his teammates, but when they attempted to apprehend the Swordsman, he was teleported away by Iron Man's old foe the Mandarin. After equipping the Swordsman with new weapons he used a phony hologram message from Iron Man to convince Cap and the others to admit the Swordsman into the Avengers. The Swordsman then planted a bomb that would destroy the heroes. However when the Swordsman was about to be double crossed he attempted to disarm the bomb. Caught red handed by Captain America and Hawkeye, the Swordsman fled, using the exploding bomb to cover his escape.[376]

Tensions between Captain America and Hawkeye continued to grow as the team faced a new threat from the Enchantress and her new champion Power Man who began a campaign to discredit the Avengers. After a series of blunders by the Avengers thanks to their machinations, the mayor of New York ordered the Avengers to disband.[377] When Cap tried to rally the Avengers together, he found that they were at the breaking point and decided to leave. With the group in shambles, Cap then began investigating Power Man and the Enchantress. Disguising himself as an entertainment promoter, he tricked Power Man into gloating about how he and the Enchantress manipulated events. This was caught on a recorder, and when Cap revealed himself, he held his own against Power Man until the other Avengers came to his aid and helped defeat their foes although the Enchantress managed to escape. But even though the Avengers were cleared of any wrongdoing and had reformed, Captain America had had enough of the infighting and bickering among his team and quit himself.[378] Steve then got a civilian job as a trainer for a boxing champion until he learned that the Avengers had mysteriously vanished. Quitting his job and returning to his Captain America identity, Cap returned to Avengers Mansion and began investigating. Using Iron Man's "Recreator" device he learned that his teammates were captured by Kang the Conqueror and brought to the 40th century as his prisoners. Cap then challenged Kang and was transported to the future as well. There he found that Kang was holding a nation ruled by Princess Ravonna hostage as well. When Steve freed his fellow comrades and fought back against Kang, the future despot ordered his minions to attack the kingdom.[379] Captain America provided strategy for Ravonna's people and with the assistance of the Avengers, they held back Kang's forces for a short time before being captured. But when Kang decided to spare Ravonna, one of his minions named Boltag, turned on him and took over his army seeing this mercy as a weakness. Kang grudgingly found himself forced to side with Captain America and the Avengers to fight back against his own armies. In the aftermath, the heroes won and Kang agreed to let them go. However as the Avengers were being transported back to their own era, Bolta tried to shoot Kang in the back, but Ravonna sacrificed herself in order to save her life. A sacrifice that Kang would come to blame the Avengers for in the future.[380]

Captain America crashed NATO headquarters in Europe[381]

Upon their return to their own time, the Avengers were targeted by Dr. Doom, who sought to defeat the heroes as a precursor to his next battle against the Fantastic Four. Tricking the Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver into thinking their biological parents lived in Latveria, Captain America and the Avengers traveled there to follow up on this news. Falling right into Doom's trap the Avengers found themselves arrested with no chance for aid lest the an international incident was incited. Cap and his fellow Avengers then broke free from their prison and defeated Dr. Doom in battle, distracting the monarch long enough for them to flee the country and return home to the United States.[382] Although Captain America began proving himself as a competent leader, Hawkeye still sought to gain leadership of the group.[383] After telling his fellow Avengers some of his wartime adventures, Steve suddenly recalled that it was soon going to be "Der Tag" a date which his old foe the Red Skull was to unleash his mysterious Sleeper robots upon the Earth to destroy it. With a list of former Nazi war criminals, Cap rushed to Germany to try and stop the Sleepers from being activated. He was too late to stop the activation of the first Sleeper.[283][note 21] Cap tried to stop the first Sleeper but its weapons proved to be too powerful. Cap was forced to follow it until it met with the second Sleeper that had just recently been released. When the two Sleeper robots combined, Cap managed to climb aboard as it flew away, but he was forced to jump away when NATO forces began to attack it.[384] Gaining the aid of NATO forces, Cap followed after the Sleepers until it linked to a third Sleeper robot -- an effigy of the Red Skull's face. Realizing that it was heading toward the North Pole to drill to the center of the Earth and destroy the planet, Captain America was flown over the Sleeper gestalt and hopped aboard. Using a flame thrower he managed to compromise the Sleeper robots causing them to crash into the ocean where they exploded harmlessly, saving the world from annihilation.[381] Upon returning to the United States from his mission, Steve found that his memories of his romance with Peggy Carter during the war were returning, although he could not remember her name. Incidentally, these memories resurfacing also coincided when Cap crossed paths with Peggy's niece Sharon, aka Agent 13 and agent of SHIELD, as she was attempting to transport a sample of Inferno 42. Cap found her resemblance to Peggy impeccable and could not decide if this was his old wartime sweetheart or some relative. This was interrupted by the soldier-of-fortune known as Batroc the Leper who was hired by the terrorist organization known as THEM to steal Inferno 42. As the two fought it out, the canister containing the chemical was broken threatening to destroy New York City. In order to save himself along with the city, Batroc grudgingly agreed to help Captain America go after Sharon.[237][note 22] Captain America managed to recover Inferno 42, but not before Sharon was affected by it and needed medical attention. With Batroc and THEM obtaining a phony sample, Cap allowed them to escape so he could see the girl to the hospital, leaving Cap to ponder the mystery of the woman's identity.[385]

Familiar Faces

Shortly thereafter the Avengers received a distress call from their old ally the Wasp who was a prisoner of the Atlantean barbarian known as Attuma, who was planning on using a tidal wave device to flood the surface world. Cap, Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch went to the Wasp's rescue only to find themselves prisoners of Attuma themselves.[386][note 23] They were then rescued by the timely arrival of Hawkeye, and defeated Attuma, but in the aftermath of the battle they found that the Wasp had gone missing.[387] Back at headquarters they were contacted by Henry Pym, who revealed that he was the Avenger formally known as Giant-Man, and asked for their help finding the Wasp. After meeting with Pym they were informed by a being calling himself the Collector that the Wasp was his prisoner. Pym rejoined the Avengers ranks, taking on a new costumed identity of the Goliath. Unaware that the Collector sought to capture the Avengers for his collection, they followed the call to the Collector's hideout. There they were forced to battle the Collector and his minion the Beetle. Although they freed the Wasp, the Collector and Beetle escaped and Goliath -- who had stayed in his giant-size beyond the physical limit -- found himself trapped at giant size.[388] When they returned to headquarters Captain America got Goliath medical attention but they learned that he was trapped in giant-size, potentially forever. After Goliath fled to brood over his condition, Captain America and the others were attacked by Power Man and the Swordsman, both pawns of the Hawkeye's former girlfriend the Black Widow who had been brainwashed by a communist nation to do their bidding. Cap and the others were rescued thanks to the timely return of Goliath who defeated their foes, but the Black Widow and her cohorts managed to escape.[389]

This was still a time of great loneliness for Steve Rogers, who struggled with the memories of his wartime lover and puzzled over what her fate was.[238] Still he carried out his Avengers duties, such as when he and the team were called upon to review of America's global defense measures.[390] The Avengers then saw another change in their membership when the Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver were led to believe that their powers were fading and they needed to return to their homeland of Transia to have them restored. Overhearing this, Captain America allowed them to take a leave of absence to do so. Meanwhile, Goliath ran off to South America to visit his colleague Dr. Anton in the hopes of finding a cure. Cap also allowed Hawkeye to go after the Black Widow alone before hearing news reports that Goliath and Dr. Anton had gone missing.[391] Before going on a mission to search for Goliath, Captain America was finally visited by Nick Fury who sought to learn what Cap knew about the organization known as THEM. During this meeting they were attacked by an android created by THEM's science division Advanced Idea Mechanics who the pair easily defeated. Learning that Cap had no information regarding the organization he left, but not before giving Cap a SHIELD A-1 priority card making it easier for the Star-Spangled Avenger to contact Fury in the future.[392] Tracking Goliath in South America, Captain America and the Avengers found him in the lost city of El Dorado where he and Dr. Anton were caught in the middle between a power struggle between the so-called Keeper of the Flame and Prince Rey to control a massive cobalt fueled flame. The heroes seemingly extinguished the cobalt flame, leaving the El Doradians with nothing to fight over and returned home. However on the way home Goliath was told that the only person who could cure him was Henry Pym.[393]

Prisoner of the Sons of the Serpent[394]

Growing tired of Goliath being depressed, Captain America forced him to admit that only he could cure his condition, giving Goliath the motivation to cure himself. When Pym's lab assistant Bill Foster was attacked by the racist organization known as the Sons of the Serpent, the Avengers became determined to shut the organization down. After using his SHIELD connections to learn what he could, Captain America and the Avengers appeared before a live news conference and denounced the Serpents. Later on while searching for the group, Captain America was taken prisoner aboard their cloaked airship.[395] The Serpent's leader then attempted to convince Captain America to join their cause. When Cap refused, and subsequent attempts to brainwash him also failed, they had an impostor take his place. The Serpents then blackmailed the Avengers into publicly allying themselves in order to save Cap's life. However, Hawkeye found the location of their secret headquarters and freed Cap, and the pair crashed the auditorium where the announcement was to be made. The real Captain America exposed his impostor and then captured the Serpent's leader who was revealed to be General Chen, a military leader of a communist country who formed the Sons of the Serpent in order to divide America based on racial prejudice for the purposes of creating anti-American propaganda.[394]

Return of the Red Skull

The Red Skull returns[396]

Soon thereafter Advanced Idea Mechanics recovered and revived the body of the Red Skull, who had been in a state of suspended animation since his last conflict with Captain America. Using AIM resources he sent an army of minions equipped with "hypno-helmets" to make their presence invisible to everyone but Captain America. To this end they attacked Cap in public to make him look like he was losing his mind. However, Captain America easily deduced this was the case and with the help of Stark Industries technology used a device to scramble the hypno-helmets, Cap foiled a plot to frame him for murder.[284] After recovering an AIM soldier from an escape pod, Captain America learned that the Red Skull sought to gain control of their latest invention, the Cosmic Cube, which allowed whoever wielded the weapon to shape reality to their own whim. Captain America was too late to stop the Red Skull from obtaining the Cube.[396] However, when the Red Skull attempted to use the Cube to banish Cap to another dimension, the Captain played on the Skull's ego, convincing him to allow Cap to live as his slave. While the Skull gloated, Cap attacked. During the struggle the Skull willed the Cube to cause an earthquake which both the Skull and the Cosmic Cube inadvertently fell into.[397][note 24] While the Skull appeared to drown and the Cube seemingly washed out to sea for good, both could come back to haunt Captain America again and again over the years.

Captain America was next targeted by AIM's latest invention the Adaptoid. Disguising itself as the Avengers butler Edwin Jarvis, the Adaptoid drugged Captain America. While Cap was bombarded with hallucinations from his past, the Adaptoid easily defeated him and then took his form, hoping to take the place of Captain America.[398] The Adaptoid's attempt to take Captain America's place also coincided with a break-in by a criminal calling himself the Tumbler who wanted to prove himself by pitting his acrobatic skills against Captain America. Although the Tumbler was able to hold his own against the Adaptoid, the real Captain America freed himself and easily felled both foes.[399] After the Tumbler was turned over to the authorities and the Avengers returned to headquarters, Captain America made the error of showing the seemingly inert Adaptoid to his teammates. This allowed the Adaptoid to mimic all their abilities. Once Cap was alone again the Adaptoid -- now calling itself the "Super-Adaptoid" -- attacked his target once again. Cap was out classed against a foe that could imitate all the powers of his teammates and the Super-Adaptoid dumped Captain America into the Hudson River. Thinking Captain America dead, the Super-Adaptoid fled the scene thinking that it had completed its mission, under estimating Captain America's ability to survive.[400] When the original Avengers returned to the fold to elect a new team member, Captain America petitioned Spider-Man to join their group. Although it was a welcome invitation, Spider-Man's attitude caused things to get heated and the heroes almost came to blows before Spider-Man was sent on a test to prove his worthiness among the Avengers ranks. Sent to capture the Hulk, Spider-Man eventuality decided against it when he briefly encountered the Hulk's alter-ego, scientist Bruce Banner, and couldn't bring himself to capture the brute. Spider-Man declined Avengers membership, puzzling the whole group including Captain America.[401]

Captain America vs. Batroc the Leaper[402]

Captain America was next called to the hospital where Sharon Carter was recovering, this turned out to be a trap laid by the terrorist organization Hydra and Batroc the Leaper. The latter was seeking a rematch against Captain America. However when the Hydra agents tried to kill Captain America, Batroc's honor was offended and he helped Cap take the terrorist agents down before fleeing the scene.[402] Shortly thereafter Cap took on a mission for SHIELD to infiltrate the Yashonka Arms Research Center in a communist nation. There he prevented communist forces from completing their new weapon the Z-Ray.[403] Back in the United States Cap was framed for a series of robberies by a criminal calling himself the Planner. The Planner had done so in the hopes of stealing Captain America's shield, which he believed still contained various Stark technologies. This proved to be his undoing and the Planner was captured and Captain America cleared his name.[404] Returning to the Avengers, Captain America came to the aid of the Wasp and Goliath who were being attacked by the costumed villain known as the Living Laser. The Laser easily escaped capture, capturing the Wasp, Captain America and Hawkeye.[405] The Laser then fled with the Wasp, whom he was smitten with, leaving Cap and Hawkeye to die in a laser trap. Thanks to Cap's shield the pair escaped. With the Goliath, they then tracked the Living Laser to the island of Costa Verde where he was aiding in a political coup. Although they were all captured, the Avengers were freed thanks to Goliath and his newly restored size changing powers. The Laser was quickly defeated and a democracy was soon established in Costa Verde.[406][note 25] Back at Avengers Mansion, Cap and the Avengers were tricked into travelling to Transia by the Ultroid known as Ultrana who was disguised as the Scarlet Witch. They quickly found themselves prisoner of the alien known as Ixar who hoped to exploit Earth's super-heroes to give his Ultroids superhuman powers to use against another alien race he was warring with.[407] Although captured by Ixar and his forces, the Avengers were freed thanks to Hawkeye and his girlfriend the Black Widow who threatened Ixar's life if the Avengers were freed. With Ixar defeated, the Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver returned with the Avengers back to headquarters.[408] Back at Avengers Mansion, Cap stopped a fight between Hawkeye and Goliath over giving the Black Widow membership in the Avengers.[409] He then put the group through a rigorous fight training,[410] before dismissing them to take a break while he went on monitor duty.[409]

It was then when Captain America received a distress call by someone who appeared to be his former partner Bucky, asking him to go to Sea Gull Island off the coast of Nova Scotia. Cap went unaware that he was being led into a trap by his old foe the Red Skull. When Cap arrived he was taken aboard a hidden base where he was forced to fight his old foes the Swordsman and Powerman before the Skull revealed himself.[411][note 26] The Skull then forced Cap to battle a series of robots, including one designed to resemble Bucky -- the very robot that lured him into the trap to begin with. When Captain America destroyed all the robots, the Skull then trapped him in an enclosing room.[412] When Cap freed himself from this trap, the Skull had fled in a ship. Cap managed to fight his way on board, but before he could stop the Skull, his foe imprisoned downtown Manhattan in a massive bubble and threatened to destroy it unless Captain America agreed to become the Skull's slave for 24 hours. When Cap agreed, he was forced to pledge allegiance to the Red Skull on national television.[413] Although the world thought Captain America had turned traitor, Cap managed to call in the Avengers and send them on a mission to search for the Cosmic Cube before the Skull could find it. Although they failed to capture it, the device was seemingly lost for good.[414] Meanwhile, the Red Skull's massive ego allowed for the 24 hours to mostly elapse until the Skull forced Cap to tell him the location of the Navy's new XTP-1 nuclear submarine. When Cap told him where it was the Skull tried to kill him. Cap freed himself and attempted to warn the sub crew only to find them under the hypnotic control of the Red Skull. Cap freed them from this control and convinced them to help him retake the Red Skull's ship. As the Skull attempted to claim the XTP for himself, Cap set it to self destruct, seemingly slaying the Red Skull in the process.[390][note 27]

After clearing his name, Captain America learned that his fellow Avengers were battling the ancient alchemist known as Diablo who was forcing Goliath to assist him in creating an army of Dragon Men androids. Cap's timely arrival enabled the team to quickly defeat Diablo and foil his plans.[415][note 28] During his absence with the team, the Black Widow had become an agent of SHIELD and was captured in China by her former employers. After settling back in at the mansion, Hawkeye and new Avengers ally Hercules then went after her. When Cap learned this, he ordered the Avengers to gather for a rescue mission.[416][note 29] After attacking the secret headquarters where their allies were being kept prisoner, Captain America clashed with his Russian counterpart the Red Guardian. However when the Red Guardian's masters blasted Captain America in the back with a stun ray, the Red Guardian seemingly sacrificed his life to save Cap out of a sense of honor. Cap, the Avengers and their captured allies managed to flee safely back to the United States.[405][note 30]

SHIELD Operative

Captain America vs Nick Fury[417]

Once back stateside, Captain America began having a closer working relationship with SHIELD. He later participated in a sparring session with Nick Fury for the benefit of new SHIELD recruits.[417] Cap and Fury's strange battle with the invaders at the Statue of Liberty came back to him when Fury began investigating leads. The pair told their story to FBI agent Jimmy Woo.[374] Once they finished relating their story, Woo informed them that they likely clashed with his long time adversary the Yellow Claw.[373][note 31] However, Captain America left this case to Nick Fury to solve, departing after looking over Fury's new specially modified car.[418][note 32] Captain America rejoined the Avengers shortly after and they battled an army of robots from the Raggador galaxy with the help of their ally Thor.[419]

Captain America and Agent 13[420]

Captain America later became more determined than ever to learn what he could about the female SHIELD agent who resembled his wartime lover. He sought out Nick Fury at SHIELD's headquarters that was hidden below a nondescript barber shop. There he stopped an AIM android from trying to assassinate Fury. Although he succeeded he learned that he may have put Sharon's life in danger as she had infiltrated AIM to spy on the organization.[421] Cap attempted to infiltrate AIM's submarine headquarters but was captured. Sharon helped Cap break free and the two fought off the forces of AIM. While running for cover, Cap learned that Sharon was attempting to learn the identity of AIM's new leader, a being known only as MODOK. However the pair were captured soon thereafter.[420] Imprisoned by AIM, Cap and Sharon soon learned that MODOK was a massive cyborg with enhanced mental powers that even the members of AIM feared. When Cap fought back against MODOK, his minions turned on him incapacitating the MODOK. Captain America and Agent 13 then captured the AIM agents and fled while MODOK used his mental powers to destroy AIM headquarters, seemingly slaying himself in the process.[422][note 33] Returning to the Avengers, Captain America was tipped off by Nick Fury that Iron Man's old foe the Mandarin had gathered an army of super-villains to try and take over the world. To answer this threat, every member of the Avengers reunited to deal with the threat. Captain America sent Iron Man, Goliath and the Wasp to stop the Swordsman and Powerman in South America; Hercules and the Scarlet Witch to stop the Executioner and Enchantress in the Middle East; and Thor and Hawkeye to Africa where prevented the Living Laser from reactivating the robot known as Ultimo. Meanwhile, Captain America and Quicksilver infiltrated the Mandarin's space station where they kept the villain at bay until the rest of the Avengers showed up. Their enhanced numbers proved no match for the Mandarin who fled before he could activate his doomsday weapon. The Avengers subsequently destroyed the space station and the deadly weapon on board.[423]

Brief Retirement

Despite his recent victories, Captain America began reflecting on the possibility of retiring his costumed identity hoping to pursue a relationship with Agent 13, even though he did not know her real name. Following on the heels of their victory against the Mandarin, the city of New York made an honorary Avengers day. The festivities were marred by an attack by the Super-Adaptoid whom had returned to destroy Captain America once and for all. The android lost the battle when trying to mimic more than two of the Avengers powers at once, shorting itself out in the process.[424] Continuing to brood over his life, Captain America agreed to go to a baseball game with Quicksilver. They returned to the mansion when the game was rained out and arrived in time to stop Goliath and the Wasp's old foe Whirlwind from trying to slay their comrades. Although the battle was a victory, Whirlwind managed to escape.[425] Shortly thereafter the SHIELD helicarrier was taken over by Agent Nine, a rogue SHIELD agent attempting to turn the helicarrier over to the Red Skull. It was during this clash that Cap came across SHIELD personnel files taken by Agent Nine that revealed Agent 13's true name to him. Steve also revealed his true name to Sharon during this battle. They succeeded in stopping Agent Nine who was killed by Sharon while trying to escape. This showed Cap a side of Sharon he seldom saw, that of a hardened SHIELD agent that was willing to kill in order to complete a mission.[426][note 34]

Steve Roger retires as Captain America[427]

After learning each others real names, Steve took Sharon Carter on a date and proposed to her, but she turned him down unable to give up her duties to SHIELD. Having had enough of putting his personal life behind him, Steve completed one last mission, capturing mobster Gunner Gates.[427] After making his announcement to the Avengers,[428] he publicly revealed his true identity and retired as Captain America, much to the protest of Nick Fury and Tony Stark. Unwilling to listen, Steve even mailed his shield to Fury for safe keeping.[427] Not long after his retirement, a series of imitators began getting into trouble while dressed up as Captain America for varying reasons from trying to replace Captain America, to publicity stunts and attempts to impress their peers. Because Cap revealed his true identity, criminal elements were gunning for him, making these imitators open to attack as well. Steve was soon targeted by an assassin calling himself the Sniper. Steve was forced to leave his apartment when he spotted yet another Captain America impersonator who was being attacked by mobster. He saved his imitator while a undercover SHIELD agents got the drop on the Sniper and apprehended him. In the aftermath of this incident, Nick Fury convinced Steve that he was the only man who could be Captain America and Steve decided to come out of retirement.[429]

Back in Action

Captain America vs the Black Panther[430]

Captain America went back into action almost immediately, taking down the Mauler and his mob. Soon after he was contacted by the current Black Panther, whom requested Captain America's aid stopping an old foe.[431] Taking a craft to the nation of Wakanda, Captain America and the Black Panther then went seeking out those invading his kingdom. He learned that this invader was using a satellite that reflected rays from the sun into a destructive beam. When they were captured, Cap was shocked to find that their foe appeared to be Baron Zemo.[430][note 35][432] Cap and the Panther tried to break free, but were incapacitated with a "hypno-light" missile that made it impossible for them to fight back. Taken to their lair, they learned that their foe planned to target nuclear weapons sites that he was waiting for from a spy named Irma Kruhl -- unaware that this was really Sharon Carter in disguise. He then ordered "Kruhl" to eliminate Cap and the Panther.[433][note 36] Unwilling to kill the man she loved, Sharon purposely missed and then convinced "Zemo" that they should spare their foes until later. This gave Captain America and the Black Panther enough time to shake off the effects of the hypno-light effects and fought their way to freedom. Sharon broke her cover in order to help the two heroes escape. Destroying the Destructoid robot sent against them, Cap got close enough to "Zemo" to unmask him, revealing that it wasn't his old foe after all but his former pilot, Franz Gruber. Furious at being deceived, "Zemo's" minions turned on him and shot Gruber dead. With their leader dead, Cap, the Panther, and Sharon took Gruber's minions prisoner and SHIELD destroyed the satellite. As they returned to Wakanda, Cap suggested to the Black Panther that the monarch take his place in the Avengers.[304]

Back in the United States, Captain America went after escaped Nazi war criminal Werner Von Krimm, only to be stopped by Nick Fury, who informed Cap that he had learned that Von Krimm was going to meet with the Red Skull who had just recently uncovered a fourth Sleeper robot. Thanks to a SHIELD homing device, Cap was able to track the Red Skull to his most recent hideout. Captain America's interference prevented the Red Skull from using a specially made crystal key to put the Sleeper under his control and the robot began rampaging on its own. As Cap and his arch-nemesis fled the rampaging Sleeper the island was destroyed. Cap was washed out into the ocean, but he managed to grab the crystal key.[434] Captain America and Sharon were reunited and send on a mission to try and stop the fourth Sleeper. After fighting through the Red Skull's forces, they confronted the creature. While Cap battled the robot, Sharon's love for the Captain affected the crystal key, causing the Sleeper to disintegrate, ending his threat.[435] Taking note of Cap's romance with Sharon Carter, the Red Skull had his minions capture Sharon and bring her to his hideout on Exile Island. When Captain America went after Sharon, he fought his way onto Exile Island, but during the ensuing battle the Red Skull secretly managed to affix a piece of "nuclear tape" to the back of Cap's neck. This device could cause Captain America a great deal of pain, as well as detonate a nuclear weapon planted somewhere in Washington D.C. should Cap not do the Skull's bidding. After battling the Skull's Exiles, he freed Sharon and escaped unaware of the trap the Skull had planted on him.[436][note 37] Soon the Red Skull revealed his trap, and forced Captain America to surrender and return to Exile Island. There Cap was forced to battle the Exiles once more, however SHIELD managed to find the nuclear bomb and disarm it, rendering the nuclear tape inactive as well. Realizing that he was free from the Red Skull's control, Cap fought back as a SHIELD attack force stormed Exile Island. Finding himself in a losing battle, the Red Skull and his Exiles fled as SHIELD took Exile Island.[437]


Soon after Steve Rogers was contacted by documentary filmmakers who sought to have Cap narrate a wartime documentary about his own exploits. Seeing footage of himself and Buck in action brought back painful memories and Cap declined once again. He was soon contacted by the military to locate a stolen seismo-bomb that was stolen by one of America's enemies and was at risk of going off in New York City. During his search he was attacked by Batroc the Leaper, the Swordsman and the Living Laser who were also seeking to obtain the weapon. Cap defeated his foes and when explaining the danger to Batroc, he fled allowing Cap to locate the weapon and disarm it.[438] Cap came to the aid of SHIELD when Chinese mercenaries attacked one of their facilities but he failed to stop them from stealing the latest designs for a new model of Life Model Decoy. Learning that movie studio Infinity Productions was releasing films that were showing Captain America commit acts of murder, Cap went to Los Angeles to investigate. There he uncovered a LMD of himself which was being use to create Chinese propaganda. The new LMD technology proved defective and the decoy self-destructed battling Cap while SHIELD shut down the studio ending the plot to discredit Captain America.[439][note 38]

Captain America and the Avengers materializing in the year 1945[288]

By this time Captain America began seeing psychologist Doctor Faustus who was secretly trying to drive Captain America insane with drugs that gave him powerful nightmares. He also used actors and elaborate sets to make Captain America believe he was reliving parts of the war, particularly scenes where Bucky blamed Cap for his death. Becoming suspicious of the psychologist, Cap pretended to be cracking up for Faustus to prescribe another medication that would rapidly age Cap. Seeing through this, Cap had SHIELD analyze the drug, revealing the truth and laid a trap for Faustus. Cap then revealed his ruse and defeated the Doctor, who was turned over to SHIELD custody.[440] However, Cap was still troubled by memories of Bucky and wanted to make sure once and for all his partner had died during the war. He then called his fellow Avengers to a stateside castle formerly owned by Dr. Doom so that they could use the Time-Platform there to travel back to that fateful day in 1945. With the Wasp monitoring the controls in the present, Captain America and the rest of the Avengers traveled back to 1945 and began observing as temporal wraiths, Captain America and Bucky's battle against Baron Zemo. After the past Captain America and Bucky were tied to the drone plane that would seemingly take Bucky's life, suddenly the modern day Captain America and the Avengers materialized fully in that era. There they briefly battled Baron Zemo and his "Humanoid" creation. Soon they began to fade out of synch with time. Before this could complete itself, Cap was able to toss his shield and sever the ropes that bound his past self and Bucky to the drone. However the modern day Cap watched helplessly as the same tragedy repeated itself, convincing Cap at that time that Bucky was truly dead. They soon returned to what they believe to be their own era, and learned that the reason why they materialized in the past was due to the Was strangely falling asleep at the controls.[288][note 39]

However Captain America and the Avengers soon found that they were not in their native reality, the alternate reality of Earth-689, a world where the original Avengers had captured an imprisoned every super-human on Earth and ruled in an almost dictator like fashion under the commands of a time traveler calling himself the Scarlet Centurion.[441][442] After their initial clash with this group of Avengers, Cap and his team learned the truth and learned that in this reality Dr. Doom's time machine had been disassembled. Cap went to recover a piece of the device, clashing with and defeating that reality's version of Thor in the process. Having collected all the parts they needed, the Avengers were then attacked by the Centurion himself and defeated him. The Avengers then returned to their native reality of Earth-616 without further issue.[441][443][note 40] Leaving the Avengers once again, Captain America learned that Sharon Carter was captured by the villain known as the Trapster who sought to learn the secrets of Project: Fireball for the Red Skull. However Cap's appearance was manipulated by Sharon who allowed the Trapster to capture an LMD of herself in order to learn the identity of his employer.[444] While putting on a charity match in Madison Square Gardens, Captain America was attacked by the costumed hero known as Daredevil, who was not in his right mind at the time. When his temporary lapse in sanity corrected itself, Daredevil fled the fight leaving Captain America to speculate why he was attacked.[445][note 41]

The Strange Death of Captain America

Captain America, in his capacity as a founding member of the Avengers, was called back to the group along with Thor and Iron Man to decide if the android known as the Vision should be admitted to the group. Doubtful at first considering that the Vision originally tried to kill Goliath and the Wasp, the group learned that the Vision was an android created by the robot known as Ultron with the brain patterns of the long dead Wonder Man to get revenge against the Avengers. Learning that the Vision was free from Ultron's control, Cap and the others agreed to allow the Vision to join the group.[446][note 42] Cap spent his time back with the group to learn of all the changes since his absence.[447] Later when SHIELD took the Vision in for questioning, the Avengers asked Captain America to use his connections within the organization to have the Vision freed, although the Vision was eventually released back to the Avengers, Cap's hands were tied at the time.[448] After spending time with Nick Fury to reminisce about his past,[16] Captain America received an invitation to the wedding of the Wasp and the mysterious new costumed hero calling himself Yellowjacket, who had also claimed to have murdered Goliath.[449] However when he returned to the Mansion to get answers, he learned that Yellowjacket was really Henry Pym, who had developed another personality due to leadership pressures. Further, the Avengers were going along with the ruse as per the advice of a SHIELD psychologist. Despite Cap's protests the wedding carried on as planned,[450] but was soon crashed by the Ringmaster and his Circus of Crime who sought to get revenge against Thor. This proved to be a fatal error and the gathered Avengers quickly defeated their foes.[449][451] In the aftermath of the battle, Pym's mind was restored to normal.[449][452] Cap was on hand when both the Black Panther and Vision proved themselves to both the NSA and SHIELD by taking down the Wakandan assassin known as Death Tiger and the Super-Adaptoid respectively. Confident that the Avengers could look after themselves, Captain America returned to his solo activities.[450]

Captain America and Rick Jones as Bucky[453]

One night while out on the streets, Captain America stumbled upon a battle between the Hulk and the military. This reunited him with his one-time sidekick Rick Jones who had spent the past months trying to keep tabs on the Hulk. During the fracas Rick was injured and Captain America pulled him to safety. Back at Avengers Mansion, Rick recovered from his injuries and put on Bucky's uniform once more. Although this once again upset Cap, Rick convinced Cap to allow him to take on this mental and resume his role as his sidekick.[453][note 43] Soon after taking on Rick as a new sidekick, Captain America was alerted to Hydra activity in the sewers nearby. Cap and the new Bucky managed to stop Hydra from poisoning the city water supply, but thanks to Bucky getting into danger Hydra and their new leader Madame Hydra managed to escape.[453][290] Answering a phony call purporting to be from Nick Fury, Cap was attacked at a penny arcade by Hydra forces. Surviving the attack, it made Steve realize the public knowledge of his true identity put both him and Rick at risk. However he continued training Rick, but the pressure put on both thanks to the memory of Bucky continued to loom over the pair. Later when Rick was captured by Hydra, Steve went after him. He used this as an opportunity to confuse the public as to his true identity. After defeating Hydra's Mankiller robot, Steve tossed an inflatable body wearing his uniform and a latex mask molded out of his face into the line of fire. Hydra agents shot the dummy as it landed into a nearby harbor. When police arrived at the scene, they found only the remains of Captain America's uniform and a bullet riddled latex mask and were left to believe that not only was Captain America dead, but the identity of Steve Rogers was also a false one.[454]

Captain America fakes his death[454]

After the nation mourned the loss of Captain America,[453] a funeral was carried up in effigy as a body was not found. Hydra infiltrated the funeral in order to capture Nick Fury and the Avengers in attendance. Not in attendance was Rick Jones who followed the Hydra agents to Drearcliff Cemetery where the attempted to bury their foes alive. However this attempt was crashed by Captain America himself, who was alive and well. Cap quickly defeated their foes and Madame Hydra was seemingly slain in the ensuing battle.[455][note 44] Captain America and Bucky then followed the Hydra agents to their secret headquarters hidden beneath the ruins of a torn down tenement building.[456] There they battled through various Hydra agents and traps until they confronted who they thought was the current Supreme Hydra. They were captured by the "Supreme Hydra" who then revealed himself as early Avengers foe the Space Phantom. The Space Phantom revealed that he had partnered with another Avengers foe, the Grim Reaper and that in order to eliminate his foe Captain America, the Space Phantom agreed to have the Vision's mind transplanted into Cap's body. In order to facilitate this process, the Space Phantom needed Cap to have peace of mind. Knowing that Steve's greatest worry was public knowledge of his identity, the Space Phantom used his advanced technology to wipe out everyone's memories of Captain America's true identity. He also erased Cap and Bucky's most recent memories and sent them back to the graveyard in order to prepare for the final phase of his plan.[457][note 45][458] With the true identity of Captain America now a secret, Captain America departed from Rick at the cemetery to re-established his civilian identity.[455]

Identity Crisis

Steve Rogers attempts a cover identity[459]

Trying to forge a new identity, Steve kept his deception a secret to everyone, including his fellow Avengers. He then paid a visit to SHIELD to check on Sharon Carter, only to learn that she was trying to stop an AIM operation on her own, upset over the news that Captain America had supposedly died. Cap, Rick as Bucky, and Nick Fury came to her rescue. After saving Sharon from AIM's Walking Stiletto robot, he demanded that she quit risking her life and resign from active SHIELD duty. When Sharon refused, Cap felt rejection and told her he would never ask again before leaving. Later, using hair dye and make-up, Steve disguised himself and attempted to find a new place to live, and ended up getting a room in a cheap hotel due to the fact that he hadn't thoroughly established a new civilian guise. Not long after settling into his new identity he was attacked by the Red Skull who had recovered the Cosmic Cube and sought to get final revenge against Captain America.[459][note 46] Initially the Red Skull was content attacking Cap directly before banishing him to another dimension until an even better idea occurred to him. Using the power of the Cube, the Skull swapped bodies with Captain America and then teleported Sharon Carter into the room. The Red Skull, now in Cap's body, convinced Sharon that he defeated the "Red Skull" driving him insane.[460]

Transformed into the Red Skull by the Cosmic Cube[460]

The Red Skull then used the Cosmic Cube to transport his enemy to a nearby government testing lab. While the "Red Skull" was accused of trying to steal government secrets and was fleeing the police, "Captain America" based in his newfound fame. Cap managed to flee back to Avengers Mansion to try and convince his teammates as to what happened. Meanwhile, the faux Captain America told Rick to go away, and the youth quit being his sidekick. Then as a final coupe de grasse, the Skull used the Cube to teleport Cap to Exile Island where his Exiles were seek revenge against the Red Skull for previously betraying them.[461][note 47]

Captain America and the Falcon[462]

Upon his arrival on the island, Cap was quickly attacked by the Exiles but managed to escape thanks to the intervention of a passing falcon. Running to cover, Cap removed the Red Skull's mask and obscured his features with clay in the hopes of not being recognized. While traveling the island, Cap encountered a young man named Sam Wilson a falcon trainer native to Harlem who answered an ad in the paper for a falcon trainer put by the Exiles and soon found himself fighting against them on behalf of the island's natives. Seeing someone with much potential, Cap began training Wilson in combat and created for him the costumed identity of the Falcon.[463][note 48] After rigorous training, Cap and the Falcon attacked the Exiles head on, forcing them off the island.[464] Having observed this from the Cosmic Cube, the Red Skull decided to destroy his foe once and for all. He teleported Cap and the Falcon to him. Taking back his original form and restoring Captain America to normal, the Red Skull unleashed the full power of the Cosmic Cube upon the two heroes. However, Cap and the Falcon manage to hold their own. Ultimately the Skull's downfall came from AIM whose leader MODOK ordered technology to be made to destroy the Cosmic Cube. As the Cube was being destroy, the defeated Red Skull attempted to use it once last time to escape and was seemingly atomized in the process.[465][note 49]

Game of Galaxies

After he and the Falcon had parted company, Captain America sought out Sharon Carter again only to learn that she was away on a mission by Nick Fury for the next few days. In order to keep himself occupied, Cap agreed to go undercover to investigate AIM activity at Manning University. Under the identity of Roger Stevens, Cap took on a job opening as a physical education teacher and exposed AIM's attempts to steal some atomic equations from the university by taking advantage of the student protests occurring on campus. After stopping the AIM operatives on site and helping quell the discord on campus, Cap quit as the phys-ed teacher.[462] Later Cap joined Nick Fury and Iron Man in taking down another Hydra cell that was still in operation, unaware that they were being assisted by a rogue LMD that took the real Iron Man's place. Shortly thereafter, Iron Man was forced to wear an older suit of armor to combat an Iron Man LMD, suffering a heart attack in the process. When Iron Man was found by the Avengers and unmasked.[466] When the Avengers rushed Tony Stark to the hospital for treatment, Captain America and Thor soon joined their teammates at the hospital. Soon the hospital was attacked by one of Kang's Growing Men who kidnapped Stark. When the Avengers chased after the android, they found themselves transported to Kang's lair in the 40th Century. Kang explained to the Avengers that he had entered into a competition with the cosmic being known as the Grandmaster. Should Kang win he would get the power over life or death to revive his lover Ravonna, but if he lost the Earth would be obliterated. Cap brokered to have Stark returned to their own time for medical attention and agreed to help. Soon Cap, the new Goliath and Thor were transported to modern day Earth to combat the Grandmaster's champions, the Squadron Sinister.[467]

The trio of Avengers were soon joined by Iron Man and they were each tasked with stopping a different member of the Squadron from stealing a different world monument. Captain America was transported to Liberty Island where he prevented Nighthawk from stealing the Statue of Liberty. However the first part of the competition was ended in a forfeit when Goliath's attempt to stop the Whizzer from stealing Big Ben was interrupted by another costumed hero known as the Black Knight. The four Avengers, along with the Black Knight's Ebony Blade were teleported away by the Grandmaster.[468] While Yellowjacket, the Black Panther and the Vision were transported back to the year 1944 to battle the Invaders (including that eras Captain America) the modern day Captain and the other Avengers were placed in stasis. They were soon freed when the Black Knight used the mystical connection to his sword to pull himself into the future. After freeing the captive Avengers, they confronted Kang just as their teammates won the bout in 1944 and were returned to Kang's era. With Kang having won the challenge, the Grandmaster granted Kang with the power of life over death. Seeing this as an opportunity to finally slay his long time foes, Kang decided to use his power to try and kill the Avengers. Since the Black Knight was not a member of the Avengers at the time, the power did not work on him and he knocked out Kang before he could slay his allies. The Grandmaster then stripped Kang of his power and returned the Avengers to their own era. Upon their return Cap and the Avengers unanimously agreed to induct the Black Knight into the ranks of the Avengers.[95] Following this, Captain America addressed the media, telling them that Tony Stark had survived his surgery following his most recent heart attack.[469]


  1. The All-Winners Squad: Band of Heroes series was cancelled before it's completion
  2. As mentioned previously the All-Winners Squad: Band of Heroes series was cancelled
  3. As the All-Winners Squad: Band of Heroes series was cancelled
  4. The story states that Cap doesn't speak German, yet in stories that take place prior, Cap speaks fluent German, see Captain America (Vol. 5) #50. So it can be presumed that Cap was only pretending to not understand
  5. Avengers #4 states that Rick found Cap in a hotel room that he obtained. This has since been retconned with the hospital encounter in Captain America: Man Out of Time #2.
  6. Avengers #4 states that Rick and Captain America scoured newspaper and communicated with the Teen Brigade via ham radio. Per the Sliding Timescale the technology and search methods should be considered topical for the time the story was published. Captain America: Man Out of Time #1 shows Rick using the internet. Although the Teen Brigade is not implicitly referenced here, it could be assumed as per Avengers: The Origin #1 the Teen Brigade had been updated from Ham radio enthusiasts to a group of internet hackers. It should be noted here that Captain America was aware of President Roosevelt's death in Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #11, however as Marvel Saga the Official History of the Marvel Universe #1 and Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #2 identifies, Cap initially suffered some gaps in his memories that were restored with time.
  7. Vuk's name was not revealed until All-New Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z #3 the name of his race was identified in X-Men #137
  8. Captain America and Namor did not recognize each other because both due to both suffering recent memory losses due to recent trauma as revealed in Tales of Suspense #75. It was further explained Marvel Saga the Official History of the Marvel Universe #1 that this included his memories of Namor. Cap's trauma was being freed from suspended animation while Namor spent years of amnesia until his memory was restored in Fantastic Four #4
  9. These unnamed aliens previously clashed with Iron Man with their robot Gargantus in Tales of Suspense #40
  10. Captain America and the other Avengers would be forced to forget this encounter for many years per Sentry #3
  11. These Captain America replacements were: William Nasland, formally the costumed hero known as Spirit of '76. He was active as Captain America in 1945 and 1946. This was circa Captain America Comics #49 to 58. Nasland was revealed to be Captain America during this era and killed in action as depicted in What If? #4. Jeffrey Mace took over as Captain America from 1946 to 1951 circa Captain America Comics #59 to 74. He retired as Captain America in per Captain America: Patriot #4. He eventually died of cancer in the modern age in Captain America #285. The last and most notorious Captain America successor was William Burnside who was active from 1953 to 1955 from Young Men #24 to Captain America #78. He was put in cryogenic suspension as revealed in Captain America #155
  12. However Wonder Man did not actually die here but entered into a near death coma state as revealed in Avengers #151
  13. This story states that it is the first time that Spider-Man met Captain America. However this is incorrect as Spider-Man had met Captain America on a number of prior occasions at this point, notably the flashback in Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America #4 and the story in Untold Tales of Spider-Man Annual #1997 which both occurred chronologically before this point.
  14. This story is stated to have taken place during the Vietnam War and that Cap was battling the Viet Cong Army. It also stated that Jim Baker's brother saved Cap's life during the war. These two points are subject to the Sliding Timescale of Earth-616 and should be considered topical points of reference in relation to the year this story was published. Per the Sliding Timescale, all modern age stories that took place during the Vietnam War are generalized to a "conflict in Southeast Asia". Also given the Sliding Timescale, the relation Jim Baker has to the man who saved Cap's life during World War II is generalized so as not to age Baker's character.
  15. The prison here is identified as Ryker's Island in Captain America #260
  16. Avengers #15 shows Rick being captured right before the Avengers, while Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #5 shows Rick being kidnapped by Baron Zemo while the Avengers were away from the Mansion
  17. Avengers #15 shows that Rick was encased in a glass dome and that Zemo died when sun reflected off Captain America's shield blinding Zemo causing him to shoot the side of the cliff. In Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #5, Rick is shown being tortured by Zemo's men, the avalanche being caused when Cap throws his shield to throw off Zemo's aim.
  18. In Avengers #16 Captain America is depicted as burying Baron Zemo, while Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #7 shows him giving no such courtesy.
  19. Avengers #18 was written in the context that the Cold War was still on going. Any references to the Cold War in the present tense made in this story should be considered topical per the Sliding Timescale of Earth-616
  20. It was revealed in that issue and later in Strange Tales #167 that these were minions of a robot disguised as the terrorist known as Yellow Claw. The robot was created by Dr. Doom as part of a game of skill between him and his other robot creation the Prime Mover
  21. The tale that Cap told his fellow Avengers was the incident at Greymoore Castle circa 1944 from Tales of Suspense #70 and 71. According to Suspense #72, "Der Tag" was timed to happen 20 years after the end of World War II. However this should be considered a topical reference relative to the year the story was originally published per the Sliding Timescale of Earth-616. Modern readers should consider the date of "Der Tag" to be relative to the amount of years after World War II until 10 years prior to the present year. While the story in Suspense #72 states that these are actualNazi war criminals, Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z #10 is ambiguous by stating that it is either the original war criminals or their successors.
  22. Sharon Carter's name is revealed in Captain America #103 and her relation to Peggy is identified in Captain America #162, in that story and subsequent issues Peggy is identified as Sharon's old sister. However as Sharon was depicted as in her early 30s, in later publications it became impractical to retain this relationship. A retcon established in Captain America (Vol. 5) #25 identifies Sharon as Peggy's niece. That said, Sharon and Peggy's relationship should be subject to the Sliding Timescale of Earth-616, it stands to reason that there will be point in time where Sharon will have to be referred to as Sharon's great-aunt.
  23. The Wasp was originally seeking the Avenger's help against the Sub-Mariner who at that time was attacking the drilling platform her fiancé Henry Pym, formally known as Giant-Man, was operating from as seen in Tales to Astonish #77
  24. The Red Skull survived this encounter by willing the Cosmic Cube to allow him to breath underwater long enough to free himself and swim to shore as revealed in Tales of Suspense #89
  25. Avengers #35 shows Captain America's shield being destroyed by the Living Laser's trap. This is a continuity error, as it is later revealed as early as Tales of Suspense #93 that his shield is indestructible. It is later revealed in Captain America #303 that the shield was constructed out of pure Adamantium by scientist Myron MacLain
  26. Red Skull survived their last encounter by willing the Cosmic Cube to allow him to temporarily breath under water as revealed in Tales of Suspense #89
  27. Captain America #101 explains that the Red Skull managed to cheat death by using an escape sub.
  28. the Avengers had been battling Diablo since Avengers #41
  29. The Black Widow joined SHIELD in Avengers #38. Her mission and capture was chronicled between Avengers #38 through Avengers #40. Hercules became an ally of the Avengers at the end of Avengers #38.
  30. The Red Guardian did not die here this was all a ruse as revealed many years later in Black Widow #1
  31. This turned out to be wrong, instead of the true Yellow Claw it was a robot built by Dr. Doom as revealed in Strange Tales #167
  32. Nick Fury's battle with the Yellow Claw robot continued from Strange Tales #163 through Strange Tales #167
  33. Captain America #119 revealed that MODOK survived the blast and was rescued by members of AIM who were loyal to him.
  34. This story ignores the fact that Captain America did not learn Sharon Carter's name in Captain America #103, or that he discovered the Red Skull survived until Captain America #101. However, Official Index to the Marvel Universe #2 confirms this continuity
  35. This is not the original Baron Zemo but impostor Franz Gruber as revealed in Captain America #100
  36. Sharon Carter took Irma Kruhl's place in Tales of Suspense #97
  37. The Exiles are all Nazis or Nazi sympathizers loyal to the Red Skull dating back to World War II. Presently there is no explanation as to how they managed to survive the years relatively unaged. Although it can be presumed that methods such as suspended animation or an age slowing serum were used in this case like other wartime heroes and villains who have survived to the modern age yet maintain their prime.
  38. Captain America #106 depicts the leader of China to be Chairman Mao Tse Tung. Per the Sliding Timescale this should be considered a topical reference in relation to the year the story was published.
  39. As revealed in Avengers Annual #2, Cap's sudden need to visit the past and the Wasp falling asleep at the controls were all manipulations created by the Scarlet Centurion. This story states that World War II ended "two decades ago", per the Sliding Timescale this should be considered a topical reference in relation to the year this story was published. As previously mentioned, Bucky survived the explosion and lived on as the Russian operative known as the Winter Soldier, as revealed in Captain America (Vol. 5) #8
  40. The alternate reality appearing in this story was designated as Earth-689 in Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A to Z #2. The mainstream Marvel Universe was designated Earth-616 in Daredevils #7
  41. In this same issue Daredevil's mind was affected by radium he recovered from a robbery.
  42. In reality, the origin of the Vision was highly more complicated than this. Giant-Size Avengers #3 reveals that the Vision's body was built out of the remains of the original Human Torch. Avengers: Forever #8 goes further to reveal that this Human Torch was a chronal duplicate created by the time traveler Immortus to further manipulate the Avengers to his own ends
  43. Rick Jones drifted away from the Avengers starting in Avengers #17 he attempted to assist the Hulk between Tales to Astonish #68 through 101 and Incredible Hulk #102 through 106. The Hulk's rampage in this story occurs between Incredible Hulk #106 and Incredible Hulk #107
  44. It was revealed here that Madame Hydra was replaced by the Space Phantom per Avengers #107.
  45. The Grim Reaper was revealed to be the brother of Wonder Man in Avengers #52. Per Avengers #9 everyone believed Wonder Man to be dead, however Avengers #151 he was in a death like coma. Meanwhile, per Avengers #58 the mind of the android known as the Vision was based on the brain engrams of Wonder Man. Per Avengers #106 through 108 the Grim Reaper and Space Phantom were working together in order to transfer the mind of the Vision into the body of Captain America so that the Reaper could "resurrect" his brother, and the Phantom could slay Captain America. Further in Avengers: Forever #8 it was revealed the Space Phantom's activities was yet another part of a complex series of manipulations enacted by the time traveler known as Immortus who was manipulating the destiny of the Avengers
  46. The Red Skull recovered the Cosmic Cube from a fishing village as revealed in Captain America #115
  47. The true Red Skull betrayed the Exiles in Captain America #115
  48. However as revealed in Captain America #186, Sam Wilson was a criminal who was hired by the Red Skull who used the Cosmic Cube to alter Wilson's mind to be an ideal candidate to be Captain America's new sidekick, one more part of this vast manipulation
  49. The Red Skull survived reappearing in Captain America #128


  1. New Avengers #40
  2. Adventures of Captain America #1
  3. Avengers: Roll Call #1
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 Captain America #255
  5. Captain America #384
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Captain America Vol 6 #19
  7. 1939 Daily Bugle #1
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Marvels Project #4
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Captain America #176
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Marvel Super-Heroes Vol 2 #3
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #7
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Captain America Vol 5 #25
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Captain America Vol 5 #27
  14. She-Hulk Vol 3 #9-10
  15. 15.0 15.1 Captain America Comics 70th Anniversary Special #1
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 Captain America #109
  17. Captain America Annual #10
  18. New Warriors #4
  19. 19.0 19.1 Steve Rogers: Super-Soldier #1-2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "2-2" defined multiple times with different content
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Captain America Comics #1
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Tales of Suspense #63
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Captain America #301
  23. Nextwave #9
  24. Captain America #270
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Marvels Project #5
  26. Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #6-7
  27. Captain America Vol 5 #2
  28. Tales of Suspense Vol 2 #1
  29. Steve Rogers: Super-Soldier #1
  30. Captain America Vol 4 #2
  31. Black Panther Vol 3 #30
  32. Captain America #303
  33. Captain America Vol 4 #26
  34. 34.0 34.1 Captain America Vol 5 #12
  35. Captain America Vol 5 #14
  36. Avengers #213
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 37.6 Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #12
  38. Captain America #423
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 39.5 39.6 Captain America Theater of War: America the Beautiful #1
  40. Captain America Comics #2
  41. Captain America Comics #3
  42. Captain America Comics #4
  43. Captain America: Patriot #1
  44. Young Allies Comics 70th Anniversary Special #1; this Red Skull could be either the original, Johann Schmidt, or an impersonator, since Captain America and Bucky first met Schmidt in Tales of Suspense #66.
  45. Tales of Suspense #66
  46. Tales of Suspense #67
  47. Tales of Suspense #68
  48. All Winners Comics #1
  49. 49.0 49.1 Uncanny X-Men #268
  50. Wolverine: Origins #16
  51. Captain America Comics #5
  52. 52.0 52.1 Captain America Comics #21
  53. Captain America Comics #6
  54. Captain America Comics #7
  55. All Winners Comics #2
  56. Marvels Project #6
  57. 57.0 57.1 Marvels Project #7
  58. Captain America Comics #8
  59. Captain America Comics #9
  60. All Winners Comics #3
  61. Captain America Comics #10
  62. Wolverine: Origins #17
  63. Wolverine: Origins #18
  64. Wolverine: Origins #19
  65. Wolverine: Origins #20
  66. Captain America Comics #11
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 Captain America Comics #22
  68. Captain America #139
  69. 69.0 69.1 Invaders #29
  70. Captain America Comics #12
  71. All Winners Comics #4
  72. 72.0 72.1 Marvels Project #8
  73. 73.0 73.1 Giant-Size Invaders #1
  74. Captain America #247
  75. Invaders #1
  76. Invaders #2
  77. Invaders #3
  78. Invaders #4
  79. Conspiracy #1
  80. Invaders #31
  81. Captain America Comics #13
  82. Invaders #5
  83. Invaders #6
  84. Marvel Premiere #30
  85. Invaders #7
  86. Invaders #8
  87. Invaders #9
  88. Invaders #10
  89. Invaders #11
  90. Invaders #12
  91. Invaders #13
  92. Invaders #14
  93. Invaders #15
  94. 94.0 94.1 Invaders Annual #1
  95. 95.0 95.1 Avengers #71
  96. Fear Itself: Book of the Skull #1
  97. Captain America Comics #14
  98. 98.0 98.1 98.2 98.3 Avengers #6
  99. Invaders #16
  100. Invaders #17
  101. Invaders #18
  102. Invaders #19
  103. Invaders #20
  104. Invaders #21
  105. Invaders #22
  106. Invaders #23
  107. Invaders #25
  108. Invaders #26
  109. Invaders #27
  110. Invaders #28
  111. Sgt. Fury #13
  112. Captain America #383
  113. Domination Factor: Avengers #2-3
  114. Captain America Comics #15
  115. All Winners Comics #5
  116. Invaders #30
  117. Invaders #32
  118. Invaders #33
  119. Invaders #34
  120. Invaders #35
  121. Invaders #36
  122. Invaders #37
  123. Young Allies #1
  124. Captain America Comics #16
  125. Young Allies #4
  126. Invaders #38
  127. Invaders #39
  128. Invaders #40
  129. Invaders #41
  130. 130.0 130.1 Captain America Vol 5 #11
  131. Captain America Comics #17
  132. 132.0 132.1 Captain America Comics #18
  133. 133.0 133.1 All-Winners Squad: Band of Heroes #2
  134. Giant-Size Invaders #2
  135. Invaders Vol 2 #1
  136. Invaders Vol 2 #2
  137. 137.0 137.1 Invaders Vol 2 #3
  138. Marvels #1
  139. All Winners Comics #6
  140. Captain America Comics #19
  141. Captain America Comics #20
  142. All Winners Comics #7
  143. U.S.A. Comics #6
  144. All-Winners Squad: Band of Heroes #3
  145. Captain America & Citizen V Annual #1998
  146. 146.0 146.1 Captain America Comics #25
  147. 147.0 147.1 Captain America Comics #26
  148. Marvel Fanfare #5
  149. Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #2
  150. Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #3
  151. Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #4
  152. Captain America Vol 5 #43
  153. Captain America Vol 5 #46
  154. Captain America Vol 5 #5
  155. Captain America's Bicentennial Battles #1
  156. 156.0 156.1 Captain America Vol 5 #50
  157. Captain America Comics #23
  158. U.S.A. Comics #7
  159. Captain America Comics #24
  160. 160.0 160.1 160.2 160.3 Captain America #616
  161. All Winners Comics #8
  162. Captain America: The Medusa Effect #1
  163. U.S.A. Comics #8
  164. Captain America Comics #27
  165. All Winners Comics #9
  166. Captain America Comics #28
  167. Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America #5
  168. U.S.A. Comics #9
  169. Captain America #262
  170. Captain America Comics #29
  171. Captain America Comics #30
  172. All Winners Comics #10
  173. Marvel Comics Presents #39
  174. 174.0 174.1 Captain America: Red, White & Blue #1
  175. Captain America and the First Thirteen #1
  176. All Select Comics #1
  177. U.S.A. Comics #10
  178. Captain America Comics #31
  179. Captain America #76
  180. 180.0 180.1 Captain America Comics #32
  181. 181.0 181.1 181.2 Captain America: Reborn #1
  182. A + X #1
  183. Captain America Comics #33
  184. All Select Comics #2
  185. All Winners Comics #11
  186. Captain America Comics #34
  187. Captain America Comics #35
  188. Captain America #219
  189. Captain America Comics #36
  190. All Select Comics #3
  191. All Winners Comics #12
  192. Captain America #600
  193. Avengers / Invaders #1
  194. Avengers / Invaders #2
  195. Avengers / Invaders #3
  196. Avengers / Invaders #4
  197. Avengers / Invaders #5
  198. Avengers / Invaders #6
  199. Avengers / Invaders #7
  200. Avengers / Invaders #8
  201. Avengers / Invaders #9
  202. Avengers / Invaders #10
  203. Avengers / Invaders #11
  204. Avengers / Invaders #12
  205. Marvel Age #109
  206. Captain America Comics #37
  207. ClanDestine #8
  208. Captain America Comics #38
  209. Captain America Comics #39
  210. All Select Comics #4
  211. Black Panther Vol 4 #21
  212. Black Panther Vol 3 #1
  213. Marvel Comics Presents Vol 2 #6
  214. U.S.A. Comics #13
  215. Captain America Comics #40
  216. Captain America Annual #9
  217. Captain America Comics #41
  218. Marvel Universe #1
  219. Marvel Universe #2
  220. Marvel Universe #3
  221. Secret Warriors #17
  222. The Order Vol 2 #7
  223. Siege: Captain America #1
  224. 224.0 224.1 224.2 All-Winners Squad: Band of Heroes #4
  225. Tales of Suspense #69
  226. Tales of Suspense #70
  227. Tales of Suspense #71
  228. Captain America and Crossbones #1
  229. Incredible Hulk #284
  230. All Winners Comics #13
  231. All-Winners Squad: Band of Heroes #5
  232. Captain America Comics #42
  233. Secret Avengers #11
  234. Secret Avengers #12
  235. Captain America: Reborn #2
  236. Captain America Annual #2001
  237. 237.0 237.1 Tales of Suspense #75
  238. 238.0 238.1 Tales of Suspense #77
  239. Captain America Vol 5 #3
  240. Captain America Vol 5 #49
  241. Captain America Vol 5 #37
  242. Captain America Vol 6 #1
  243. Captain America Vol 6 #2
  244. Captain America: Dead Men Running #2
  245. Iron Man Vol 3 #73
  246. Captain America Comics #43
  247. All Select Comics #5
  248. All Winners Comics #14
  249. Captain America Vol 5 #15
  250. Captain America Theater of War: Prisoners of Duty #1
  251. Captain America Theater of War: Operation Zero-Point #1
  252. Captain America Comics #44
  253. Captain America - Nick Fury The Otherworld War #1
  254. Weapon X Vol 2 #14
  255. Spider-Woman #42
  256. Captain America Comics #45
  257. All Winners Comics #15
  258. All Select Comics #6
  259. 259.0 259.1 Avengers Classic #5
  260. All Select Comics #7
  261. All-Winners Squad: Band of Heroes #1
  262. Captain America Vol 4 #32
  263. Winter Soldier Winter Kills #1
  264. 264.0 264.1 Captain America Comics #48
  265. Invaders Now! #1
  266. Invaders Now! #2
  267. Invaders Now! #3
  268. Captain America Comics #46
  269. Captain America #601
  270. Spectacular Spider-Man Vol 2 #17
  271. Captain America Comics #47
  272. All Select Comics #8
  273. U.S.A. Comics #16
  274. Cable & Deadpool #45
  275. Captain America and The First Thirteen #1
  276. Captain America Theater of War: Brother in Arms #1
  277. Secret Warriors #18
  278. Captain America #259
  279. Captain America #237
  280. Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #11
  281. Twelve: Spearhead #1
  282. 282.0 282.1 Captain America Annual #13
  283. 283.0 283.1 Tales of Suspense #72
  284. 284.0 284.1 Tales of Suspense #79
  285. 285.00 285.01 285.02 285.03 285.04 285.05 285.06 285.07 285.08 285.09 285.10 285.11 Avengers #4
  286. 286.0 286.1 286.2 286.3 286.4 Captain America: Man Out of Time #1
  287. Captain America Vol 4 #25
  288. 288.0 288.1 288.2 288.3 288.4 288.5 Avengers #56
  289. Captain America Vol 5 #4
  290. 290.0 290.1 290.2 290.3 Captain America: Reborn #4
  291. Captain America Vol 5 #6
  292. 292.0 292.1 Captain America #220
  293. What If? #5
  294. Captain America Vol 5 #8
  295. 295.0 295.1 Captain America #215
  296. 296.0 296.1 Captain America #155
  297. What If? #4
  298. Captain America: Patriot #4
  299. Young Men #24
  300. Age of Heroes #4
  301. Captain America: Reborn #3
  302. Avengers #3
  303. 303.0 303.1 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #1
  304. 304.0 304.1 Captain America #100
  305. 305.0 305.1 Captain America Vol 4 #13
  306. Captain America: Man Out of Time #2
  307. Avengers Classic #4
  308. Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #5
  309. Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #6
  310. Sentry #1
  311. Fantastic Four #25
  312. Fantastic Four #26
  313. 313.0 313.1 Captain America: Man Out of Time #3
  314. 314.0 314.1 314.2 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #2
  315. 315.0 315.1 315.2 315.3 315.4 315.5 315.6 Captain America: Man Out of Time #4
  316. 316.0 316.1 316.2 316.3 Avengers #5
  317. Avengers Classic #8
  318. Captain America: The Legend #1
  319. 319.0 319.1 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #3
  320. Invaders Vol 3 #11
  321. 321.0 321.1 Marvels #2
  322. 322.0 322.1 322.2 322.3 322.4 322.5 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #4
  323. Thor: Godstorm #1
  324. 324.0 324.1 Unlimited Access #4
  325. Unlimited Access #2
  326. Unlimited Access #3
  327. Journey into Mystery #105
  328. Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America #4
  329. Tales to Astonish #58
  330. Avengers #7
  331. Tales to Astonish #59
  332. Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1
  333. Tales of Suspense #58
  334. Iron Man/Captain America: Casualties of War #1
  335. 335.0 335.1 335.2 335.3 Avengers #8
  336. 336.0 336.1 336.2 336.3 Captain America: Man Out of Time #5
  337. Avengers Classic #10
  338. Amazing Spider-Man #18
  339. Tales of Suspense #59
  340. Avengers #9
  341. Fantastic Four #31
  342. Untold Tales of Spider-Man Annual #1997
  343. Tales to Astonish #62
  344. X-Men #9
  345. Tales of Suspense #60
  346. Hulk Smash Avengers #1
  347. Avengers #11
  348. Amazing Spider-Man Annual #37
  349. Avengers Classic #11
  350. Tales of Suspense #61
  351. 351.0 351.1 Avengers #12
  352. Avengers Classic #12
  353. Tales of Suspense #62
  354. 354.0 354.1 Avengers #13
  355. 355.0 355.1 355.2 355.3 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #5
  356. Avengers #14
  357. Fantastic Four #36
  358. 358.0 358.1 358.2 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #7
  359. 359.0 359.1 Avengers #15
  360. 360.0 360.1 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #6
  361. 361.0 361.1 361.2 361.3 361.4 Avengers #16
  362. 362.0 362.1 362.2 Marvel: Heroes & Legends Vol 2 #1
  363. Journey into Mystery #116
  364. 364.0 364.1 364.2 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes #8
  365. Avengers #280
  366. Hawkeye: Blind Spot #2
  367. Avengers Origins: The Scarlet Witch & Quicksilver #1
  368. Thunderbolts #9
  369. Avengers #17
  370. Avengers #18
  371. 371.0 371.1 Fantastic Four Annual #3
  372. 372.0 372.1 Marvel: Heroes & Legends #1
  373. 373.0 373.1 373.2 Strange Tales #161
  374. 374.0 374.1 Strange Tales #160
  375. Avengers #19
  376. Avengers #20
  377. Avengers #21
  378. Avengers #22
  379. Avengers #23
  380. Avengers #24
  381. 381.0 381.1 Tales of Suspense #74
  382. Avengers #25
  383. Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America #3
  384. Tales of Suspense #73
  385. Tales of Suspense #76
  386. Avengers #26
  387. Avengers #27
  388. Avengers #28
  389. Avengers #29
  390. 390.0 390.1 Tales of Suspense #91
  391. Avengers #30
  392. Tales of Suspense #78
  393. Avengers #31
  394. 394.0 394.1 Avengers #33
  395. Avengers #32
  396. 396.0 396.1 Tales of Suspense #80
  397. Tales of Suspense #81
  398. Tales of Suspense #82
  399. Tales of Suspense #83
  400. Tales of Suspense #84
  401. Amazing Spider-Man Annual #3
  402. 402.0 402.1 Tales of Suspense #85
  403. Tales of Suspense #86
  404. Tales of Suspense #87
  405. 405.0 405.1 Avengers #34
  406. Avengers #35
  407. Avengers #36
  408. Avengers #37
  409. 409.0 409.1 Avengers #38
  410. New Avengers #33
  411. Tales of Suspense #88
  412. Tales of Suspense #89
  413. Tales of Suspense #90
  414. Avengers #40
  415. Avengers #42
  416. Avengers #43
  417. 417.0 417.1 Strange Tales #159
  418. Strange Tales #162
  419. Thor #600
  420. 420.0 420.1 Tales of Suspense #93
  421. Tales of Suspense #92
  422. Tales of Suspense #94
  423. Avengers Annual #1
  424. Avengers #45
  425. Avengers #46
  426. Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #1
  427. 427.0 427.1 427.2 Tales of Suspense #95
  428. Avengers #47
  429. Tales of Suspense #96
  430. 430.0 430.1 Tales of Suspense #98
  431. Tales of Suspense #97
  432. Avengers #51
  433. Tales of Suspense #99
  434. Captain America #101
  435. Captain America #102
  436. Captain America #103
  437. Captain America #104
  438. Captain America #105
  439. Captain America #106
  440. Captain America #107
  441. 441.0 441.1 Avengers Annual #2
  442. What If? #29
  443. Captain America Annual #11
  444. Captain America #108
  445. Daredevil #43
  446. Avengers #58
  447. Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes Vol 2 #1
  448. Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes Vol 2 #2
  449. 449.0 449.1 449.2 Avengers #60
  450. 450.0 450.1 Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes Vol 2 #8
  451. Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes Vol 2 #6
  452. Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes Vol 2 #7
  453. 453.0 453.1 453.2 453.3 Captain America #110
  454. 454.0 454.1 Captain America #111
  455. 455.0 455.1 Captain America #113
  456. Avengers #106
  457. Avengers #107
  458. Captain America #179
  459. 459.0 459.1 Captain America #114
  460. 460.0 460.1 Captain America #115
  461. Captain America #116
  462. 462.0 462.1 Captain America #120
  463. Captain America #117
  464. Captain America #118
  465. Captain America #119
  466. Iron Man #18
  467. Avengers #69
  468. Avengers #70
  469. Iron Man #19

Information Gaps

  1. Captain America's appearance in U.S.A. Comics #11 goes here
  2. Captain America's appearance in U.S.A. Comics #12 goes here
  3. Appearance in U.S.A. Comics #14 goes here
  4. Appearance in U.S.A. Comics #15 goes here